Right- and left-hand traffic

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Countries by handedness of traffic, c. 2018
  Right-hand traffic
  Left-hand traffic
Change of traffic directions at the Thai–Lao Friendship Bridge
Hong Kong drives on the left.
Mainland China drives on the right.


Country Road traffic Road switched sides Multi-track rail traffic generally Notes
Afghanistan RHT RHT/LHT Was LHT until the 1950s, in line with neighbouring British India and later Pakistan.[1]
Albania RHT[2] RHT
Algeria RHT[2] RHT
Andorra RHT[2]
Angola RHT[2] 1928
Antigua and Barbuda LHT[2] Former British colony.
Argentina RHT 1945

10 June

LHT The anniversary on 10 June is still observed each year as Día de la Seguridad Vial (road safety day).[3]
The Premetro and Metrotranvía Mendoza use RHT.
Armenia RHT[2] RHT
Australia LHT LHT
Austria RHT 1921–1938 RHT[4] Originally LHT, like most of former Austria-Hungary. Switched sides in 1921 in Vorarlberg, 1930 in North Tyrol, 1935 in Carinthia and East Tyrol, and in 1938 in the rest of the country.
Azerbaijan RHT[2] RHT
Bahamas LHT[2] In Bahamas LHD vehicles are common due to the import of used cars from the United States.[5][6]
Bahrain RHT 1967 Former British protectorate. Switched to same side as neighbours.[7]
Bangladesh LHT[2] LHT
Barbados LHT
Belgium RHT[2] 1899 RHT
Belarus RHT[2] RHT
Belize RHT 1961[8] Former British colony. Switched to same side as neighbours.
Benin RHT[2]
Bhutan LHT[2] Under British protection before 1949.
Bolivia RHT[2]
Bosnia and Herzegovina RHT[2] 1918 RHT[9] Switched sides after the collapse of Austria-Hungary.
Botswana LHT[2]
Brazil RHT 1928[2] RHT A Portuguese colony until the early 19th century as LHT and retained it at least partially following independence, switched some states still on LHT to RHT in 1928, the same year as Portugal.[10][11] While some areas in present-day Brazil formerly belonged to Bolivia were already in RHT.
Brunei LHT[2]
Bulgaria RHT[2] RHT
Burkina Faso RHT[2]
Burundi RHT Former Belgian colony. Considering switching to LHT[12] in line with neighbours Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda.
Cambodia RHT LHT RHT implemented while part of French Indochina. RHD cars, many of which were smuggled from Thailand, were banned from 2001, even though they accounted for 80% of vehicles in the country.[13]
Cameroon RHT[2] 1961
Canada RHT 1920s RHT Territories now in Canada have always been RHT, except British Columbia, which changed to RHT in stages from 1920 to 1923,[14][15] and New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island which changed in 1922, 1923, and 1924 respectively.[16] Newfoundland and Labrador changed to RHT in 1947 while still a dominion of the British Empire, two years before joining Canada.[17]
Cape Verde RHT[2] 1928
Central African Republic RHT[2]
Chad RHT[2]
Chile RHT[2] 1920s LHT The Santiago Metro uses RHT.
China RHT 1946 RHT/LHT At one time, northern provinces were RHT due to American influence, while southern provinces were LHT due to British influence. LHT was uniform in the 1930s. Hong Kong and Macau are all on LHT due to their colonial heritage. Most metro systems use RHT, except for the Hong Kong MTR and the Macau LRT.
Colombia RHT[2] RHT
Comoros RHT[2]
Congo RHT[2]
Democratic Republic of Congo RHT[2]
Costa Rica RHT[2]
Côte d'Ivoire RHT[2]
Croatia RHT[2] RHT Istria and Dalmatia were RHT, while Croatia-Slavonia was LHT when Croatia was part of Austria-Hungary[18]. The LHT regions switched to RHT on joining the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.
Cuba RHT[2] RHT
Cyprus LHT[2] Former British colony.
Czech Republic RHT[2] 1939 RHT Was LHT, like most of former Austria-Hungary, switched during the German occupation of Czechoslovakia.
Denmark RHT RHT[19] Includes Faroe Islands and Greenland
Djibouti RHT[2]
Dominica LHT[2] Former British colony.
Dominican Republic RHT[2]
East Timor LHT 1976 Originally LHT, like its colonial power Portugal. Switched to RHT with Portugal in 1928.[8] Under the Indonesian occupation of East Timor, changed back to LHT in 1976.
Ecuador RHT[2] LHT The Quito Metro and Cuenca tram system will use RHT.
Egypt RHT[2] LHT Road vehicles are RHT due to French influence, but railway system was built by British companies.
