Qaramada Midoobay

Ka Wikipedia
U bood: gooshitaan, raadi
Kani waa maqaal ku saabsan Jimciyada Quruumaha Ka Dhaxaysa.
Boga "UN", "UNO", "QM" iyo "Jimciyada Quruumaha Ka Dhaxaysa" halkan ayaa laga soo toosiyay.
Maabka xubaha qaramada midoobay[lower-alpha 1]
Fadhiga Xarunta sare New York (Deegaanada Caalamiga)
Luuqadaha Dowliga
Loo qoro Urur Xidhiidhiya Dowladaha
Xubinimo 193 wadan
2 Deegaan
Hogaanka
 -  Xoghayaha Guud Ban Ki-moon (Koonfur Kuuriya)
 -  Xoghaye Ku Xigeen Jan Eliasson (Iswidhan)
 -  Madaxwaynaha Golaha Sare Sam Kutesa (Yugandha)
 -  Madaxweynaha Golaha Dhaqaalaha iyo Bulshooyi ka Martin Sajdik
 -  Madaxweynaha Golaha Amniga Dato Ramlan Ibrahim
La soo xulay
 -  Sharciga Qaramada Midoobay waxa la saxeexay 26 Juun 1945 (1945-06-26) 
 -  Dastuurka waxa la howlgaliyey 24 Oktoobar 1945 (1945-10-24) 
Website
www.un.org
Qaramada Midoobay

Qaramada Midoobay (Af-Ingiriis: The United Nations Organization; Af-Carabi: الأمم المتحدة) sida saxda ah lagu magacaabo "Ururka Qaramada Midoobay", waa urur caalami ah oo ka dhexeeya wadanada aduunka kaasi oo fadhigiisu yahay caasimada New York cariga Maraykanka.

Ururka Qaramada Midoobay waxa la aasaasay Oktoobar 24, 1945 si loogu badalo ururkii ka horeeyay ee "Midowga Umadaha" (League of Nations). Ujeedada iyo hadafka Qaramada Midoobay wuxuu ahaa in uu ka shaqeeyo xidhiidhka wadanada xubnaha ka ah iyo in uu ka hortago dagaal ka qarxa wadanada caalamka.

Qaramada Midoobay waxaa lagu bilaabay heshiiska 51 wadan, laakiin sanadii ka dambeeyay ururku wuu balaadhay waxaana maanta xubin ka ah 193 wadan.

Qaramada Midoobay waxaa maanta fadhi u ah caasimada New York, wadanka Maraykanka, wuxuuna xafiisyo waawayn ku leeyahay meelo kale oo dunida ah, sida Xafiiska Janiifa (Geneva), xafiiska Nayroobi iyo xafiiska Fiyena (Vienna).

Ururka waxaa maalgeliya dhaqaale qiimaysan oo uu ka helo wadanada xubnaha iyo deeq caalami ah oo ka soo gasha wadanada qaar, ganacsato iyo shirkado gaar loo leeyahay. Waxaana ka mid ah hadafka Ururka Qaramada Midoobay inuu ka shaqeeyo nabad caalami ah, amniga, ilaalinta xuquuqda aadamaha, daryeelka bulshooyinka iyo kobcinta dhaqaalaha, ilaalada deegaanka, fidinta gargaarka dagdaga ah ee meelaha ka dhacaan abaaro, musiibo dabiici ah iyo colaada.

Wakhtigii uu socday Dagaalkii Labaad ee Aduunka ayaa madaxweyihii Maraykanka Franklin D. Roosevelt soo jeediyay in la aasaaso urur bedela Midowga Umadaha, waxaana la bilaabay qoritaanka Dastuurka Qaramad Midoobay ka dib markii la galay shirweyne dhacay intii u dhaxaysay Abril–Juun 1945; wuxuuna dastuurkani hirgalay bishii Oktoobar 1945, wakhtigaasi oo Qaramada Midoobay howl biloowday.

Hadaba ujeedada iyo jiritaanka Qaramada Midoobay wuxuu shiki galay wakhtiyadii Dagaalka Qabow socday kaasi oo u dhexeeyay labo awoodood ee Maraykanka iyo Midowgii Soofiyeeti iyo xuladadeeda. Si kastaba ha ahaatee ururku wuxuu kaalin libaax ka qaatey farogalintii "Dagaalkii Labada Kuuriya" iyo "Howlgaladii Koongo".

Xubnaha ururku aad ayay u koreen wixii ka dambeeyay sanadihii1960kii wakhtigaasi oo wadano badan xoriyada qaateen. Wixii ka dambeeyay Dagaalkii Qaboowa Ururka Qaramada Midoobay wuxuu bilaabay inuu talaabo milatari qaado kuwaasi oo isbedel la taaban karo ka gaadhay.

