Shariicada

Ka Wikipedia
(Waxaa laga soo toosiyay Shareecada)

Shareecada ( شَرِيعَة , şarīʿa ) waa wadarta xeerar diini ah oo ay sameysteen fikrado (istinbat) oo ah heerka culimada ( Fukaha ) ee aayadaha quraanka iyo qawlka iyo camalka Muxammad. Koorsada taariikhiga ah, waxaa soo baxay firqooyin fiqhi ah oo ka tarjumaya rabitaanka bulshooyinka qaarkood iyo maamullada dowliga ah iyaga oo wakiil ka ah kuwa xiiseeya aragtida ( habka ) iyo ku dhaqanka ficilka ah ( furu/fatwa ) ee cilmiga sharciga iyo xeerarka. Shareecadu weligood may ahayn nidaam sharci oo sharci ah oo iskeed ah, waxaa lagu wada isticmaalay "sharciga caadiga ah" oo ka bilaabmaya xilligii Umawiyiinta.[1]

"Qeybta xiriirka dadka dhexdooda" ee shareecada ayaa bilowday in lagu soo bandhigo magac cusub oo ah " Xaquuqda Islaamka " laga soo bilaabo 1850-meeyadii.[2] Inkasta oo doodaha la midka ah lagu isticmaalo shareecada Islaamka waqti ka waqti iyadoo la raacayo qaanuunka casriga ah, waxaa jira farqi aasaasi ah oo u dhexeeya. Sida doodda sharciga ah ee Islaamka, xaq, kaas oo dadka ka mamnuucaya inay galaan midba midka kale ee maaddada iyo beeraha ruuxiga ah, iyo cadaaladda, oo ay ku jiraan daaweynta dheellitirka ah ee kooxda hoose ee dadka ee maamulka sare, ayaa la keenay.[3] Madaxdu waa in ay si cadaalad ah dadka ula dhaqmaan, shacabkuna ay adeecaan hoggaamiyaha.[4] Waa laga doodi karaa in la addeeco kan ka sarreeya ee caddaaladda ka leexda.[5] Intaa waxaa dheer, fahamkaas, dadku waxay noqonayaan addoomo Eebbe (Ibadullaahi), oo xitaa haddii shareecadu u baahan tahay in si caddaalad ah loola dhaqmo (sida kala soocidda ragga iyo dumarka, addoonta iyo sayidyada) uma baahna in si siman loola dhaqmo. Waxa laga yaabaa in waxa ugu muhiimsan ee ay ku kala duwan yihiin shareecada iyo qaanuunka casriga ahi ay tahay in aanay jirin wax fikrad ah oo ku saabsan xoriyadda shakhsiga ah ee fahamka shareecada, taas oo ka soo horjeeda fikradda xuquuqda aadanaha ee qaanuunka casriga ah, kaas oo lagu soo saaray in dadku siman yihiin iyo shaqsiyaadka xorta ah. Fikradda ikhtiyaarka xorta ah, oo inta badan loo isticmaalo suugaanta diinta iyo khudbadaha, laguma arko macnaha guud ee nolol maalmeedka iyo dookhyada, laakiin doodaha falsafada ee macnaha guud ee mas'uuliyadda adduunyada kale ee bani'aadamka ee ka dhanka ah qaddarka. Sida nooc ka mid ah jihaadka, isticmaalka xoogga looma tixgalinayo xad-gudub ku ah xuquuqda shakhsiga, xitaa haddii ay u baahan tahay in la galo meelaha gaarka ah ee dadka sida guriga, dharka, jidhka iyo cibaadada -aaminta xaaladaha lagu qeexay "xun" ee shareecada.[6] [7] [8]

Ku dhaqanka Shareecada Afgaanistaan : Muuqaal si qarsoodi ah u duubay Ururka Haweenka Kacaanka Agoosto 26, 2001. Haweeneyda ayaa lagu ciqaabaa ul meel fagaare ah oo ay ku sugan tahay booliska diinta, kuwaas oo u xilsaaran faragelinta wanaagga iyo ka reebista xumaanta, marka ay muujiso indhaheeda (wajigeeda).

