Khilaafada Islaamka

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Khilaafada Islaamka

Khulafo Raashidiin
ﺍﻟﺨﻼﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺷﺪﺓ
Imaam Muslimiin
(ﺃﻣﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻣﻨﻴﻦ)

Abu Bakr.svg.png

Abu Bakr Sadiiq

Wakhtiga Hogaanka: 8 Juune 632 – 23 Ogosto 634 (27 bilood)

Deegaanka dowlada Islaamka wakhtigii Abu Bakr.

Umar.png

Cumar bin Khattab

Wakhtiga Hogaanka: 23 Ogosto 634 C.D – 03 Nofember 644 C.D

Deegaanka dowlada Islaamka wakhtigii Cumar.


Uthman.png

Cusmaan binu Cafaan

Wakhtiga Hogaanka: 644 C.D ilaa 656 C.D

Deegaanka dowlada Islaamka wakhtigii Cusmaan.

Khaliif cali.svg.png

Cali binu Abi-Daalib

Wakhtiga Hogaanka: 656 C.D ilaa 661 C.D

Deegaanka dowlada Islaamka wakhtigii Cali.

Dhamaan Khulafada

Khulafo Raashidiin (632-661)

Khulafadii Umawiyiinta (661-750)

Khulafadii Cabaasiyiinta (750-1258)

Khulafadii Cusmaaniyiinta (1517-1924)

Khulafo Raashidiin Rashidiinta Afarta Khulafo (ingiriis: Rashidun Caliphates; carabi: ﺍﻟﺨﻼﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺷﺪﺓ) waa afartii asxaabi ee ku xigtey Nebi Muxamed (n.n.k.h) maamulka iyo hogaanka dawladii Islaamka, kuwaasi oo kala ah:

  • Abu Bakr Sadiiq - ﺃﺑﻮ ﺑﻜﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﻳﻖ
  • Cumar (Cumar bin Khataab) - ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﺎﺏ
  • Cusmaan binu Cafaan - ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻔﺎﻥ iyo
  • Cali (Cali binu abi Dalib) - ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺃﺑﻲ ﻃﺎﻟﺐ

Khaliif (ingiriis: Caliph; carabi: ﺍﻟﺨﻼﻓﺔ) waa khaliifyadii hogaaminayay maamulka diinta Islaamka, waxaana ka mid ah:

Afarta Khulafo Raashidiinta[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Khulafo al-Rashiidiintu waa afarta asxaabi ee hogaanka iyo talada maamulka dowlada Islaamka la waday Nebi Muxamed intii uu noolaa isla markaana gacanta ku dhigay ayagoo iskaga dambeeyay hogaaminta dowladii Islaamka. Wakhtigii Khulafo al Raashidiinta dowlada Islaamku aad ayay u balaadhatay waxayna gaadhay meelo badan oo ka mid ah Bariga Dhexe, galbeedka qaarada Yurub, waqooyiga Afrika, bariga fog iyo wadano aad u badan oo kale. Wakhtigani maamulka dowlada Islaamka ee Afarta Khulafo wuxuu bilaabmey 8dii Juune sanadkii 632 C.D; wuxuuna dhamaadaa 28 Luuliyo sanadkii 661 C.D taasi oo ku beegan goortii la dilay Cali binu Abi Dalib ee xilka iyo hogaanka dowlada Islaamka uu la wareegay Mucaawiya binu Abi Sufyaan. Intii Afarta Khulafo talada dowlada Islaamka hayeen waxay qabsadeen dhu aad u baaxad weynt taasi oo lagu qiyaaso 9,000,000 km² (sagaal milyan mitir laba-laaban) (3,474,919 sq mi). Tirada dadka ku hoos jirey maamulka iyo hogaanka Khulafo al-Raashidiinta waxaa lagu sheegaa 40,300,000 (qiyaas dhan 40 milyan oo qof).