Guud ahaan Qaramada Midoobay waxay ka kooban tahay lix waaxood: Golaha Sare (oo ah waaxda maamulka guud gacanta ku heysa); Golaha Amniga (waaxdani waxay go'aamisaa xalka amaanka iyo nabada); Golaha Dhaqaalaha iyo Bulshada (ECOSOC) (waaxdani waxay ku shaqo leedahay dhiirigelinta iyo horumarinta dhaqaalaha caalamka iyo horumarka bulshooyinka); Golaha Xoghaynta (waaxdani waa maamulka iyo soo ururinta akhbaarta iyo macluudka Ururka Qaramada Midoobay u baahan yahay); Maxkamada Cadaalada Caalamiga (sidoo kale loo yaqaano Maxkamada Aduunka, waa waaxda u qaabilsan cadaalada); iyo Golaha Kalsoonida (United Nations Trusteeship Council) midkaasi oon shaqaynin tan iyo 1994.

Jimciyada Quruumaha ka Dhaxaysa waxay leedahay wakiilo badan oo ka shaqeeya waxyaabo badan oo kala duwan; kuwaas waxaa kamid ah Bankiga Aduunka (World Bank Group), Ururka Caafimaadka Aduunka (World Health Organization), Hayada Cuntada Aduunka (World Food Programme), UNESCO, iyo UNICEF. Liiska wakiilada iyo hayadaha Qaramada Midoobay ka fiiri Liiska Hayadaha Qaramada Midoobay.

Sarkaalka ugu sareeya Qaramad Midoobay waa Xoghayaha Sare, waxaana 2007di ilaa hada haya xilkaasi Ban Ki-moon ee u dhashay wadanka Koonfur Kuuriya.

Sanadkii 2001da Ururka Qaramad Midoobay waxaa la gudoonsiiyay bilad sharafta Abaalmarinta Nabada (Nobel Peace Prize).

Taariikh[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

A map of the world with countries displayed in colours corresponding to the dates the countries joined the United Nations. Countries not involved with the United Nations are shown in grey.
Maabka Aduunka oo lagu muujiyay wadanada iyo wakhtiga ay ku biireen Qaramada Midoobay

Taariikhda Qaramada Midoobay waxay ka soo bilaabantaa Dagaalkii Labaad ee Aduunka. Wakhtigaas wixii ka dambeeyay xubnaha iyo shaqada ururku wuu balaadhay waxayna maanta gaadhay dhamaan caalamka oo dhan, ayada oo qarniga 21aad noqotey meel kulmisa dhamaan madaxda aduunka.

Sida taariikhda lagu hayo hindisaha iyo magaca Qaramada Midoobay waxaa horaantii iska lahaa madaxweynihii wadanka Maraykanka Franklin Roosevelt wakhtigaasi oo uu rabay in lagu magacaabo xulafadii Isbaahaysiga.[2] Fikradaasi waxaa ku raacay Ra'iisal wasaarihii Boqortooyada Biritayn kaasi oo socdaal shaqo ku joogay cariga Maraykanka wakhtigaasi 1941. Si kastaba ha ahaatee sanadihii xigay waxaa ereyga Qaramada Midoobay aad u isticmaalayay xulafadii isbaahaysiga ee dagaalka kula jirtey awoodi Nazi-ga.

A black and white motion picture of some men signing papers on a desk in the center of a huge decorated room.
Aasaasitaankii Qaramada Midoobay


Ku Dhawaaqida QM (1942)[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Qorsheeyntii dhisitaanka ururka wuxuu bilaabmey wakhti ka horeeyay Dagaalkii Labaad taasi oo la aaminsan yahay in Waaxda Siyaasada Maraykanka (US State Department) bilowday qorsheeynta arimaha ururka sanadkii 1939.[3] Maqaalkii ugu horeeyay ee ku dhawaaqida Qaramada Midoobay waxaa si wada jir ah u diyaariyay 29 Diisamber 1941 madaxweynihii Maraykanka Franklin D. Roosevelt, ra'isul-wasaaraha Boqortooyada Biritatn Winston Churchill, gacanyarahii Roosevelt Harry Hopkins, kuwaasi oo wakhtigaas ku sugnaa Aqalka Cad ee Maraykanka. Madaxweyne Roosevelt wakhtigaasi wuxuu Qaramada Midoobay ku tilmaamayay Xulafadii Isbaaheysiga Dagaalkii Labaad (Allies of World War II). Fikradan waxaa markiiba ku raacay raisal wasaarihii Boqortooyada Britayn kaasi oo isla markiiba ka hirgeliyay wadankiisa.

