Afrika

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Kani waa maqaal ku saabsan qaarada Afrika. Maqaalo kale eeg wadanada Afrika
Boga "Africa" halkan ayaa laga soo toosiyay.
Africa
Africa (orthographic projection).svg
Baaxada 30,221,532 km2 (11,668,599 sq mi), 2aad
Dadka 1.1 bilyan[1] (2013, 2aad)
Miisaanka Dadka 36.4/km2 (94/sq mi)
Magaca Afrikan
Wadanada 54 (iyo 2 buuq ka taagan yahay)
Ku tiirsan
Luuqadaha 1250-3000 luuqadood
Wakhtiyada UTC-1 ilaa UTC+4
Caasimad ugu Wayn

Caasimadaha ugu waaweyn qaarada Afrika
Nayjeeriya Lagos
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Soomaaliya Muqdisho
Somaliland Hargaysa

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Kariirada siyaasadeed ee Afrika
Afrika

Afrika (Af-Ingiriis: Afrika; Af-Carabi: أفريقيا) waa qaarada labaad ee ugu weyn qaaradaha aduunka kadib qaarada Aasiya dhanka baaxada iyo dhanka dadkaba. Baaxada Afrika waxay la'egtahay c. 30,244,050 km² (11,677,240 mi²)[2] tiradaas waxaa ku jira dhamaan jasiiradaha lagu xisaabo Afrika. Afrika baaxadeeda waxay dabooshaa 20.3% baaxada dhulka oo dhan. Sida lagu xusay tirokoob caalami ah oo la sameeyay sanadkii 2013ka waxaa ku nool qaarada Afrika dad tiradooda ay dhantahay 1.1 bilyan taasi oo ah tiro u dhiganta todobo qeyboodoo qayb dadka dunida ku noolo maanta.

Qaarada Afrika waxaa ku hareersan biyo; Bada Mediterraniyanka waxay ka xigta waqooyi, sidoo kale Gacanka Suweys iyo Bada Cas waxay ka xigaan waqooyibari, Badweynta Hindiya ayaa kaga taala koonfurbari, iyo Badweynta Atlantika oo ka xigta galbeed. Intaas waxaa dheer, wadanka jasiirada Madagaskar iyo gasiirado kale ayaa soo hoosgala qaarada. Sida rasmiga ah waxaa qaarada Afrika degan 54 wadan oo la aqoonsan yahay, sagaal deegaan iyo labo wadan oo wali la aqoonsan.[3]

Xaga bulshada, qaarada Afrika waxaa ku dhaqan dadka ugu da'da yar caalamka marka tirada guud laga hadlayo; 50% dadka Afrikaanka ahi waa da'da ka yar 19 sano.[4] Juquraafi ahaan, wadanka Aljeeriya ayaa ugu wayn dhulka iyo baaxada, halka Nayjeeriya ugu dad badan tahay; waxaana guud ahaan caalamka la isku raacay in badhtamaha iyo Bariga Afrika yihiin meesha aadamuhu ka soo beermeer markii ugu horeeysay. Waxaa deegaanadan laga helay lafo aad u da' weyn oo muujinaya horaantii dadka. Tusaale ahaan, wadanka Itoobiya waxaa laga helay lafaha ugu da'da weyn inta la ogyahay midaasi oo jirta 200,000 kun sano.[5] Guud ahaan qaarada Afrika waxaa dhex mara dhulbadhaha, waxayna leedahay noocyo badan oo cimilo kala gedisan ah. Waana qaarada keli ah ee laga helo astaamaha cimilada waqooyi ilaa koonfurta dhulka.[6] Sidoo kale, qaarada Afrika waxaa loo qeybiyaa shan gobol kuwaasi oo ku salaysan juquraafiga deegaanka. Waxay kala yihiin: Bariga Afrika, Badhtamaha Afrika, Waqooyiga Afrika, Galbeedka Afrika iyo Koonfurta Afrika.

Afrika dadka kunool dhamaan waa dadka madow marka laga reebo wadamada Waqooyiga Afrika oo ay ku nool yihiin dad Carab ahi iyo wadamada sida Koonfur Afrika iyo Simbaabwi iyo Nambiya oo laga helo dad tiro yar oo cadaan ay ka tageen gumeystihii reer Yurub.