Waxa kale oo khalad ah in loo malaynayo in shareecadu, dood diineed ahaan, ay gebi ahaanba la xidhiidho ama ku dhex jirto amarrada iyo xaaraanta Alle.Tusaale ahaan, "ciqaabta tazir" iyo "dhagax-dhagax" ayaa lagu tirin karaa xadkan.[9]

Xilligan casriga ah, ururada argagixisada ah ee asaasiga ah iyo Islaamiyiinta casriga ah waxay ku taliyeen fulinta tafsiirkooda shareecada, iyagoo isticmaalaya urur diimeed-siyaasadeed-argagixiso iyo habab kala duwan oo dacaayad ah. Dhanka kale waxaa doodda ku soo biiray Muslimiinta Qur'aanka ah iyagoo u arkayay in qodobbadaasi ay leeyihiin astaamo taariikhi ah, loona baahan yahay in laga tago. [10]

Wadamada ku dhaqma shareecada islaamka ayaa la kulma dhaleecayn xoogan oo kaga imaanaya ururada caalamiga ah arimaha ay ka midka yihiin xuquuqul insaanka, sinnaanta, xuquuqda haweenka, ilaalinta caruurta, doorashada shaqsiga, iyo ku guul dareysiga ilaalinta xuquuqda iyo xoriyada shaqsiga. Qaar ka mid ah dhaqamada shareecada qadiimiga ah waxaa ka mid ah xadgudubyo ba'an oo ka dhan ah xuquuqul insaanka aasaasiga ah, sinnaanta jinsiga iyo xoriyatul qawlka. [11] Tusaale ahaan; Waxaa ka mid ah in dadka aan gudan waajibaadkooda diiniga ah dambiile lagu caddeeyo in ay yihiin kuwo riddoobay ama si fudud loo yiraahdo Fasiiq iyo ciqaabta la marsiiyo. [12] Mar kale, mamnuucidda haweenka inay ka baxaan guryahooda ( fasax la'aan ama xaas ama nin gaar ah) iyadoo la raacayo amarka xijaab ayaa sidoo kale loo tixgelin karaa xadkan.

Ku dhawaaqida dagaal (jihaad) oo ku salaysan diinta iyo in dadka rayidka ah loo isticmaalo addoomo iyo naag addoomo ah si cad falal galmo ayaa loo qaadan karaa "dembiyo dagaal", iyo "dembiyo ka dhan ah aadanaha" marka si nidaamsan loo isticmaalo.

  1. https://islamansiklopedisi.org.tr/seriat
  2. https://www.anayasa.gen.tr/islam-hukuku-kac-yasinda.htm
  3. https://www.islamveihsan.com/kul-hakki-ile-ilgili-ayet-ve-hadisler.html
  4. “Hepiniz çobansınız; hepiniz güttüğünüz sürüden sorumlusunuz. Devlet reisi de bir çobandır ve sürüsünden sorumludur. Erkek, ailesinin çobanıdır ve sürüsünden sorumludur. Kadın, kocasının evinin çobanıdır ve sürüsünden sorumludur. Hizmetkâr, efendisinin malının çobanıdır; o da sürüsünden sorumludur. Netice itibariyle hepiniz çobansınız ve güttüğünüz sürüden sorumlusunuz.” https://www.hadiskitaplari.com/riyazus-salihin/riyazus-salihin-654-nolu-hadis
  5. https://www.assam.org.tr/index.php/haberler/haberler/islamda-devlet-devlet-baskani.html
  6. ”were it pleasing to God to leave people alone, He would not have sent prophets, nor established their laws, nor called to Islam, nor voided other religions, but would rather have left people to their own devices, untroubled by divine visitations” ...Cook, Forbidding Wrong, 2003, p.89-90
  7. Cook, Forbidding Wrong, 2003, p.57-60
  8. Cook, Forbidding Wrong, 2003, p.129
  9. Hayrettin Karaman, 29.08.2010, M. Ebu Zehra "Recim yok" diyor
  10. https://web.archive.org/web/20150402144807/http://www.haberci28.com/tr/yazigor.aspx?yazid=585
  11. (PDF). Türkiye Adalet Akademisi Yayınları. Ağustos 2014 https://web.archive.org/web/20200926014247/http://www.etc-graz.eu/wp-content/uploads/2020/08/insan_haklar__305_n__305__anlamak_kitap_bask__305_ya_ISBNli_____kapakli.pdf. Waxaa laga kaydiyay the original (PDF) 26 Eylül 2020. Soo qaatay 6 Mart 2021.  Hubi qiimaynta taariikhda: |access-date=, |date=, |archive-date= (caawin); Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)
  12. . 2. p. 112.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)