Baasaboodhkii ugu horeeyay ee Qaramada Midoobay la daabacay 1944

Qiyaastii 1–2 Janaayo 1942, ayaa lagu dhawaaqay Qaramada Midoobay wakhtigaasi ooy saxeexeen sharciga ururkaas ilaa 26 wadan.[4][5] Badhtamigii 1945kii waxaa heshiiska saxeexay 21 wadan oo kale kuwaasi oo sii xoojijiyay hanoqaadkii ururka.[6]

Heshiskaasi wuxuu ku bilaabmayay sidan:

WAXAAN KU DHAWAAQAYNAA ISKU XIDHKA IYO MIDNIMADA MARAYKANKA, BOQORTOOYADA BRITAIN OO LA SOCOTO WAQOOYIGA IRELAND, MIDOWGA SOOFIYEETI, SHIINAHA, AUSTRALIA, BELGIUM, KANADA, COSTA RICA, CUBA, JEKOSLOVAKIA, JAMHUURIYADA DOMINIKA, EL SALVADOR, GIRIIGA, GUATEMALA, HAITI, HONDURAS, HINDIYA, LUXEMBOURG, NETHERLANDS, NEW ZEALAND, NICARAGUA, NORWAY, PANAMA, POLAND, KOONFUR AFRICA, YUGOSLAVIA
Saxeexa dowladaha ayaa hoosta kaga qornaa maqaalkaasi.

Hadaba wakhtiyadii uu socday Dagaalkii Labaad waxaa caan noqotey isticmaalka Qaramada Midoobay taasi oo laga waday Xulafada Wadanada Isbaahaystay ee kor ku soo xusnay. Marka wadan rabo inuu ururkaas Qaramada Midoobay ky biiro waxaa shardi ahayd inuu saxeexo heshiiska isla markaana dagaal ku dhawaaqo Isbaahaysigii Nasiga (Axis).[7]

Qorshaynti QM[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Fikrada ah in ururka Qaramada Midoobay noqdo mid caalamka dhan ka dhexeeya waxay bilaabantey Shirkii Moosko ee 1943dii iyo Shirkii Tehraan ee isla sanadkaasi. Shir dhacay bishii Agoosto ilaa Oktoobar 1944kii ayaa wadanada Shiinaha, Boqortooyada Biritayn, iyo Midowgii Soofiyeeti, oo ku kulmay caasimada Washington, D.C ayaa waxay ku soo saareen in ururka Qaramada Midoobay laga dhigo mid caalami ah oo u dhaxeeya wadanada aduunka dhamaantood. Is-aragyo kale iyo hadalo badan ka dib waxaa la isku raacay cida xubin ka noqon karta ururka iyo shaqooyinka uu qaban doono kuwaasi ooy ka mid ahaayeen inuu ilaaliyo nabada guud ee caalamka, horumarinta dhaqaalaha iyo xidhiidhka bulshooyinka caalamka.[8][9]

Aasaasitaanka QM[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Qaramada Midoobay 1945. Wadanada buluuga khafiifka ah waa kuwii ururka bilaabay. Kuwa buluuga jaamudka ah waa wadanada la ilaalinayay iyo la gumaysanayay

Markeey taariikhdu ahayd Abriil 25, 1945, waxaa magaalada San Fransisko ka bilaabmay Shirkii Caalamiga ee Qaramada Midoobay halkaasi ooy ku kulmeen wadano gaadhay 50 dal iyo tiro badan oo ururo caalami ah. Hadaba 26 Juun, labo bilood ka dib markii shirka la bilaabay, ayaa 50kii wadan dhamaantood saxeexeen Dastuurka Qaramada Midoobay. Ka dib markii ay dib u eegis ku sameeyeen wadanada Shiinaha, Midowga Soofiyeeti, Boqortooyada Biritayn, Maraykanka iyo tiro kale oo wadano ah ayaa 24 Oktoobar 1945, waxaa si rasmi ah loogu dhawaaqay jiritaanka Ururka Qaramada Midoobay.[10]

Hoos waxaa ku qoran taariikhda wadanada xubinta ka ah Qaramada Midoobay ay soo gudbiyeen warqadii ogolaanshaha ururka:[11]

  • Maraykanka - 8 Aug 1945
  • Faransiisk - 31 Aug 1945
  • Dominican Rep. - 4 Sep 1945
  • Nicaragua - 6 Sep 1945
  • New Zealand - 19 Sep 1945
  • Brazil - 21 Sep 1945
  • Argentina - 24 Sep 1945
  • El Salvador - 26 Sep 1945
  • Haiti - 27 Sep 1945
  • China - 28 Sep 1945
  • Turkey - 28 Sep 1945
  • Denmark - 9 October 1945
  • Chile - 11 Oct 1945
  • Philippines - 11 Oct 1945
  • Paraguay - 12 Oct 1945
  • Cuba - 15 Oct 1945
  • Lebanon - 15 Oct 1945
  • Iran - 16 Oct 1945
  • Luxembourg - 17 Oct 1945
  • Saudi Arabia - 18 Oct 1945
  • Czechoslovakia - 19 Oct 1945
  • Syria - 19 Oct 1945
  • Yugoslavia - 19 Oct 1945
  • UK - 20 Oct 1945
  • Egypt - 22 Oct 1945
  • Byelorussia - 24 Oct 1945
  • Poland - 24 Oct 1945
  • Ukraine - 24 Oct 1945
  • Midowga Soofiyeeti - 24 Oct 1945
  • Greece - 25 Oct 1945
  • India - 30 Oct 1945
  • Peru - 31 Oct 1945
  • Australia - 1 Nov 1945
  • Costa Rica - 2 Nov 1945
  • Liberia - 2 Nov 1945
  • Colombia - 5 Nov 1945
  • Mexico - 7 Nov 1945
  • South Africa - 7 Nov 1945
  • Canada - 9 Nov 1945
  • Ethiopia - 13 Nov 1945
  • Panama - 13 Nov 1945
  • Bolivia - 14 Nov 1945
  • Venezuela - 15 Nov 1945
  • Honduras - 17 Nov 1945
  • Guatemala - 21 Nov 1945
  • Norway - 27 Nov 1945
  • Netherlands - 10 Dec 1945
  • Uruguay - 18 Dec 1945
  • Ecuador - 21 Dec 1945
  • Iraq - 21 Dec 1945
  • Belgium - 27 Dec 1945