Abu Bakr Sadiiq[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]


Abu Bakr/أبو بكر الصديق
Ku xigihii Rasuulka
(Khalifat-ul-Rasūl)
Abu Bakr.svg.png
Wakhtiga maamulka
= 8 Juune 632 – 23 August 634
Loo yaqaano
  • Assiddiq الصدِّيق
  • Saaxiibkii Nebiga
  • Wehelkii Nebiga marar badan
  • Sheekh Akbar
  • Taqi
Magaca buuxa = Cabdullah ibn Abi Quhafa (عبد الله بن أبي قحافة)
Wakhtiga uu dhashay
= Oktoober 573 Makka, Carabta
Wakhtiga dhintey
= 23 Ogosto 634 (da'da 64 jir) Medina, Dhulka Carabta
Meesha lagu aasay
= Al-Masjid al-Nabawi, Madinah
Maamulka Hogaanka
Ka horeeyay
= Nebi Muxamed (Abu Bakr wuxuu ahaa ninkii ku xigay Nebi Muxammed hogaanka dowladii Islaamka)
Ku xigay
= Cumar bin al-Khattab
Xaasaska
xaaska 1aad= Qutaylah bint Abd-al-Uzza (wuu furay)
xaaska 2aad= Um Ruman
xaaska 3aad= Asma bint Umays
xaaska 4aad= Habibah bint Kharijah
Qoyska
Wiilal
Gabdhaha
Aabe
= Cusman Abu Quhafa
hooyo
= Salma Umm-ul-Khair
Walaalo (Aboowe)
  • Mu'taq (Walaal dhexe)
  • Utaiq (Garu dambeys)
  • Quhafah ibn Cusman
Walaalo (Abaayo)
  • Fadra
  • Qareeba
  • Umme-e-Aamer
Tafiir= Siddiqui

Abu Bakr Abu Bakr Sadiiq (ingiriis: Abu Bakr; carabi: أبو بكر الصديق; magaca dhamaystiran Cabdullah ibn Abi Quhafa "عبد الله بن أبي قحافة") dhashay Oktoobar 573 C.D magaalada Makka ee dhulka Carabta, isla markaana dhintey 23 Ogosto 634 C.D, waa saaxiibka koowaad ee Nebi Muxamed, hogaamiyihii labaad ee dowlada Islaamka, asxaabi ka mid ah Kulafo Raashidiinta iyo mid ka mid ah asxaabta rasuulka.[1][2][3]

Abu Bakr wuxuu ahaa hogaamiye sare ee maamulka dowlada Islaamka intii uu Nebigu noolaa iyo markii uu geeriyoodayba.[4] Sidoo kale wuxuu ahaa sodoga iyo saaxiibka koowaad ee Nebi Muxamed (n.n.k.h). Abu Bakr[5] waxa uu hogaanka iyo talada Khulafada Rashiidiinta hayay ka soo biloow 632–634 C.D markaasi oo uu noqday hogaamihii kowaad Muslimiinta iyo khaliifyada ka dib markii Nebi Maxamed geeriyooday.[6]

Abu Bakr waxaa loo yaqaaney Al-Siddiq (run sheege)[7] sababtoo ah wuxuu ahaa ninkii ugu horeeyay ee rumeeya Nebiga iyo qofkii labaad ee ugu hor rumeeyay diinta Islaamka, waxa ka horeeyay xaaskii Nebiga waa Khadiijo.

Yaraantii & Islaamidii Abu Bakr[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Wakhtigii uu yaraa Abu Bakr wuxuu ahaa nin ganacsade[8] ah kaasi oo u kala safra magaalada uu deganaa ee Makka, deegaanada Carabta iyo dhulka eey jaarka yihiin ee Bariga Dhexe, asaga oo kala gooshinaya badeecad, alaab iyo xoolo. Wakhtigani Abu Bakr wuxuu helay waayo-aragnimo badan iyo macaash iyo dhaqaale aad u badan taasi oo markii dambe ka taageertay in uu sharaf, heybad iyo ixtiraam fiican ku dhex yeesho beesha Quraysh ee uu ku dhashay isla markaana ku dhex noolaa. Waxaana loo aqoonsaday hoogaamiyaha beesha isla markaana loo caleemo saaray suldaanka qabiilkiisa.[9]

Mar ka mid ah safaradiisii ganacsi asagoo ka soo noqdey dalka Yaman ayaa waxaa Abu Bakr lagu wargeliyay in wakhtigii uu maqnaa ina adeerkiis Muxamed ku dhawaaqay nabinimo.[10] Wakhti yar ka dib, markuu u kuurgalay isla markaana fahmey Abu Bakr wuu rumeeyay diintii uu soo bandhigay Nebi Muxamed, wuxuuna noqday ninkii ugu horeeyay ee qaata diinta Islamka marka laga reebo qoysk rasuulka, asaga oo shaaca ka qaaday isla mar ahaantaana soo bandhigay in uu noqday qof Muslim ah.[11]