Magaca Afrika

Ereyga Ifri waxa lagu magaacaabi jiray dad ku noolaan jiray waqooyiga Afrika meel ku dhaw boqortooyadii la odhanjiray "Qardaaj".[7][8] Magaca Afrika waxa laga raad raacikaraa luqadii ay isticmaali jireen dadkii lagu magacaabi jiray Fonesiyaanka, waxa la sheegay in kalmada afri ay tahay boodhka waxa kale oo lasheegay in dadkii looyaqaanay barbarku ay u yaqaaneen kalmada afri godka taasoo markaas noqonaysa dadkii godka.[9][10]


Taarikhda Waayigi Hore

Lucy, waa Australopithecus afarensis lafo lagusoo qoday Itoobiya, marka ay taarikhda ahayd 24 Nofeembar 1974. We'ayot Itoobiya Depressione di Afar

Dadka paleoantropologo intooda badan waxay ay aaminsan yihiin in qaarada Afrika ay tahay meesha ay asal ahaan bani-aadanka ka yimaadeen. Qarnigi labaatanaad dhexdeeda, antropologi waxa ay dhulka kasoo heleen lafaha dad badan dhintay oo fossilika taasi ay caddeneysaa in fikiroodi run tahay:asal ahaan bani-admigu wa dad ku noolaan jirey Afrika 7 milyoon sano ka hor. hadaba afirca wexey leedahahay tariqo farabadan ku waasoo ey ugu weynyihiin: faraacintii Masar, iyo waliba is adoosi waqti dheer kajirijiray Afrikada madow.

Gobolada Afrika

Sidaan horay u soo sheegnay, qaarada Afrika waxaa loo qeybiyaa shan gobol kuwaasi oo ku salaysan juquraafiga deegaanka. Waxay kala yihiin: Bariga Afrika, Badhtamaha Afrika, Waqooyiga Afrika, Galbeedka Afrika iyo Koonfurta Afrika.

Bariga Afrika

Gobolka Bariga Afrika (si waafaqsan habka Qaramada Midoobay)
  Bariga Afrika (Qaabaynta QM)
  Federaalka Bulshada Bartamaha Afrika
  Juquraafiga Bariga Afrika waxaa ku jira deegaano ka baxsan gobolka kaasi oo Qaramada Midoobay ku soo dartey.


Bariga Afrika (Af-Ingiriis: East Africa; Af-Carabi: شرق أفريقيا) waa gobolka dhaca bariga qaarada Afrika, taasi oo aad ugu kala duwan deegaan ahaan, juquraafi ahaan iyo siyaasad ahaan. Sida ku xusan qawaaniinta gobolada ee dejisay Jimciyada Qarama Midoobay[11] deegaanka Bariga Afrika waxay ka kooban tahay ilaa 20 wadan[12], kuwaasi oo kala ah:

Badhtamaha Afrika

  Badhtamaha Afrika
  Deegaanka Badhtamaha Afrika (Xadka Qaramada Midoobay)
  Dalalka Federalka Badhtamaha Afrika
Fiidiyowgan waxaa laga soo duubay dayaxa waa muuqaalka sare ee Badhtamaha Afrika.

Badhtanka Afrika (Af-Ingiriis: Central Africa; Af-Carabi: وسط أفريقيا) waa deegaan xudun u ah badhtamaha qaarada Afrika, taasi oo ka kooban tiro wadano ah, sida: Burundi, Jamhuuriyadda Bartamaha Afrika, Jad, Jamhuuriyada Dimuqaraadiga Kongo, iyo Ruwanda.[17]

Waqooyiga Afrika

  Waqooyiga Afrika
  Deegaanka Waqooyiga Afrika (Xadka Qaramada Midoobay)
  Dalalka ka baxsan Waqooyiga Afrika

Waqooyiga Afrika (Af-Ingiriis: North Africa; Af-Carabi: شمال أفريقيا) waa deegaanka ugu xiga waqooyiga dhamaan gobolada qaarada Afrika, taasi oo ka kooban ilaa todoba wadan iyo deegaano, sida: Aljeeriya, Masar, Libya, Marooko, Suudaan, Tuuniisiya, iyo Saxaraha Galbeed.[18][19]

Intaas waxaa dheer, wadanada Aljeeriya, Marooko, Tuuniisiya iyo Liibiya waxaa guud ahaan loo yaqaana Gobolka Maghreb.