Shirkii ugu horeeyay ee Golaha Sare wuxuu qabsoomay 10 Janaayo 1946 magaalada London.[12] Sidoo kale waxaa ayaguna kulankii ugu horeeyay yeeshay Golaha Amniga.[13] Ururkii [Midowga Wadanada]] wuxuu si sharci ah u baaba'ay 18 Abril 1946 waxaana hadafkii iyo mashaariicdiisii lagu wareejiyay Qaramada Midoobay.


Shaqada[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Ururka Qaramada Midoobay wuxuu qabtey hoowlo aad u balaadhan; kuwaasi waxaa ugu muhiimsan horumarinta xidhiidhka bulshooyinka, daryeelida xuquuqda Aadamaha, horumarinta dhaqaalaha, dabargoynta gumeysiga, caafimaadka iyo waxbarashasa, daryeelka qoxootiga iyo ganacsiga.

Rajada ugu wayn ee laga aaminsan yahay Qaramada Midoobay waa ineey baajiso (joojiso) inuu dhaco daagaal wayn (dagaalka sadexaad), kaasi oo baabi'in kara dadka iyo duunyada caalamka.


Fadhiga iyo Xafiisyada[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Sidoo kale fiiri Xarunta Sare Qaramada Midoobay
Xarunta Sare Qaramada Midoobay

Xarunta Sare Qaramada Midoobay sidoo kale Fadhiga Qaramada Midoobay waa dhisme aad u wayn oo ku yaala caasimada New York wadanka Maraykanka.

Xarumaha QM[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Two skyscraper buildings on the bank of a river.
Xarunta sare Qaramada Midoobay New York
Huge complex of skyscrapers and other large buildings interlaced with trees and gardens. The surrounding area as far as the horizon is filled with trees and large rivers. In the foreground a crane and small building site show that a new construction is underway.
Dhismaha QM magaalada Fiyeena

Badhtamihii Diisambar 1945, ayaa Golaha Guurtida Maraykanka iyo Aqalka Wakiiladu u codeeyeen in Ururuka Qaramada Midoobay laga codsado ineey Xarunta Sare ka dhisato wadanka Maraykanka. Arintaasi way aqbashay Qaramada Midoobay, waxayna deegaan ka salaxatay bariga caasimada New York halkaasi oo ay ku iibsatey lacag dhan US $8.5 milyan oo ahayd lacag deeq ah. Dhismaha oo socday labo sano (1949 ilaa 1950) waxaa la furay Xarunta Sare Qaramada Midoobay Janaayo 9, 1951, inkastoo la dhamaystiray dhismaha bishii Oktoobar 9, 1952.[14]

Inkastoo xarunta ugu muhiimsan ku taalo caasimada New York, ururku wuxuu xafiisyo waaweyn ku leeyahay Jeniifa, Heeg, Fiyeena, Nayroobi iyo meelo kale oo badan.

Xubnaha[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Sidoo kale fiiri Wadanada Xubnaha Qaramada Midoobay
A political map of the world with all territories shaded blue to denote United Nations membership, except Antarctica, the Palestinian territories, the Vatican, and Western Sahara, which are grey
Maabka wadanada xubinta ka ah Qaramada Midoobay iyo wadanada QM u aqoonsan tahay wadan (midabka buluuga[15]
Calamaanta wadanaxa xubinta ka ah QM.

Waxaa jira 193 Wadan oo xubin ka ah Ururka Qaramada Midoobay kuwaasi oo mid kasta xubin ka yahay Golaha Sare Qaramada Midoobay.[16]

Ka mid noqoshada Qaramada Midoobay waxaa si fiican u sharaxaya Qodobka 4aad ee Dastuurka Qaramada Midoobay:[17]

  1. Ka mid noqoshada Qaramada Midoobay waa mid u furan dhamaan dowladaha jecel nabada marka laga reebo kuwa uu dasturku ka reebay, ayadoo la tixraacayo xukunka ururka.
  2. Codsiga ka mid noqoshada Qaramada Midoobay waxaa go'aan ka gaadhi kara Golaha Sare oo la tashanaya Golaha Amniga.