Xidhiidhka Nebiga & Abu Bakr[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Marka laga yimaado saaxiibnimada nebiga, Abu Bakr wuxuu ahaa sodoga Nebi Muxamed. Sanadkii 623 C.D ayaa Abu Bakr al-Sadiiq gabadhiisa Caisha u aroosiyay nebiga (wakhtigaasi oo Caisha ay jirtey 9 sano); midani waxay sii adkeeysay xidhiidhka iyo isku-xidhnaanta labadooda.[12][7] Intii nebigu noolaa, Abu Bakr sadiiq wuxuu ahaa saaxiibka iyo la-taliyaha kowaad ee Nebi Muxamed asagoo kala qeyb galay arimo aad u badan.

Hogaanka Abu Bakr[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Deegaanka dowlada Islaamka wakhtigii Abu Bakr.

Goortii nebigu u hijroonayay magaalada Madina Abu Bakr wuxuu ahaa qofka kali ah ee rasuulka la galay safarkaasi. Wuxuuna ka garab dagaalamay Nebi Muxamed qaswado aad u badan ooy ka mid yihiin Dagaalkii Beder, Dagaalkii Uxud, Dagaalkii Dhufeysyada,[13] qabsashadii magaalada Makka, Dagaalkii Kheybar, Dagaalkii Xunayn, go'doomintii Daa'if iyo Dagaalkii Tabuk.[14] Dagaaladani wuxuu Abu Bakr ku kharash gareeyay in badan oo dhaqaalihiisa ka mid ah.

Si kastaba ha ahaatee, goortii Nebi Muxamed geeriyooday waxaa khulafo Raashidiintu si waafaqsan dardaarankii nebiga isla garteen in Abu Bakr lagu wareejiyo hogaanka iyo talada maamulka dowladii Islaamka. Wakhtigani waxaa dhacday khilaaf aad u wayn oo dad badan ayaa diinta Islaamka dib uga noqdey maadaama nebigii waxyigu ku soo dagayay geeriyooday. Abu Bakr sadiiq wuxuu hogaanka dowlada Islaamka hayay labo sano iyo xoogaa (27 bilood) taasi oo uu isku duba ridey maamulka dowladaasi.[15]

Cumar bin Khattab[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Khulafo Raashidiin
ﺍﻟﺨﻼﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺷﺪﺓ
Imaam Muslimiin
(ﺃﻣﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻣﻨﻴﻦ)

Abu Bakr.svg.png

Abu Bakr Sadiiq

Wakhtiga Hogaanka: 8 Juune 632 – 23 Ogosto 634 (27 bilood)

Deegaanka dowlada Islaamka wakhtigii Abu Bakr.

Umar.png

Cumar bin Khattab

Wakhtiga Hogaanka: 23 Ogosto 634 C.D – 03 Nofember 644 C.D

Deegaanka dowlada Islaamka wakhtigii Cumar.


Uthman.png

Cusmaan binu Cafaan

Wakhtiga Hogaanka: 644 C.D ilaa 656 C.D

Deegaanka dowlada Islaamka wakhtigii Cusmaan.

Khaliif cali.svg.png

Cali binu Abi-Daalib

Wakhtiga Hogaanka: 656 C.D ilaa 661 C.D

Deegaanka dowlada Islaamka wakhtigii Cali.

