Soomaali magaalo-goboleedyada

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The Sesea Confederacy
Sesea Confederacy
Magaalo madaxZeila (economic)
Xukunka Tribal Confederation

Sesea (oo sidoo kale loogu tarjumay magaca Sasou ama loo yaqaan Barbary ) waxaa loo yaqaanay magaca reereed qabiileed Soomaaliyeed iyo sidoo kale gobol juqraafi ahaan ku teedsan xeebta koonfur-galbeed ee Gacanka Cadan, iyo sidoo kale dhulka gudaha ah inta lagu jiro qarnigii 1-aad. Waxay xudduud u leedahay waqooyiga iyo galbeedka Axum, dhanka bari Aromata (Land of Aromatics), iyo koonfur-bari ee Rauso, ugu dambeyntiina waxaa ansaxiyay boqortooyadii Adal dhamaadkii qarnigii 10aad.



Magacyada[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Ilbaxnimadan iyo gobolka juqraafi ahaan waxaa loogu yeeraa dhowr magac, oo ay ku jiraan Sesea iyo Sasou Si kastaba ha noqotee, ereyga Sasou waxaa mararka qaar loo isticmaali jiray isweydaarsiga Barbaria, si fudud Barbary iyo Barbary Coast taas oo taariikh ahaan laheyd baaxad ballaaran. Sidaas oo kale, dadka deggan Sasou waxaa sidoo kale lagu sharraxay Barbars. Gobolkan Sasou waxaa sidoo kale loo sharxay inuu yahay galbeedka Aromata (dhulkii Aromatics) ee loo yaqaan sababa la xiriira baahidii iyo tayada goosashada. [1]

Juqraafi & taariikh[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Qaab dhismeedka juqraafi ahaan waxaa ka mid ah magaalooyinkii hore ee magaalada sida Avalites, Malao, Moss magan iyo Mundus.

Intii lagu jiray bartamihii qarnigii 1-aad, hal sharrax oo ay u goosatay Indicopleustes, waxay u muuqataa inay adeegsaneyso ereyada 'Sesea' iyo 'Barbary' iswaydaarsiga, iyo sida Sesea ay u lahaan lahayd xuduudaha Axum ee u dhow maalinta casriga ah ee Jabuuti ee galbeedka, iyo bari ilaa caarada Jasiiradda Geeska Afrika ee Guardafui. [2]

Si kastaba ha noqotee, sharraxaadaha caadiga ah ee Sasou waxay siinayaan awood dheeri ah oo ay ku sharraxaan inay ka soo baxaan aag u dhigma Jabuuti casriga ah illaa Galbeedka halkaasoo ay xudduud la leedahay Axum (oo si xun ula socda xadka Eritrea) iyo Maroodi jeex Bariga waxay xuduudeysaa Rauso. [3]

Siyaasadda[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Gobollada kala daadsan ee Sasou waxay u dhaqmeen si madax-bannaan, in ka badan sida loo yaqaan mid ka mid ah hay'ad mideysan, iyadoo magaalo walba iyo xero ay la shaqeeyaan amiirkooda madaxa bannaan. Muddo markii uu socday ayaa magaaladii Seila waxa ku soo kordhay caan ah sidii deked ganacsi oo gobolka ku taal. Sidaa oo ay tahay, waxay u egtahay in dhamaadka Sasou, Zeila uu caasimada caasimada ka noqday. [4] [5] Intii lagu jiray nuskii dambe ee qarnigii 1aad, xilligii Sasou ama Sesea waxaa lagu doodi jiray waqtiga ugu sarreeya ee kala-duwanaanta diineed ee gobolka sida Waaqism iyo sidoo kale dhammaan 3 diimood oo waaweyn oo Ibraahim ah ayaa lagu dhaqmayey, diinta Yuhuudda ayaa si weyn looga keenay xiriirka ganacsi ee ay la lahayd Himyarites, Masiixiyada meelo kale duwan, gaar ahaan Axumites iyo Islam ka Zeila. [6] Dawladdii beddelay Sasou waxay ahayd Boqortooyada Adal. Waxaa kale oo la soo dhejiyay in Arawelo lagu xukumay Sesea. [7]