Warbixin taageero leh oo ka timaada Golaha Amnigu waxay u baahan tahay in xubnaha golahaasi codeeyaan taasi oo ugu yaraan sagaal xubnood ogolaansho bixiyaan; kuwaasi oo aanay ku jirin Shanta Xubin ee joogtada ah. Ka dib, ogolaanshaha Golaha Amniga waa ineey ansixiyaan Golaha Sare, kuwaasi oo ugu yaraan labo meelood sadex meelood (2/3) codeeyaan ogolaansho.[18]

Sida saxda ah waxaa Qaramada Midoobay xubin ka noqon kara wadanada xorta ah oo kaliya, maantana dhamaan xubnuhu waa kuwo madax banaan.[19]

Xubnihii Lagu Bilaabay[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Maabka wadanada hada xubinta ka ah QM iyo taariikhd ku soo biireen.[20]
  1945 (xubnihii ugu horeeyay)
  1946–1959
  1960–1989
  1990–wakhti xaadirkan (hada)
  wadanada aan xubinta ahayn

Taariikh ahaan Qaramada Midoobay waxaa la aasaasay 24 Oktobat 1945 ka dib markii shanta Wadax ee Xubinta joogtada ah isku afgarteen Dastuurka Qaramada Midoobay. Wadanadaasi aasaaska ka qeyb qaatay waxay kala yihiin Shiinaha, Faransiiska, Ruushka, Boqortooyada Ingiriiska, iyo Maraykanka.[21]

Waaxyaha Qaramada Midoobay[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Ururka Qaramada Midoobay wuxuu leeyahay qeeybo, waaxyo, goleyaal, xubno, wakiilo, gudi iyo ururo aad u badan. Marka la soo ururiyo qeeybaha ugu sareeya ururku waa lix waaxood kuwaasi oo qabta shaqooyin kala duwan, isla markaana maamulo dhamaan xubnaha, wakiilada, barnaamijyada, haayadaha, ururada hoos yimaada Qaramada Midoobay. Kuwaasi oo kala ah: Golaha Sare; (t) Golaha Amniga; (j) Golaha Dhaqaalaha iyo Bulshada; (x) Golaha Kalsoonida (waaxdani ma shaqeeyso hada); (kh) Maxkamada Cadaalada Caalamiga; iyo (d) Golaha Xoghaynta.[22]

Golaha Sare[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Hoolka Golaha Sare Qaramada Midoobay Xarunta Sare QM, New York
Xubinimada iyo Ka Qeybqaadashada

Labo qoraal oo sharaxaya xubinimada iyo ka qeyb qaadashada shaqada Golaha Sare, fiiri:

Golaha Sare Qaramada Midoobay (Af-Ingiriis: United Nations General Assembly; Af-Carabi: الجمعية العامة للأمم المتحدة) (sida badan loo soo gaabiyo UNGA ama GA) waa xubin ka mid ah Lixda Xubnood Qaramada Midoobay iyo meesha kali ah ee dhamaan xubnaha Qaramada Midoobay ku leeyihiin wakiilo (dad matala).

Golahani wuxuu awood u leeyahay inuu xaqiijiyo kharashka ku shaqeeyso Qaramada Midoobay, u magaaco xubin aan joogto ahayn Golaha Amniga Qaramada Midoobay, ka helo warbixin dhamaan xubnaha, wakiilada, hayadaha iyo ururada Qaramada Midoobay isla markaana amar iyo talobixin siiyo ururadaasi.[23]

Golaha Amniga[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Qolka Golaha Amniga

Golaha Amniga Qaramada Midoobay (Af-Ingiriis: United Nations Security Council, loo soo gaabiyo: (UNSC); Af-Carabi: مجلس أمن الأمم المتحدة) waa xubin ka mid ah lixda xubin ugu sareeysa Ururka Qaramada Midoobay iyo waaxda masuulka ka ah amniga iyo nabada caalami ee aduunka, iyo xubinta u qaabilsan aqbalitaanka ka mid noqoshada Jimciyada Quruumaha Ka Dhaxaysa. Sidoo kale Golaha Amnigu wuxuu u qaabilsan yahay inuu socodsiiyo, fuliyo Sharciga Qaramada Midoobay.

Golaha Dhaqaalaha iyo Bulshada[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Fadhiga Golaha Dhaqaalaha iyo Bulshada QM. Xarunta Qaramada Midoobay, New York
Qaraarkii ECOSOC 2007/25: ku taageeraysay talaaboyinka dowladaha madaxa banaan.