Dhamaan Khulafada

Khulafo Raashidiin (632-661)

Khulafadii Umawiyiinta (661-750)

Khulafadii Cabaasiyiinta (750-1258)

Khulafadii Cusmaaniyiinta (1517-1924)

Cumar Amiir al-Mu'miniin (ingiriis: 'Umar; carabi: ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﺎﺏ; magaca dhamaystiran Cumar ibn Al-Khattab "ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﺎﺏ") dhashay 579 C.D magaalada Makka ee dhulka Carabta, isla markaana dhintey 03 Nofember 644 C.D (26 Dulhijjah 23 Hijri), wuxuu ahaa saaxiibka labaad ee Nebi Muxamed, hogaamiyihii sadexaad ee dowlada Islaamka, asxaabi ka mid ah Kulafo Raashidiinta iyo mid ka mid ah asxaabta rasuulka.[16][17][3]

Xidhiidhka Cumar & Nebiga[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Cumar bin Khattab wuxuu ahaa hogaamiyihii ugu awooda badnaa khulafo al-Raashidiinta kaasi oo meel sare kaga jirey maamulka dowlada Islaamka intii uu Nebigu noolaa iyo markii uu geeriyoodayba.[18]

Hogaamintii Cumar[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Deegaanka dowlada Islaamka wakhtigii Cumar.

23 Ogosto 634 ka dib markuu dhintey Abu Bakr ayuu hogaanka iyo talada kala wareegay hogaamiyehii kowaad ee Khulafada Rashiidiinta waa Abu Bakr oo talada hayay ka soo biloow 632–634 C.D.[6]

Intii nebigu noolaa, Cumar bin Khattab wuxuu ahaa saaxiibka iyo la-taliyaha labaad ee Nebi Muxamed asagoo kala qeyb galay arimo aad u badan. Wuxuuna ka garab dagaalamay Nebi Muxamed qaswado aad u badan ooy ka mid yihiin Dagaalkii Beder, Dagaalkii Uxud, Dagaalkii Dhufeysyada,[19] qabsashadii magaalada Makka, Dagaalkii Kheybar, Dagaalkii Xunayn, go'doomintii Daa'if iyo Dagaalkii Tabuk.[20] Dagaaladani wuxuu Abu Bakr ku kharash gareeyay in badan oo dhaqaalihiisa ka mid ah.

Si kastaba ha ahaatee, goortii Nebi Muxamed geeriyooday waxaa khulafo Raashidiintu si waafaqsan dardaarankii nebiga isla garteen in Abu Bakr lagu wareejiyo hogaanka iyo talada maamulka dowladii Islaamka.

Cusmaan Bin Caffan[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]



Cusmaan bin Caffan
ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻔﺎﻥ

Imaam Muslimiin
ﺃﻣﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻣﻨﻴﻦ


Khaliif cusmaan.svg.png

Khaliif Rashiid Cusmaan bin Caffan
(ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻔﺎﻥ)

Deegaanka dowlada Islaamka wakhtigii Cusmaan.


Magaca dhamaystiran: Cusmaan bin Caffan - (ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻔﺎﻥ)
Magacyo kale: Amiir al-mu'miniin
Al Qani ﺍﻟﻐﻨﻰ (deeqsi)
Zun Nuurayn (labo iftiinle)
Wakhtiga maamulka: 11 Nofember 644 – 20 June 656
Wakhtiga dhashay: 577 C.H (47 Hijrada ka hor) Daa'if, Carabiya
Wakhtiga dhintey: 20 June 656 C.D (18th Dulhijjah 35 Hijrada ka dib)(da'da 79 jir) Medina, Carabiya
Meesha lagu aasay: Al-Masjid al-Nabawi, Medina

Hogaanka ka horeeyay: Cumar bin Khattab
Hogaanka uga dambeeyay: Cali binu Abi-Dalib

Qoyska

Aabe: Caffan ibn Abu al-As
Hooyo: Urwa bint Kariz
Walaal: Amna (abaayo)
Fatimah bint al-Khattab (abaayo)

Xaaska
  • Ruqayyah bint Muhammad
  • Umm Kulthum bint Muxamad
  • Naila
  • Ramla bint Shuibat
  • Fatima bint Al-Walid
  • Fakhtah bint Ghazwan
  • Umm Al-Banin bint Unaib
  • Umm Amr bint Jundub
Wiilasha uu dhalay
  • Camro (ﻋﻤﺮﻭ)
  • Cumar (ﻋﻤﺮ)
  • Khalid (ﺧﺎﻟﺪ)
  • Aban (ﺃﺑﺎﻥ)
  • Cabdullah Al-Asghar

( ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﺍﻷﺻﻐﺮ)

  • Al-Walid (ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪ)
  • Saciid (ﺳﻌﻴﺪ)
  • Cabdulmalik (ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﻤﻠﻚ)
Gabdhaha u dhalay
  • Maryam (ﻣﺮﻳﻢ)
  • Umm Cusman (ﺃﻡ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ)
  • Cayesha (ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ)
  • Umm Camr (ﺃﻡ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ)
  • Umm Aban Al-Kabri

( ﺃﻡ ﺃﺑﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﮑﺒﺮﻯ)

  • Aurvi (ﺃﺭﻭﻯ)
  • Umm Khalid (ﺃﻡ ﺧﺎﻟﺪ)
  • Umm Aban Al-Sagri

( ﺃﻡ ﺃﺑﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﺮﻯ)

Cusmaan Cusmaan binu Caffan (ingiriis: ʻUthmān ibn ʻAffān; carabi: ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻔﺎﻥ; magaca dhamaystiran Cusmaan ibn Caffan "ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻔﺎﻥ") dhashay 577 C.D magaalada Daa'if ee dhulka Carabta, isla markaana dhintey 20 June 656 C.D (18kii Dulhijjah 35 Hijrada ka dib), wuxuu ahaa saaxiibka sadexaad ee Nebi Muxamed, hogaamiyihii afaraad ee dowlada Islaamka, asxaabi ka mid ah Kulafo Raashidiinta iyo mid ka mid ah asxaabta rasuulka.[21][22][3]

Dhalashadii & Islaamidii Cusmaan[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Cusmaan binu Caffan wuxuu ka dhashay qabiilka Ummayad ee reer Makka kuwaasi oo ahaa reer awood badan oo ka tirsan beel-weynta Quraysh. Cusmaan wuxuu ahaa hogaamiye ka mid ah khulafo al-Raashidiinta kaasi oo talada iyo hogaanka maamulka dowlada Islaamka la wareegay asagoo ah 65 jir, ka dib markii uu Cumar bin Khattab dhintey.[23]

Hogaamintii Cusmaan[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Deegaanka dowlada Islaamka wakhtigii Cusmaan.

Wakhtigii uu hogaanka maamulka dowlada Islaamka hayay Cusmaan wuxuu gaadhsiiyay heer aad u sareeysa isla markaana uu qabsaday dhul aad u badan ooy ka mid yihiin boqortooyadii Beershiya (dhulka maanta loo yaqaano Iiraan), meelo ka mid ah Khorasan (deegaanada maanta lagu magacaabo wadanka Afghanistan) iyo meelo badan oo ka mid ah bariga Yurub.[6]

Intii nebigu noolaa, Cusmaan bin Caffan wuxuu ahaa saaxiibka iyo la-taliyaha sadexaad ee Nebi Muxamed asagoo kala qeyb galay arimo aad u badan. Wuxuuna ka garab dagaalamay Nebi Muxamed qaswado aad u badan ooy ka mid yihiin Dagaalkii Beder, Dagaalkii Uxud, Dagaalkii Dhufeysyada,[24] qabsashadii magaalada Makka, Dagaalkii Kheybar, Dagaalkii Xunayn, go'doomintii Daa'if iyo Dagaalkii Tabuk.[25] Dagaaladani wuxuu Abu Bakr ku kharash gareeyay in badan oo dhaqaalihiisa ka mid ah.

Cali Bin Abi Dalib[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Cali Cali binu Abi Dalib (ingiriis: Alī ibn Abī Tālib; carabi: ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺃﺑﻲ ﻃﺎﻟﺐ; magaca dhamaystiran Cali ibn Abi Daalib "ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺃﺑﻲ ﻃﺎﻟﺐ") dhashay 13kii Rajab 22 H.K Sebtembar 20, 601 Kacbada, Makka ee dhulka Carabta, isla markaana dhintey 21kii Ramadaān 40 H.K ≈ Janaayo 27, 661 C.D Masjid Kufa, Kufa, Ciraaq, wuxuu ahaa ina adeerka iyo wiilka sodoga u yahay Nebi Muxamed, hogaamiyihii shanaad ee dowlada Islaamka, asxaabi ka mid ah Kulafo Raashidiinta iyo mid ka mid ah asxaabta rasuulka.[26][27][3]

