London Metro

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London Metro

Escalators at Canary Wharf station
A map of the entire system with accurate positions of stations but simplified presentation of lines
The Metropolitan Railway opened using GWR broad gauge locomotivesTemplate:Sfnp




London Underground (oo sidoo kale loo yaqaan 'Underground' ama 'nickname' Tube) waa nidaam gaadiidka dadweynaha oo degdeg ah oo u adeegaya London iyo qeybo ka mid ah gobollada Buckinghamshire, Essex iyo Hertfordshire ee Boqortooyada Ingiriiska. Underground waxay asal ahaan ka soo jeeddaa Tareenka Metropolitan, waa tareenka ugu horreeya ee dhulka hoostiisa. Markii la furay 1863, hadda waa qayb ka mid ah wareegyada gawaarida, Hammersmith & City iyo Metropolitan; tareenka ugu horeeya ee ku shaqeeya tareenada korontada ee korontada ku shaqeeya, Tareenka Magaalada iyo Koonfurta London 1890, hadda waa qayb ka mid ah woqooyiga. [7] Shabakadda ayaa la ballaariyey ilaa 11 khadadood, iyo sannadkii 2016-17 waxay qaadeen 1,379 bilyan oo rakaab ah, [3] waxay samaysay nidaamkii 11-aad ee ugu hooseeya ee mitirka. 11 khadka ayaa si wadajir ah ula shaqeeya qiyaastii 4,8 milyan oo rakaab ah maalintii. [2] Gaadiidka koowaad ee nidaamka waxaa lagu dhisay meel ka hooseysa dusha sare, iyadoo la adeegsanayo habka gaaban iyo kuwa daboolaya; ka dib, tareeno yar yar, qumman oo qumman - taas oo u keentay naaneeynteeda, Tube-waxaa lagu dhex qoday heer qoto dheer. [8] Nidaamka wuxuu leeyahay 270 saldhig iyo 250 mayl (400 km) oo jidka ah. [9] Inkasta oo magaciisu yahay, 45% kaliya ee nidaamka ayaa dhab ahaantii dhulka hoostiisa ku yaal, iyada oo intaa ka badan oo shabakad ah oo ku yaalla degaanka banaankeeda ah ee London ku yaala dusha sare. [9] Intaas waxaa sii dheer, degaanku ma daboolayo qeybaha koonfurta ee Greater London, wax ka yar 10% ee saldhigyada ku yaalla koonfurta ee Thames. [9] Khadadka hore ee tubaakada, asal ahaan waxaa leh shirkado badan oo khaas ah, ayaa lagu soo ururiyey astaanta "UndergrounD" horraantii qarnigii 20aad waxayna ugu dambeyntii isku xireen xarumaha hoose iyo adeega basaska sannadkii 1933 si ay u sameeyaan gaadiidka London iyagoo hoos imanaya kantaroolka Guddiga Gaadiidka Rakaabka ee London (LPTB). Hawlwadeenada hadda jira, London Underground Limited (LUL), waa shirkad wadaag ah oo ka mid ah Gaadiidka London (TfL), shirkad sharci ah oo mas'uul ka ah shabakadda gaadiidka ee Greater London. Laga bilaabo 2015, 92% kharashka hawlgalka ayaa daboolaya qiimaha rakaabka. [10] Tikidhka safarka waxaa la soo saaray 1983 iyo Odster, nidaam aan la xirxireynin, 2003. [11] Lacagaha kaashka ah ee aan la soo xiriirin ayaa la soo saaray 2014, [12] nidaamka gaadiidka dadweynaha ee ugu horeeya ee adduunka ah si uu sidaa u sameeyo. LPTB wuxuu ahaa hiddaha ugu caansan farshaxanka iyo naqshadeynta, samaynta dhismooyin badan oo xarumo cusub oo cusub, farshaxanno iyo farshaxan dadweyne oo qaabdhismeed casri ah. [14] [15] [16] Khariidada Tube-ka, oo uu u qaabeeyey Harry Beck 1931, ayaa loo doortay naqshad heer qaran oo 2006-ka ah waxaana hadda ka mid ah hababka kale ee gaadiidka TfL sida Docklands Light Railway, London Goobta, Crossrail (oo rasmi ah loo yaqaan Elizabeth Line) iyo Tramlink. Meelaha kale ee caanka ah ee London Undertround waxaa ka mid ah wareega iyo Johnston xarfaha, oo uu abuuray Edward Johnston 1916.

























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