El Salvador RHT[2]
Equatorial Guinea RHT[2]
Eritrea RHT[2] 1964
Estonia RHT[2] RHT
Ethiopia RHT[2] 1964 LHT The Addis Ababa Light Rail uses RHT.
Fiji LHT LHT
Finland RHT 1858 RHT/LHT Formerly ruled as part of LHT Sweden, switched to RHT as the Grand Duchy of Finland by Russian decree.[20] Most of the Helsinki commuter rail lines use LHT, but the Helsinki Metro uses RHT.
France RHT 1792 LHT[21]/RHT Includes French Polynesia, New Caledonia, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Wallis and Futuna, French Guiana, Réunion, Saint Barthélemy, Collectivity of Saint Martin, Guadeloupe, Mayotte.
Railroads in Alsace and Moselle use RHT as a former part of German Empire. CDGVAL uses RHT. Most metro systems use RHT, except for the Lyon Metro.
Gabon RHT[2]
Gambia RHT 1965[22]
Georgia RHT[2] RHT About 40% vehicles in Georgia are RHD due to the low cost of used cars imported from Japan[23]. The Batumi Ropeway uses LHT.
Germany RHT[24] RHT
Ghana RHT 1974[25] Former British colony. Ghana changed to driving on the right on 4 August 1974, the last former British colony in the region to do so, the military National Redemption Council having passed the Right Hand Traffic Act by decree in 1973.[26] When changing to RHT, a Twi language slogan was "Nifa, Nifa Enan" or "Right, Right, Fourth".[27]Ghana has also banned RHD vehicles. Ghana prohibited new registrations of RHD vehicles after 1 August 1974, three days before the traffic change on 4 August 1974. RHD vehicles may be imported only temporarily into Sierra Leone, for example for humanitarian programmes, but must be exported at the end of the operation.
Greece RHT[2] RHT
Grenada LHT[2]
Guatemala RHT[2]
Guinea RHT[2]
Guinea-Bissau RHT[2] 1928
Guyana LHT[2]
Haiti RHT[2]
Honduras RHT[2]
Hong Kong LHT[2] LHT Former British Colony.
Hungary RHT[2] 1941 RHT Originally LHT, like most of Austria-Hungary.
Iceland RHT 1968 The day of the switch was known as H-dagurinn. Most passenger cars were already LHD.
Iran RHT[2] RHT
Iraq RHT[2] LHT
India LHT[2] LHT Former British colony.
Indonesia LHT[28] RHT[29] Roads were built by the British, but railways are RHT due to Dutch influence. The Jakarta MRT will also use RHT.
Ireland LHT[2] LHT Part of the United Kingdom until 1922.
Israel RHT[2] LHT Under British rule till 1948; The Jerusalem Light Rail uses RHT.
Italy RHT 1920s LHT Until 1927 the countryside was RHT while cities were LHT.[30] Rome changed to RHT in 1924 and Milan in 1926. Alfa Romeo and Lancia did produce LHD cars until as late as 1950 and 1953 respectively only to special order, as many drivers favoured the RHD layout even in RHT as this offered the driver a clearer view of the edge of the road in mountainous regions at a time when many such roads lacked barriers or walls.[31]
The metro systems in Brescia, Genoa, Milan, and Turin use RHT, as well as all tram systems.
Jamaica LHT[2]
Japan LHT[32] LHT Post-World War II Okinawa was ruled by the United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands and was RHT. It was returned to Japan in 1972 but did not convert back to LHT until 1978.[33] The conversion operation was known as 730 (Nana-San-Maru, which refers to the date of the changeover, 30 July). Okinawa is one of few places to have changed from RHT to LHT in the late 20th century. The Hakone Ropeway uses RHT.
Jordan RHT[2] RHT, despite the Mandate for Palestine and the Transjordan memorandum being under British rule till 1946.
Kazakhstan RHT[2] RHT
Kenya LHT[34] British colony until 1963.
Kiribati LHT[2]
North Korea RHT 1946 LHT/RHT Korea had been LHT because of the influence of Japan in the 1900s. Switched to RHT under Soviet and American occupation after 1945.
The metro system in Pyongyang uses a mixture of RHT and LHT.
South Korea RHT 1946 LHT/RHT Korea had been LHT because of the influence of Japan in the 1900s. Switched to RHT under Soviet and American occupation after 1945.
Most metro systems in South Korea use RHT (exceptions include lines 1 and 4 of the Seoul Metropolitan Subway, the Bundang Line, and the Shinbundang Line).
Kosovo RHT RHT
Kuwait RHT[2]
Kyrgyzstan RHT RHT Former part of RHT Soviet Union. In 2012, over 20,000 cheaper used RHD cars were imported from Japan.[35]
Laos RHT[2] LHT RHT implemented while part of French Indochina.
