DNA

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DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) waxey ka kooban tahy Sokor 5 jibaaran ee laga yareeyey oksojiin Fosfat Kaydka guud: Labo(Purines) Adenine waxaa loo soo gaabiyaa (A) Guanine Waxaa loo soo gaabiyaa (G) Labo(Pyrimidines): Thymine waxaa loo soo gaabiyaa (T) Cytosine waxaa loo soo gaabiyaa (C) Qaab dhismeedka qayb ka mid ah helida laba xabbo DNA ah DNA (DNA) waa molecule oo ka kooban laba silsiladood (oo laga sameeyey nucleotid) oo isku xira si ay u sameeyaan helida laba xabbadood oo hirgeliya tilmaamaha hidaha ee loo isticmaalo koritaanka, kobcinta, shaqada iyo taranka dhammaan noolaha nool ee loo yaqaan iyo fayrasyo ​​fara badan. DNA iyo ribonucleic acid (RNA) waa acids nucleic; marka la barbar dhigo borotiinka, lipids iyo carbohydrateska adag (polysaccharides), asiidhooyinka nucleiciga ah waa mid ka mid ah afarta nooc ee macromolecules kuwaas oo muhiim u ah dhammaan noocyada nolosha ee la yaqaan.

Labada qaybood ee DNA ayaa sidoo kale loo yaqaannaa polynucleotides tan iyo markii ay ka kooban yihiin unugyo monomeric fudud oo la yiraahdo nucleotides. [2] [3] Nucleotide kasta wuxuu ka kooban yahay mid ka mid ah afar nukleobasiyam oo nitrogen ah (cytosine [C], guanine [G], adenine [A] ama thymine [T]), sonkor loo yaqaanno deoxyribose, iyo koox fosfate ah. Nucleotides ayaa isku xidhaya silsilad isku xiran oo ah sonkorta hal nukleotide iyo phosphate ee soo socda, taasoo keentay lafo-sonkor ah sonkorta-fosfat. Saldhigyada nitrogenous ee labada qaybood ee kala duwan ee polynucleotide ayaa isku xiran, sida waafaqsan shuruucda xajinta (A oo leh T iyo C oo leh G), oo leh cirbadaha hydrogen si loo sameeyo DNA laba jajaban.

Saldhigyada nitrogenous ee isku dhafan ayaa loo qaybiyaa laba kooxood, pyrimidines iyo nadiifin. DNA-da, pyrimidines waa thymine iyo cytosine; nadiifinta waa adenine iyo guanine.

DNA-du waxay kaydisaa macluumaadka bayoolojiga. Lafaha DNA wuxuu u adkaysanayaa kala-tagista, labada dhinac ee dhismaha labadaba waxay ku kaydiyaan macluumaadka bayoolojiga ah. Macluumaadkani waxaa lagu soo lifaaqay sida iyo marka labadoodu kala gooni yihiin. Qeyb weyn oo DNA ah (in ka badan 98% bini'aadamku) waa mid aan codeynin, taasoo micnaheedu yahay in qaybahan aanay u adeegsanayn qaababka isdaba-marinta borotiinka.

Labada qaybood ee DNA waxay ku socdaan jihooyinka ka soo horjeeda isla markaana ay yihiin antiparallel. Ku xiran sonkor kasta wuxuu ka mid yahay afar nooc oo nucleobase ah (si aan rasmi ahayn, saldhigyada). Waa taxanaha afarta nukleobases ee ku jira laf-dhabarka kaas oo xareeya macluumaadka hidda. Noocyada RNA waxaa la abuuraa iyadoo la adeegsanayo xeeladaha DNA sida qaab-dhismeed oo loo yaqaan 'transcription'. Xeerka hiddo-wadaha, xarigaha RNA-ka ayaa loo turjumay si loo cayimo taxanaha amino acids ee borotiinka ee habka loo yaqaan tarjumaadda.

Unugyada eukaryotiga ah, DNA waxaa loo qaabeeyaa qaab dhismeed dheer oo loo yaqaan 'chromosomes'. Ka hor inta aan la qaybin qaybta unugyada ee unugyadaas, bukaanku waxa lagu kala qaybiyaa habka DNA-ga, oo bixiya dhammaan qaybaha koromosoomyada ee gabadh kasta. Cudurka Eukaryotic (