Cali binu abi Daalib wuxuu ka wiilkii ugu da'da yaraa ee aqbala diinta Islaamka kaasi oo dadka raacsan Sunnigu u yaqaanaan Khaliifkii Afaraad ee Khulafo al-Raashidiinta; sidoo kale dadka raacsan Shiicada waxay u aqoonsan yihiin Imaamkii kowaad iyo kan xaqa u leh ee ku xiga Nebi Muxamed. Cali wuxuu ahaa hogaamiye ka mid ah khulafo al-Raashidiinta kaasi oo talada iyo hogaanka maamulka dowlada Islaamka la wareegay nin yar, ka dib markii uu Cusmaan bin Caffan dhintey.[28][6]

Khulafadii Umawiyiinta[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Khulafadii Umawiyiinta
الخلافة الأموية
Al-Ḫilāfa al-ʾumawiyya (Carabi)
Boqortooyo

 

 

661–750
 

Calan Islaam

Meeshii ugu sareeysay markeey boqortooyada Khulafada Cabaasiyiintu maraysay.
Caasimadda Dimishiq
(661–744)
Harran
(744–750)
Luqadaha Carabi (mida kowaad) – Kobtik, Giriig, Beershiyaan (luuqada kowaad ee deegaanada qaar ilaa maamulkii Abd al-Malik) – Aramayk, Armeniyaan, Berber, luuqado Afrikan ah, Joorjiyan, Hebrew, Turkic, Kurdish
Government Khulafo
Khaliif
 - 661–680 Mucawiya I
 - 744–750 Marwan II
History
 - Mucawiya ayaa noqday hogaamiye 661
 - Jabkii iyo dhimashadii Marwan II 750
Area
 - 750 C.D (132 H.K) 15,000,000 km2 (5,791,532 sq mi)
Population
 - qarnigii 7aad est. 62,000,000 
Lacagta Dahab dinar iyo dirham
Today part of
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Khulafadii Umawiyiinta (ingiriis: Umayyad Caliphate; carabi: ﺍﻟﺨﻼﻓﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﻳﺔ ama ﺍﻷﻣﻮﻳﻮﻥ) waa waa dowladii Islaamka ee maamulka kala wareegtay Afarta Khulafo taasi oo uu aasaasay Khaliifka 5aad ee ku xigay Khulafo Raashidiinta. Boqortooyada dowladani waxaa sameeyay asxaabiga weyn ee Mucaawiya wakhti ka dambeeysay dhimashadii Nebi Muxamed (c.s.w).[35] Boqortooyada waxaa aasaasey Mucawiya (af-carabi: ﺍﻷﻣﻮﻳﻮﻥ, ama ʾUmawiyyūn, sidoo kale ﺑﻨﻮ ﺃﻣﻴﺔ, Banū ʾUmayya) taasi oo saldhig u ahayd magaalada barakeysan ee Makka.[36] Ka dib maamulkii Cusmaan binu Cafaan (644–656), waxaa hogaanka dowladii Islaamka la wareegay Mucawiya binu Sufyaan oo si xoog ah ku qabsaday maamulka isla markaana ka dhigay hogaanka Islaamiyiinta mid dhaxaltooyo ah. Mucawiya wuxuu wakhti dheer masuul ka ahaa gobolada dalka Suuriya, markuu la wareegay maamulka dowladii Islaamkana wuxuu magaalo madax ka dhigtey caasimada Dimishiq.[37]

Si kastaba ha ahaatee, wakhtigii Umawiyiintu haysay hogaanka boqortooyadii Islaamka waxay gaadhsiiyeen dhul aad u balaadhan ayagoo qabsadey waqooyiga Afrika, dhamaan deegaanada Bariga dhexe, meelo ka mid ah Aasiyada kore ilaa meelo badan oo koonfurta Yurub ah sida wadanada Isbayn, Giriig iyo gasiiradaha u dhow.[38] Markey dowlada Umawiyiintu mareysay meeshii ugu sareeysay waxay heeysatay dhul aad u balaadhan oo dhan 5.79 mayl labalaaban (15,000,000 km2), taasi oo ah boqortooyadii ugu balaadhneyd ee dunidu aragto iyo mida shanaad ee ugu weyn waligeed.