Golaha Dhaqaalaha iyo Bulshada Qaramada Midoobay (Af-Ingiriis: United Nations Economic and Social Council; Af-Carabi: المجلس الاقتصادي والاجتماعي للأمم المتحدة) (loo soo gaabiyo: ECOSOC) waa xubin ka mid ah lixda xubin ugu sareeysa Ururka Qaramada Midoobay. Sidoo kale hayadani waxay ka masuul tagay iskuxidhka iyo maamulida dhaqaalaha, bulshada iyo wixii la xidhiidha ee 14 hay'ado wakiilo khaas u ah Qaramada Midoobay.

Golaha Dhaqaalaha iyo Bulshada Qaramada Midoobay wuxuu leeyahay 54 xubnood; kuwaasi oo yeesha hal kulan oo afar todobaad ah bisha Luuliyo halmar sanadkii si ay ugu arimiyaan howlaga loo igmaday.

Golaha Kalsoonida[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

fadhiga Golaha Kalsoonida
Dunida sanadkii 1945, xubnaha Golaha Kalsoonida QM waa midabka cagaaran.
Dunida sanadka 2010, ma lahan ddeegaano leh Golaha Kalsoonida

Golaha Kalsoonida Qaramada Midoobay (Af-Ingiriis: United Nations Trusteeship Council, loo soo gaabiyo: (UNTC); Af-Carabi: مجلس الوصاية التابع للأمم المتحدة) waa xubin ka mid ah xubnaha ugu muhiimsan Qaramada Midoobay taasi oo loo sameeyay si ay u caawiso maamulka iyo gacan ku haynta deegaanada lagu aaminay Qaramada Midoobay. Sidoo kale ula jeedada ururku wuxuu ahaa inuu gacan ka geysto maamulida deegaanada aan weli madaxbanaanida qaadan isla markaana hoostegin wadanadii gumeystaha, iyo inuu ilaaliyo xidhiidhka iyo nabada caalamiga ah.

Si kastaba ha ahaatee, Dagaalkii Labaad ee Aduunka wixii ka dambeeyay waxaa deegaano badan noqdeen wadano xor ah taasi oo meesha ka saartey farogelintii iyo maamulkii Golaha Kalsoonida Qaramada Midoobay.

Golaha Maxkamada Cadaalada[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Fadhiga Maxkamada Aduunka

Maxkamada Cadaalada Caalamka (Af-Ingiriis: International Court of Justice, loo soo gaabiyo: (ICJ); Af-Carabi: محكمة العدل الدولية) (sida caadiga ah loo yaqaano "Maxkamada Aduunka") waa waaxda koowaad QM|cadaalada Qaramada Midoobay]] taasi oo fadhigeedu yahay Dhismaha Nabada Heeg wadanka Holland. Shaqada ugu horeeysa ee hayadani waa ineey xaliso muranka xadadka iyo ilaaliso heshiisyada dhulka ee wadanada xubinta ka ah hayadani. Sidoo kale waxay talobixin siisaa Golaha Sare, hayadaha Qaramada Midoobay iyo wixii soo hoosgala.

Xoghaynta[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Xoghayaha hada jooga xafiiska mudane Ban ki moon

Golaha Xoghaynta Qaramada Midoobay (Af-Ingiriis: United Nations Secretariat; Af-Carabi: الأمانة العامة لهيئة الأمم المتحدة) waa xubin ka mid ah lixda waaxood ugu muhiimsan Qaramada Midoobay.[24] Hadaba Golaha Xoghayntu waa waaxda talogoynta Ururka Qaramada Midoobay.

Golaha Xoghayntu waxaa horsocda Xoghayaha Guud kaasi oo qabta shaqo aad u muhiim ah, sida go'aan goynta, diyaarinta qorshooyinka ururka iyo isku xidhka dhamaan waaxyaha Qaramada Midoobay.

Jagada Xoghayaha Guud waa hogaanka sare ee Golaha Xoghaynta Qaramada Midoobay, qeyb ka mid ah xubnaha ugu muhiimsan Qaramada Midoobay. Sidoo kale Xogahaya Guud ee Qaramada Midoobay waa afhayeenka iyo hogaanka guud ee Qaramada Midoobay.

Wakhti xaadirkan waxaa Xoghaye Guud ka ah Qaramada Midoobay Ban Ki-moon oo u dhashay wadanka Koonfur Kuuriya, kaasi oo xafiiska ku wareegay horaantii bishii Janaayo 2007. Jaale Banki Moon wuxuu xilku ka dhamaaday 31 Diisambar 2011, waxaana si muran la'aan au dib loogu doortay mar labaad 21 June 2011.[25]

Guud ahaan Ururka Qaramada Midoobay waxaa soo maray sideed xoghaye oo ka soo jeeda qaarado kala duwan ee caalamka.

