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U bood: gooshitaan, raadi

ORIGINS, MIGRATIONS, AND SETTLEMENT

A paucity of written historical evidence forces the student of early Somalia to depend on the findings of archeology, anthropology, historical linguistics, and related disciplines. Such evidence has provided insights that in some cases have refuted conventional explanations of the origins and evolution of the Somali people. For example, where historians once believed that the Somalia originated on the Red Sea's western coast, or perhaps in southern Arabia, it now seems clear that the ancestral homeland of the Somalis, together with affiliated Cushite peoples, was in the highlands of southern Ethiopia, specifically in the lake regions. Similarly, the once-common notion that the migration and settlement of early Mus,lims followers of the Prophet Muhammad on the Somali coast in the early centuries of Islam had a significant impact on the Somalis no longer enjoys much academic support. Scholars now recognize that the Arab factor--except for the Somalis' conversion to Islam--is marginal to understanding the Somali past. Furthermore, conventional wisdom once held that Somali migrations followed a north-to-south route; the reverse of this now appears to be nearer the truth. Increasingly, evidence places the Somalis within a wide family of peoples called Eastern Cushites by modern linguists and described earlier in some instances as Hamites. From a broader cultural-linguistic perspective, the Cushite family belongs to a vast stock of languages and peoples considered Afro-Asiatic. Afro-Asiatic languages in turn include Cushitic (principally Somali, Oromo, and Afar), the Hausa language of Nigeria, and the Semitic languages of Arabic, Hebrew, and Amharic. Medieval Arabs referred to the Eastern Cushites as the Berberi. In addition to the Somalis, the Cushites include the largely nomadic Afar (Danakil), who straddle the Great Rift Valley between Ethiopia and Djibouti; the Oromo, who have played such a large role in Ethiopian history and in the 1990s constituted roughly one-half of the Ethiopian population and were also numerous in northern Kenya; the Reendille (Rendilli) of Kenya; and the Aweera (Boni) along the Lamu coast in Kenya. The Somalis belong to a subbranch of the Cushites, the Omo-Tana group, whose languages are almost mutually intelligible. The original home of the Omo-Tana group appears to have been on the Omo and Tana rivers, in an area extending from Lake Turkana in present-day northern Kenya to the Indian Ocean coast. The Somalis form a subgroup of the Omo-Tana called Sam. Having split from the main stream of Cushite peoples about the first half of the first millennium B.C., the proto-Sam appear to have spread to the grazing plains of northern Kenya, where protoSam communities seem to have followed the Tana River and to have reached the Indian Ocean coast well before the first century A.D. On the coast, the proto-Sam splintered further; one group (the Boni) remained on the Lamu Archipelago, and the other moved northward to populate southern Somalia. There the group's members eventually developed a mixed economy based on farming and animal husbandry, a mode of life still common in southern Somalia. Members of the proto-Sam who came to occupy the Somali Peninsula were known as the so-called Samaale, or Somaal, a clear reference to the mythical father figure of the main Somali clan-families, whose name gave rise to the term Somali. The Samaale again moved farther north in search of water and pasturelands. They swept into the vast Ogaden (Ogaadeen) plains, reaching the southern shore of the Red Sea by the first century A.D. German scholar Bernd Heine, who wrote in the 1970s on early Somali history, observed that the Samaale had occupied the entire Horn of Africa by approximately 100 A.D.


The Ancient Religions of Eebe Waaq ( Dhaqankii Eebe-Waaq)

The Old Religion Religion in arabic is call (Diin) and in old somali is call ( Dhaqan) The Somali people in pre-islamic times practiced a complex Monotheistic religion with a set of Deities superseded by a single all powerful figure called Eebe (God also known as Waaq). The Equillibrium of the Universe in Somali Mythology was tied with the Love (Gacal ) and between the beloved (Gacalo).or the sky Bull and the Cow The Universe was said to balance itself on the horns of a The Love and the Beloved or Waaq and Eebe so the Bull and the cow of the sky a beast forever staring at the cow tied to a pole in front of him. Whenever his love turned her eyes away from the Bull, it would result in a physical shift that caused natural disasters on Earth Religious temples were called (Xeero) dating from antiquity known as Taalo were the centers where important ceremonies were held led by a (Wadaad) the priest .

Major Deities

Eebe Eebe is the Somali word for God and was synonymously used for the ancient Cushitic Sky God Waaq. According to Somali Legend Eebe lived in the Heavens and whenever the Somalis successfully prayed for rain it was known as Bar-waaqo (God's rain) Ayaanle The Ayaanle in Ancient Somalia were known as the good spirits or Angels and acted as mediators between God Eebe ) and Humans. They were said to be bringers of luck and Blessings from Eebe in somali what they call today is Ayaanlayaal Huur Huur or Xuur was the messenger of Death and had the form of a large bird. The deity was akin to Waaq of and played a similar role in the ancient Somali society. Nidar Nidar was the righter of wrong. He was considered the champion of those that were exploited by their fellow humans. The deity has survived in modern Somalia as a popular saying; Nidar Ba Ku Heli ("Nidar will find and Punish you")