Latvia RHT[2] RHT
Lebanon RHT[2] Former French mandate.
Lesotho LHT[2]
Liberia RHT[2]
Libya RHT[2]
Liechtenstein RHT[2] RHT
Lithuania RHT[2] RHT
Luxembourg RHT[2] RHT
Macedonia RHT[2] RHT
Madagascar RHT[2]
Malawi LHT[2] Former British colony.
Malaysia LHT[2] LHT Former British colony.
Maldives LHT[2] Former British colony.
Mali RHT[2]
Malta LHT[2] British colony until 1964.
Marshall Islands RHT[2] Was being under American rule.
Mauritania RHT Mining roads between Fderîck and Zouérat are LHT.[36]
Mauritius LHT[2] Former British colony. Island nation.
Mexico RHT[2] RHT
Micronesia RHT[2] Was being under American rule. Nearly 80% vehicles are RHD due to the import of used cars from Japan.
Moldova RHT[2] RHT
Monaco RHT[2] LHT
Mongolia RHT[2] RHT
Montenegro RHT[2] RHT
Morocco RHT[2] RHT
Mozambique LHT[37] LHT
Myanmar RHT 1970 LHT Much of infrastructure still geared to LHT, most cars are used RHD vehicles, imported from Japan.[38]
Netherlands RHT 1906[39] RHT Rotterdam was LHT until 1917.[40] Includes Curaçao, Sint Maarten, and Aruba
Namibia LHT 1918 RHT as a German colony. After South Africa occupied German South-West Africa during World War I, switched to LHT.[8] South-West Africa was made a South African mandate by the League of Nations, and the new rule of the road was established in law.[41]
Nauru LHT[2] 1918
Nepal LHT[42]
New Zealand LHT[28] LHT Includes territories Niue and Cook Islands
Nicaragua RHT[2]
Niger RHT[2]
Nigeria RHT 1972[43] LHT Former British colony. Switched to RHT as it is surrounded by former French RHT colonies. Federal Road Safety Commission (FRSC) warned operators of RHD vehicles that they would face prosecution[44] under Section 71 of the National Road Traffic Regulation (2004), which states that no RHD vehicle shall be registered or driven on public roads.[45]
Norway RHT[2] RHT
Oman RHT Not a party to the Vienna Convention on Road Traffic and bans all foreign-registered RHD vehicles.[46]
Pakistan LHT[2] LHT Was part of undivided India
Palau RHT[2] Most cars are used RHD vehicles, imported from Japan because it's a second Japanese-speaking country.
Palestine RHT[2]
Panama RHT 1943[47] RHT
Papua New Guinea LHT[2] After Australia occupied German New Guinea during World War I, switched to LHT.
Paraguay RHT 1945[48]
Peru RHT[2] LHT
Philippines RHT 1946[49] RHT Was LHT during the Spanish and American colonial periods. Switched to RHT during Battle of Manila in 1945.
Poland RHT RHT Partitions of Poland belonging to the German Empire and the Russian Empire were RHT. Partitions that were part of Austria-Hungary were LHT and changed to RHT in the 1920s.[50]
Portugal RHT[28] 1928 LHT Colonies Goa, Macau and Mozambique, which had land borders with LHT countries, did not switch and continue to drive on the left.[37] The Porto Metro uses RHT.
Qatar RHT[2]
Romania RHT[2] RHT Transylvania, the Banat and Bukovina were until 1919 LHT like most of former Austria-Hungary, while Wallachia and Moldavia were already RHT.
Russia RHT[2] RHT In the Russian Far East RHD vehicles are common due to the import of used cars from nearby Japan.[51] Railway between Moscow and Ryazan is LHT. Sormovskaya line in Nizhny Novgorod Metro also uses LHT.
Rwanda RHT[12] Former Belgian mandate. Considering switching to LHT[12][52] like its neighbours Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda.
Saint Kitts and Nevis LHT Former British colony.
Saint Lucia LHT Former British colony.
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines LHT Former British colony.
Samoa LHT 2009 Switched to LHT to allow the import of cars more cheaply from Australia, New Zealand and Japan.[28]
San Marino RHT[2]
São Tomé and Príncipe RHT[2] 1928
Saudi Arabia RHT[2] LHT The Makkah Metro and the Riyadh Metro use RHT.
Senegal RHT[2]
Serbia RHT[2] RHT Vojvodina was LHT while part of Austria-Hungary.
Seychelles LHT[2] Former British colony. Island nation.
Sierra Leone RHT 1971[53] Importation of RHD vehicles was banned in 2013.[54]
Singapore LHT[2] LHT Former British colony.