Liiska Xoghayaha Talada Soo Qabtey[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Madax Kale[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Madaxweynaha Golaha Sare Qaramada Midoobay waa jago (boos) loo codeeyo qofka noqonaya madaxa sare ee Golaha Sare ee Qaramada Midoobay taasi oo dhacda halmar sanad kasta. Madaxweynaha la doorto wuxuu ka shaqeeyaa arimaha Golaha Sare oo kali ah. Wakhti xaadirkan (2015) waxaa madaxweyne u ah Golaha Sare Mogens Lykketoft oo dhashay wadanka Denmark. Mudane Lykketoft wuxuu ku soo baxay kalafadhigii codaynta madaxnimo ee 71aad, waxaana xafiiska lagu wareejiyay 15 Sebteember, 2015.[26][27]

Hay'adaha iyo Wakaaladaha[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Sidoo kale fiiri Liiska Hayadaha Qaramada Midoobay

Wakiilada Khaaska sidoo kale loo yaqaano Hay'ad Khaas waa ururo wakiil iskeed isku maamusha kuwaasi oo hoostaga Qaramada Midoobay iyo midba kooxda ay ku xidhan tahay ee dhaqaale iyo saamiyad la wadaagto iyo shaqo intaba. Inta ugu badan hayadaha u adeega Qaramada Midoobay waxay si toos ah ama dadban u hoostegaa xafiiska Golaha Dhaqaalaha iyo Bulshada Qaramada Midoobay halkaasi oo ay warbixin siiyaan ama ka warqaataan Xoghayaha Guud ee Waaxda Iskuxidhka.[28] Wakiilada khaaska ah waxay iskugu jiraan kuwo ay abuurtey Qaramada Midoobay iyo kuwo ururo kale sameeyeen laakiin waxay dhamaan ku shaqeeyaan nidaamka Qaramada Midoobay kaasi oo saldhig u yahay Dastuurka Qaramada Midoobay. Wakhti xaadirkan (2015) guud ahaan waxay Qaramada Midoobay leedahay 15 haayadood[29][30] khaas ah kuwaasi oo qabta shaqooyin kala duwan ayagoo matalata Qaramada Midoobay.

Hadaba 15ka wakiil khaaska ahi waa kuwan:[31]

Wakiilada QM iyo Ururo La Xidhiidha[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Tiro Astaan Magaca Loo soo gaabiyo Xarun sare La Aasaasay Wadanada Xubnaha Maabka iyo Tixraac
- Emblem of the United Nations.svg Ururka Qaramada Midoobay QM, UN Maraykanka, New York 1945 100px [1]
Wakiilada Khaaska
1 FAO logo.svg Ururka Cuntada iyo Dalaga FAO, UCD Talyaaniga, Roma 1945 FAO members and observers.png [2]
2 Flag of ICAO.svg Ururka Adeega Duulista Caalamiga ICAO Kanada, Montreal 1947 ICAO.png [3]
3 Kharashka Horumarinta Beeraha Caalamka IFAD Talyaaniga, Rome 1977 IFAD.png [4]
4 Flag of ILO.svg Ururka Shaqaalaha Aduunka ILO Switzerland, Jeniifa 1919 100px [5]
5 Flag of the International Maritime Organization.svg Ururka Badaha Aduunka IMO, UBA UK, London 1959 IMO Participation.svg [6]
6 Ururka Sicirka Lacagta Caalamka IMF Maraykanka, Washington, D.C. 1945 100px [7]
7 Midowga Isgaarsiinta Caalamiga ITU Switzerland, Jeniifa 1865 Member states of the International Telecommunication Union.png [8]
8 Flag of UNESCO.svg Ururka Waxbarashada, Sayniska iyo Dhaqanka UNESCO Faransiiska, Baaris 1946 UNESCO member states.png [9]
9 Machadka Cilmibaadhista Cadaada iyo Dabagalka Dambiyada UNIDO Usteeriya, Fiyenna 1985 100px [10]
10 Flag of UPU.svg Midoowga Adeega Boostada Caalamka UPU Switzerland, Bern 1874 100px [11]
11 World Bank logo.svg Bankiga Aduunka WBG USA, Washington, D.C. 1945 World Bank Group.png [12]
12 Flag of WHO.svg Ururka Caafimaadka Aduunka WHO Switzerland, Jeniifa 1948 World Health Organization membership status map.png [13]
13 Ururka Goaanka Mulkiyada Aduunka WIPO Switzerland, Geneva 1967 WIPO.png [14]
14 Flag of the World Meteorological Organization.svg Ururka Saadaasha Hawada Aduunka WMO Switzerland, Geneva 1950 WMO members states and territories.png [15]
15 Ururka Dalxiiska Dunida UNWTO Isbayn, Madrid 1974 UNWTO.png [16]
Ururo Kale La Xidhiidha
16 Ururka Diyaarinta Mamnuucida Tijaabinta Nukliyeerka CTBTO Prep Com Usteriya, Vienna 1996 CTBT Participation.svg [17]
17 Flag of IAEA.svg Wakaalada Awooda Atomik Aduunka IAEA Austria, Vienna 1957 IAEA member states.svg [18]
18 Ururka Mamnuucida Hubka Kimiko OPCW Holland, Heeg 1997 CWC Participation.svg [19]
19 Ururka Ganacsiga Aduunka WTO Switzerland, Jeniifa 1995 WTO members and observers.svg [20]