Ancient Tomps and temples

Many Regions of Ancient somalia had cities or specific areas whose names corroborate the stories told in Somali old Religion and the mythology. Places such as Abud waq, Ceel waq , Digil waq and so on another similar towns with the name Waq in it indicate a relation to the old religion practiced in the Somali peninsula . The Tomb of Arraweello (Taalo araweelo) is another popular mythological place in Somalia said to be the final resting place of Queen Arraweello. In modern times it's considered an important place for women. Ancient Mythology

Habbad ina Kamas Habbad ina Kamas was a legendary cruel giant who ruled half of Ancient Somalia. His oppressive rule was the complete opposite to the kindness and care that was bestowed upon the other half of the land ruled by the giant Biriir ina Barqo. He was defeated and killed in battle by Biriir when he found out about the abuse and neglect through the mouths of his human subjects. Biriir ina Barqo Biriir ina Barqo was a legendary heroic Giant in Ancient Somalia known for his just rule and kindness. He lived in a cave called Shimbiraale(the cave of birds) and used to wear a heavy ring that no man could lift. He answered the pleas of those suffering under the rule of the giant called Habbad and defeated him in battle. He then united the two lands and ushered in a long period of peace. Qori ismaris Qori ismaris was a man who could transform himself into a Hyenaman by rubbing himself with a magic stick at nightfall and by repeating this process could return to his human state before dawn. Dhegdheer Dhegdheer was a female cannibalistic demon who hunted in Somali forests, her victims were usually wandering or lost (Wadad) the Ancient somali doctor and the Priest: The ancient somalis had a very modified religious systems call (Dhaqan Eebe-Waaq), for example with reference to the social significance of Bari (pray) and Bar-waaqo ( a gift from God ) . Bar-waaqo was considered a gift from God to the founders and heads of the ancient Wadaads of somalia orders. It is likewise associated with major Gods Tole and Tin-cire and their clan genealogies. The ancient somali Wadaad has power to bless, but his Bari may have potentially dangerous side effects. His curse(yua'sho) is greatly feared, and his power may harm others. When a wadaad leader visits the leader of another clan, the host's relative receives him first to draw off some of the visitor's power so that his own chief may not be injured.

the Wadaad and the Ancient Somali Astronomy:

The traditional learning of a wadaad includes a form of folk astronomy based on stellar movements and related to seasonal changes. Its primary objective is to signal the times for migration, but it may also be used to set the dates of rituals that are specifically for the ancient Somali. This folk knowledge is also used in ritual methods of healing and averting misfortune, as well as for divination. Wadaddo - help avert misfortune by making protective amulets and charms that transmit some of their Baryo (blessings) to others, or by adding the some kind of ancient writings to the amulet (Xirsi-xir) through a written passage. The Baryo or the Yu'asho of a wadaad may be obtained in the form of an object that has touched or been placed near his tomb (taalo) Although wadaddo may use their power to curse as a sanction, misfortune generally is not attributed to curses or witchcraft. the ancient Somalis have accepted the most of these views that a man's conduct will be judged in an afterlife by Eebe However, a person who commits an antisocial act, such as patricide, is thought possessed of supernatural evil powers (Nidir) Wadaad the Doctor . Certain kinds of illness, including tuberculosis and pneumonia, or symptoms such as sneezing, coughing, vomiting, and loss of consciousness, are believed to result from spirit possession call the (Nidir), namely, the wadaddo of the spirit (Ayaanlayaal ) world. The condition is treated by a human wadad, preferably one who has himself recovered from the sickness. He used to read a portions of the Faal (this was the ancient somali Book of spirits) over the patient and bathes him with perfume, which in Somalia is associated with religious celebrations.(Istunka and Bar-waaqoda ) In the case of possession by the zar, a spirit, the ceremony of exorcism used to treat it is sometimes referred to as the "zar cult." (Mingis) The victims are women with grievances against their husbands. The symptoms are extreme forms of hysteria and fainting fits. The zar exorcism ritual is conducted by a woman who has had the affliction and thus supposedly has some authority over the spirit. The ritual consists of a special dance in which the victim tends to reproduce the symptoms and fall into a trance. The "illness" enables a disgruntled wife to express her hostility without actually quarreling with her husband. A third kind of spirit possession is known as Mingis (entering), in which the spirit of an injured person troubles the offender. A jilted girl, for example, cannot openly complain if a promise of marriage arranged by the respective families has been broken. Her spirit, however, entering the young man who was supposed to marry her and stating the grievance, causes him to fall ill. The exorcism consists of readings from the Faal and commands from a wadad that the spirit leave the afflicted person. Gelid-mingis is also thought to be caused by the curse or evil power of a helpless person who has been injured. The underlying notion is that those who are weak in worldly matters are mystically endowed. Such persons are supposed to be under the special protection from Eebe, and kind acts toward them bring religious merit, whereas unkind acts bring punishment. The evil eye, too, is associated with unfortunates, especially women. Thus, members of the Yibir and the Yixir tribes the numerically smallest and weakest of the special occupation groups and traditionally the lowliest socially, are the most feared for their supernatural powers. Ancient Somalis also used in rituals that derive from in some cases resemble those of other Eastern Cushitic-speaking peoples. Perhaps the most important of these rituals are the annual celebrations of the clan ancestor among northern Somalis - an expression of their solidarity - and the collective rainmaking ritual (roobdoon) performed by sedentary groups in the south.

By Mo bihi London UK