Galbeedka Afrika

  Wadanada Galbeedka Afrika (Gobolada Qaramada Midoobay)
  Deegaanka Magrib (Gobol), kaasi oo ah deegaan ka baxsan Galbeedka Afrika.

Galbeedka Afrika (Af-Ingiriis: West Africa; Af-Carabi: غرب أفريقيا; sidoo kale loo yaqaano Dadka Galbeedka Afrika People of Western Africa) waa deegaan balaadhan oo dhaca galbeedka qaarada Afrika, taasi oo leh 18 wadan kuwasi oo kala ah: Benin, Burkina Faso, the island of Cape Verde, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, the island of Saint Helena, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sao Tome and Principe and Togo.

Koonfurta Afrika

Wadamada Afrika

Khariirada afrika

Ururo

Qoraalo Kale

Tixraac

  1. Gudmastad, Ericha (2013). "2013 World Population Data Sheet" (PDF). prb.org. Population Reference Bureau. Retrieved 18 August 2015.  External link in |website= (help)
  2. Sayre, April Pulley (1999), Africa, Twenty-First Century Books. ISBN 0-7613-1367-2.
  3. Fiiri Wadanada Afrika.
  4. Harry, Njideka U. (11 September 2013). "African Youth, Innovation and the Changing Society". Huffington Post. 
  5. Homo sapiens: University of Utah News Release: Feb. 16, 2005[dead link]
  6. Visual Geography. "Africa. General info". Retrieved 2007-11-24. 
  7. Georges, Karl Ernst (1913–1918). "Afri". In Georges, Heinrich (in German). Ausführliches lateinisch-deutsches Handwörterbuch (8th ed.). Hannover. http://latin_german.deacademic.com/1644. Retrieved 20 September 2015. 
  8. Lewis, Charlton T.; Short, Charles (1879). "Afer". A Latin Dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon Press. http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0059%3Aentry%3DAfer. Retrieved 20 September 2015. 
  9. Names of countries, Decret and Fantar, 1981.
  10. Geo. Babington Michell, "The Berbers", Journal of Royal African Society, Vol. 2, No. 6 (January 1903), pp. 161-194.
  11. "Composition of macro geographical (continental) regions, geographical sub-regions, and selected economic and other groupings". United Nations. 2013-10-31. Retrieved 2015-01-28. 
  12. "United Nations Statistics Division- Standard Country and Area Codes Classifications (M49)". un.org. 
  13. Robert Stock, Africa South of the Sahara, Second Edition: A Geographical Interpretation, (The Guilford Press: 2004), p. 26
  14. "IRIN - Horn of Africa". IRINnews. 
  15. Michael Hodd, East Africa Handbook, 7th Edition, (Passport Books: 2002), p. 21: "To the north are the countries of the Horn of Africa comprising Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti and Somalia."
  16. Encyclopædia Britannica, inc, Jacob E. Safra, The New Encyclopædia Britannica, (Encyclopædia Britannica: 2002), p.61: "The northern mountainous area, known as the Horn of Africa, comprises Djibouti, Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Somalia."
  17. "Composition of macro geographical (continental) regions, geographical sub-regions, and selected economic and other groupings". United Nations. 2013-10-31. Retrieved 2015-01-28. 
  18. According to UN country classification here: [1] The disputed territory of Western Sahara (formerly Spanish Sahara) is mostly administered by Morocco; the Polisario Front claims the territory in militating for the establishment of an independent republic, and exercises limited control over rump border territories.
  19. "Composition of macro geographical (continental) regions, geographical sub-regions, and selected economic and other groupings". United Nations. 2013-10-31. Retrieved 2015-01-28. 
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