Qoraalo La Xidhiidha[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Tixraac[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

  1. Official Languages, www.un.org. Retrieved 22 May 2015.
  2. http://web.archive.org/web/20060927143158/http://www.wordorigins.org/wordoru.htm#united
  3. Townsend Hoopes and Douglas Brinkley, FDR and the Creation of the U.N. (1997) pp 1-55
  4. David Roll, The Hopkins Touch: Harry Hopkins and the Forging of the Alliance to Defeat Hitler (2013) pp 172-75
  5. Robert E. Sherwood, Roosevelt and Hopkins, An Intimate History (1948) pp 447-53
  6. Edmund Jan Osmańczyk (2003). Encyclopedia of the United Nations and International Agreements: T to Z. Taylor & Francis. p. 2445. http://books.google.com/books?id=6AB2CadyN7QC&pg=PA2445.
  7. Stephen C. Schlesinger, Act of creation: The founding of the United Nations: A story of superpowers, secret agents, wartime allies and enemies, and their quest for a peaceful world (2003)
  8. http://www.un.org/en/aboutun/history/dumbarton_yalta.shtml
  9. Robert C. Hilderbrand, Dumbarton Oaks: The Origins of the United Nations and the Search for Postwar Security (UNC Press, 2001)
  10. http://www.un.org/aboutun/sanfrancisco/history.html The 60th Anniversary of the San Francisco Conference
  11. http://www.un.org/depts/dhl/unms/founders.shtml
  12. "History of the United Nations 1941 - 1950". United Nations. http://www.un.org/en/aboutun/history/1941-1950.shtml. Retrieved 12 March 2015.
  13. "What is the Security Council?". United Nations. http://www.un.org/en/sc/about/. Retrieved 12 March 2015.
  14. http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F10813F7385E177B93C2A8178BD95F468585F9
  15. "The World". United Nations. http://www.un.org/Depts/Cartographic/map/profile/world.pdf. Waxaa jira deegaano Qaramada Midoobay aqoonsi siinin isla markaana faraha kula jirto maamulkooda ama korka kala socoto. Kuwaas waxaa ka mid ah: Caasimada Fatikan, Deegaanada Falastiin, Galbeedka Saxaraha, iyo Antarktika. Territories of states not recognized by the UN are not excluded due to the UN's position that they are part of some UN member state, including, for example, the territories governed by the Republic of China (Taiwan and other smaller islands), as the UN members voted to consider the People's Republic of China as the only lawful representative of China at the UN and the UN chooses not to question its claim that Taiwan is part of China.
  16. "What are Member States?". United Nations. http://www.un.org/depts/dhl/unms/whatisms.shtml.
  17. "Charter of the United Nations, Chapter II: Membership". United Nations. http://www.un.org/en/documents/charter/chapter2.shtml.
  18. "About UN Membership". United Nations. http://www.un.org/en/members/about.shtml.
  19. Toeplar, Stefan (2009). International Encyclopedia of Civil Society. p. 114.
  20. "Growth in United Nations membership, 1945–present". United Nations. http://www.un.org/en/members/growth.shtml.
  21. "History of the United Nations". United Nations. http://www.un.org/aboutun/unhistory/.
  22. Qeybaha Qaramada Midoobay"Main Organs". United Nations. http://www.un.org/en/sections/about-un/main-organs/index.html. Retrieved 9 April 2015.
  23. CHARTER OF THE UNITED NATIONS: Chapter IV. UN.org.
  24. Xoghayaha Qaramada Midoobay"UN Secretariat". United Nations. http://www.un.org/en/sections/about-un/secretariat/index.html. Retrieved 9 April 2015.
  25. "Ban Ki-moon wins second-term as UN Secretary General". BBC News. 21 June 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-13868655.
  26. "Danish parliament speaker to head UN General Assembly". Global Post. November 29, 2014. http://www.globalpost.com/dispatch/news/xinhua-news-agency/141128/danish-parliament-speaker-head-un-general-assembly. Retrieved December 17, 2014.
  27. "President Ashe meets with H.E. Mr. Mogens Lykketoft, Speaker of the Parliament of Denmark". Un.org. June 23, 2014. http://www.un.org/en/ga/president/68/news/6232014_speaker_denmark.shtml. Retrieved December 18, 2014.
  28. "The United Nations System". http://www.un.org/aboutun/chart_en.pdf.
  29. Template:Citeweb
  30. Eckart Klein: United Nations, Specialized Agencies, para.9. In: Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law.
  31. UN structure and organization, Specialized Agencies
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