Khulafadii Mucaawiye[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Furashadii iyo fiditaankii boqortooyada Islaamka wakhtigii Rashidiinta ee maamulka hayeen afarta khaliif. Kala qeybsanaanta meesha waxay ku tusaysaa wakhtiyadii kala duwanaa ee Khulafadii Rashiidiinta kuwaas oo ugu dambeeyay Cali goortii ay bilaabantey Fitnadii Kowaad.
  Xoogagii adkaa ee Khulafo Raashidiintu samaysay kuwaas oo ugu dambeeyay Calli wakhtigii Fitnadii Kowaad
  Gobolada uu maamulayay Mucaawiye goortii ay bilaabantey Fitnadii Kowaad
  Goboladii uu gacanta ku hayay Cumar ibn al-Cas wakhtigii Fitnadii Kowaad
Masaajidka Umawiyiinta kaasi oo la dhisey wakhtigii Mucaawiye maamulka dowlada Islaamka gacanta ku hayay.
Maabka gobolada dowlada Umawiyiintu ka talineeysay.

Mucaawiya (ingiriis: Muawiyah I; [carabi]]: معاوية ابن أبي سفيان, loogu dhawaaqo: Muʿāwiyah ibn ʾAbī Sufyān; 602 – April 29 or May 1, 680) waa asxaabiga dhisay boqortooyadii Umawiyiinta[39] ee ku xigtey maamulkii Khulafada ee dowlada Islaamka.[40] Sidoo kale, wuxuu ahaa ninkii labaad ee khaliif noqda kaas oo ka soo jeeda qabiilka Umawiyiinta.[41]

Wakhtigii uu noolaa Nebi Muxamed (n.n.k.h) Mucaawiya wuxuu xoghaye[42] u ahaa nebiga, taas oo xataa markuu dhintey uu jagadaasi u sii hayay khulafadii la wareegtay hogaanka dowladii Islaamka sida Abu Bakar iyo Cumar (Cumar bin Khataab).[43] Intaas waxaa dheer, Mucaawiya wuxuu ka qayb galay dagaalo badan iyo qaswado xoog leh, waxaana tusaale fiican inoo ah dagaalkii lagu furtey Suuriya ee lagaga guuleystay boqortooyadii Baaysantiin, deegaankaasi oo markii dambe lagu wareejiyay hogaanka Mucaawiya.[44]

Khulafadii Cabaasiyiinta[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Khulafadii Cusmaaniyiinta[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Qoraalo La Mid Ah[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Xigasho[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