Slovakia RHT[2] 1939–41 RHT Was LHT like most of former Austria-Hungary. Switched to RHT when it became a client state of Nazi Germany.
Slovenia RHT[2] LHT Was LHT like most of Austria-Hungary. Switched to RHT to unite with Croatia-Slavonia, Dalmatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia and Montenegro to form with Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.
Solomon Islands LHT[2]
Somalia RHT 1968[55]
South Africa LHT[56][57] LHT Former British colony.
South Sudan RHT 1973 Was LHT during the period of British colonial rule. Split from Sudan in 2011 after the majority of the population voted for independence.
Spain RHT 1924 RHT Up to the 1920s Barcelona was RHT, and Madrid was LHT until 1924. The Madrid and Bilbao metro systems use LHT.[58]
Sri Lanka LHT[2] LHT Former British colony.
Sudan RHT[2] 1973 Former British colony.
Suriname LHT[2] 1920s
Swaziland LHT[2]
Sweden RHT[2] 1967

3 September

LHT The day of the switch was known as Dagen H. Most passenger cars were already LHD. The tram systems in Gothenburg (except for a short part), Norrköping and Stockholm are RHT.[59] The railroads in Malmö use RHT due to the connection to Denmark.
Switzerland RHT[2] LHT The tram system in Zurich and the Lausanne Metro use RHT.
Syria RHT[2]
Taiwan RHT 1946 LHT Was LHT during the period of Japanese rule. The government of the Republic of China changed Taiwan to RHT in 1946 along with the rest of China.[60] Most metro systems use RHT.
Tajikistan RHT[2] RHT
Tanzania LHT[2]
Thailand LHT[28] LHT One of the few LHT countries not a former British colony. Shares long land border with RHT Laos and Cambodia.
Togo RHT[2]
Tonga LHT[2]
Trinidad and Tobago LHT[61] Former British colony.
Tunisia RHT[2] LHT French RHT was enforced in the French protectorate of Tunisia from 1881.
Turkey RHT[2] RHT
Turkmenistan RHT[2] RHT
Tuvalu LHT[2] Former British colony.
Uganda LHT[2]
Ukraine RHT 1922[50] RHT West Ukraine was LHT, like most of former Austria-Hungary. Carpathian Ruthenia remained LHT as part of Czechoslovakia before switching in 1941 as part of Hungary. The rest of Ukraine, having been part of the Russian Empire, already drove on the right.
Some sections of Kryvyi Rih Metrotram use LHT due to tramcars have doors only on right side, which makes it impossible to use RHT at stations with island platforms.[62]
United Arab Emirates RHT[2] RHT
United Kingdom LHT
(Mainland UK)
RHT
(Gibraltar, British Indian Ocean Territory)
1929
(in Gibraltar)
LHT Includes Crown Dependencies and Overseas Territories Isle of Man, Guernsey, Jersey, Anguilla, Bermuda, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands, Montserrat, Pitcairn Islands (unregistered), Turks and Caicos Islands, Saint Helena, Ascension, Tristan da Cunha are all LHT. Gibraltar has been RHT since 1929 because of its land border with Spain.[63] The British Indian Ocean Territory is the only other overseas territory driving on the right. The Channel Islands (Jersey and Guernsey) drove on the right under German occupation until their liberation in 1945.[64] The Falkland Islands similarly drove on the right during their occupation by Argentina in 1982.[65]However, virtually all passenger vehicles in British Virgin Islands are LHD due to grey imports of used cars from USA and South Korea.
United States RHT
LHT
(U.S. Virgin Islands)
RHT/LHT[66] Includes American Samoa, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico. U.S. Virgin Islands is LHT, like much of the Caribbean, as the only American jurisdiction that still has LHT, because the islands drove on the left when the United States purchased the former Danish West Indies from Denmark in 1917. However, virtually all passenger vehicles are LHD due to imports of US vehicles.
Uruguay RHT 1945[67] LHT Became LHT in 1918, but as in some other countries in South America, changed to RHT on 2 September 1945.[67] A speed limit of 30 km/h (19 mph) was observed until 30 September for safety.
Uzbekistan RHT[2] RHT
Vanuatu RHT[68]
Venezuela RHT[2] LHT The Caracas Metro uses RHT.
Vietnam RHT[2] LHT Became RHT as French Indochina.
Yemen RHT 1977[8] South Yemen, formerly the British colony of Aden, changed to RHT in 1977. A series of postage stamps commemorating the event was issued.[69] North Yemen was already RHT.
Zambia LHT[2]
Zimbabwe LHT LHT Former British colony. In 2010 the government attempted to ban LHD vehicles.[70]
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