  1. "Abu Bakr Sadiiq"
  2. "ingiriis: Abu Bakr; carabi: أبو بكر الصديق; magaca dhamaystiran Cabdullah ibn Abi Quhafa "عبد الله بن أبي قحافة""
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 [1], from islam4theworld
  4. "hogaamiye sare ee maamulka dowlada Islaamka"
  5. "sodoga iyo saaxiibka koowaad ee Nebi Muxamed"
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 [2], from Encyclopædia Britannica
  7. 7.0 7.1 Juan Eduardo Campo, "Encyclopedia of Islam", Infobase Publishing, 2009 [3]
  8. Abu Bakr wuxuu ahaa nin ganacsade
  9. The Middle East Journal by the Middle East Institute, Washington, D.C., published 1991
  10. "Yaman ayaa waxaa Abu Bakr lagu wargeliyay in wakhtigii uu maqnaa ina adeerkiis Muxamed ku dhawaaqay nabinimo"
  11. Abu Bakr Al-Siddiq - This-is-Islam.co.uk [4]
  12. Shahid Ashraf, "Encyclopaedia of Holy Prophet and Companions", Anmol Publications PVT. LTD., 2004, ISBN 81-261-1940-3 [5]
  13. "Dagaalkii Beder, Dagaalkii Uxud, Dagaalkii Dhufeysyada"
  14. "qabsashadii magaalada Makka, Dagaalkii Kheybar, Dagaalkii Xunayn, go'doomintii Daa'if iyo Dagaalkii Tabuk"
  15. "Abu Bakr sadiiq wuxuu hogaanka dowlada Islaamka hayay labo sano iyo xoogaa (27 bilood) taasi oo uu isku duba ridey maamulka dowladaasi"
  16. "Cumar bin Khatab"
  17. "ingiriis: 'Umar; carabi: ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﺎﺏ; magaca dhamaystiran Cumar ibn Al-Khattab "ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﺎﺏ""
  18. "hogaamiye sare ee maamulka dowlada Islaamka"
  19. "Dagaalkii Beder, Dagaalkii Uxud, Dagaalkii Dhufeysyada"
  20. "qabsashadii magaalada Makka, Dagaalkii Kheybar, Dagaalkii Xunayn, go'doomintii Daa'if iyo Dagaalkii Tabuk"
  21. "Cusmaan bin Caffan"
  22. "ingiriis: ʻUthmān ibn ʻAffān; carabi: ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻔﺎﻥ; magaca dhamaystiran Cusmaan ibn Caffan "ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻔﺎﻥ""
  23. "hogaamiye sare ee maamulka dowlada Islaamka"
  24. "Dagaalkii Beder, Dagaalkii Uxud, Dagaalkii Dhufeysyada"
  25. "qabsashadii magaalada Makka, Dagaalkii Kheybar, Dagaalkii Xunayn, go'doomintii Daa'if iyo Dagaalkii Tabuk"
  26. "Cali bin Dalib"
  27. "ingiriis: "Alī ibn Abī Tālib; carabi: ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺃﺑﻲ ﻃﺎﻟﺐ; magaca dhamaystiran Cali ibn Abi Daalib "ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺃﺑﻲ ﻃﺎﻟﺐ""
  28. "hogaamiye sare ee maamulka dowlada Islaamka"
  29. The Peoples, Sekene Mody Cissoko, History of Humanity:From the Seventh to the Sixteenth Century, Vol. IV, ed. M.A. Al-Bakhit, L. Bazin and S.M. Cissoko, (UNESCO, 2008), 1190.[6]
  30. Jonathan Miran, Red Sea Citizens: Cosmopolitan Society and Cultural Change in Massawa, (Indiana University Press, 2009), 100.[7]
  31. Khalid Yahya Blankinship, The End of the Jihad State: The Reign of Hisham Ibn 'Abd al-Malik and the Collapse of the Umayyads, (SUNY Press, 1994), 286.[8]
  32. Khalid Yahya Blankinship, The End of the Jihad State: The Reign of Hisham Ibn 'Abd al-Malik and the Collapse of the Umayyads, 147.[9]
  33. Stefan Goodwin, Africas Legacies Of Urbanization: Unfolding Saga of a Continent, (Rowman & Littlefield, 2006), 85.[10]
  34. Islam in Somali History:Fact and Fiction, Mohamed Haji Muktar, The Invention of Somalia, ed. Ali Jimale Ahmed, (The Red Sea Press, Inc., 1995), 3.[11]
  35. "(ingiriis: Umayyad Caliphate; carabi: ﺍﻟﺨﻼﻓﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﻳﺔ ama ﺍﻷﻣﻮﻳﻮﻥ)"
  36. "labaad ee maamuladii afarta khulafo Islaamka ee la sameeyay dhimashadii Nebi Muxamed (c.s.w)"
  37. "Mucawiya wuxuu wakhti dheer masuul ka ahaa gobolada dalka Suuriya"
  38. "Aasiyada kore ilaa meelo badan oo koonfurta Yurub ah sida wadanada Isbayn, Giriig"
  39. Caliph and Caliphate: Oxford Bibliographies Online Research Guide. Books.google.ca. http://books.google.ca/books?id=EmN8tCx_jR4C&pg=PA10&dq=first+Umayyad+Caliph&hl=en&sa=X&ei=ekTzUJO1M8G9rQGyuICADg&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=first%20Umayyad%20Caliph&f=false. Retrieved 2013-04-30.
  40. The Umayyad Dynasty at the University 0f Calgary
  41. Al-Tabari, Muhammad ibn Jarir. The History of the Prophets and Kings (Tarikh al-Rusul wa al-Muluk), Vol. 18 Between Civil Wars: The Caliphate of Mu'awiyah 40 A.H., 661 A.D.-60 A.H., 680 A.D. (Michael G. Morony).
  42. Sahih Muslim, The book of (Virtues of the companions), narration no. [6409]:168-(2501) numbered by mohammad fo'ad abdul-baqi
  43. AD 2036 Is the End: The Truth about the Second Coming of Christ and the meaning of life, p. 77. By Christian Jacobsen [12]
  44. A Chronology Of Islamic History 570-1000 CE, By H.U. Rahman 1999 Page 48 and Page 52-53