Ciidan[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Sida laga soo xigtay Cosmas Indicopleustes, qoraal qadiim ah oo loo yaqaan Monumentum Adulitanum oo ah Boqorka Adulis ee aan lagaranaynin ayaa ka sheekeeyay inuu la diriray Sayianiyaanka isla markaana uu hoos u dhigay ka dib markii uu geliyay meel sare. Qoraalku wuxuu sidoo kale sharraxayaa Boqorka ku faanaya inuu nabad ku keeno adduunyada ee qabsashada iyo ka dib isagoo ku laabanaya Sesea, oo noqotay xarun xukun. In kasta oo magaalooyinkii kala duwanaa ee Sesea ay ka madaxbanaanaadeen midba midka kale, haddana waxaan ognahay inay mararka qaar u dhaqmaan sidii unug isku-dhafan marka ay wajahaan cadaw weyn oo dibadda ah taasoo ay ugu wacan tahay sharraxaadda boqorka Axmite-ka aan la magacaabin ee sheeganaya inuu isku mar la dagaallamayo qabiilo kala duwan oo Sesean ah. [8]

Dhaqaalaha[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Aasaaska iyo sidoo kale dhoofinta ugu dhaqaalaha badan ilbaxnimada Sasou waxay ku timid qaab dhoofinta dahabka ah Abyssinia. Dhacdooyinkan ganacsi ayaa caadi ahaan dhacayay sanadkiiba laba jeer, markii ay safarka Abyssinian caravans ay ka soo muuqan doonaan dhulalka Sasou halka ay keenin alaabo kala duwan oo iyagu iskood isku beddelanaya. Alaabooyinka kale ee laga ganacsado waxaa ka mid ahaa fooxa [9]

Dhinaca Abisiniyaanka, safarkii ayaa had iyo jeer ahaa nin aad u hubaysan, badanaana ku jiray ilaa 500 ganacsato ah. Dhoofinta ugu weyn ee Abisiniyanka la xidhiidha Sesea waxay ahayd lo'da, bir iyo cusbo. [10]


cidan[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Sida laga soo xigtay Cosmas Indicopleustes, qoraal qadiim ah oo loo yaqaan Monumentum Adulitanum oo ah Boqorka Adulis ee aan lagaranaynin ayaa ka sheekeeyay inuu la diriray Sayianiyaanka isla markaana uu hoos u dhigay ka dib markii uu geliyay meel sare. Qoraalku wuxuu sidoo kale sharraxayaa Boqorka ku faanaya inuu nabad ku keeno adduunyada ee qabsashada iyo ka dib isagoo ku laabanaya Sesea, oo noqotay xarun xukun. In kasta oo magaalooyinkii kala duwanaa ee Sesea ay ka madaxbanaanaadeen midba midka kale, haddana waxaan ognahay inay mararka qaar u dhaqmaan sidii unug isku-dhafan marka ay wajahaan cadaw weyn oo dibadda ah taasoo ay ugu wacan tahay sharraxaadda boqorka Axmite-ka aan la magacaabin ee sheeganaya inuu isku mar la dagaallamayo qabiilo kala duwan oo Sesean ah. [8]

Munro-Hay wuxuu soo jeedinayaa in Sembrouthes uu ahaa taliyihii dhistay magaca 'Monumentum Adulitanum' oo aan la aqoon. Kan dambe waa warqad ku taal Adulis oo ay Cosmas Indicopleustes nuqul ka dhigtay boqorka Kaleb ee Axum.[11]

Qorniinku wuxuu sheegayaa in boqorka uu la dagaallami jiray Seneans-ka isla markaana uu ka adkaaday ka dib markii uu meel sare ka saaray, qoraalkan ayaa sidoo kale faahfaahin ka bixinaya Boqorka ku faanaya inuu nabad ku keeno nabdoonaanta adduunka iyo ka dib inuu ku laabto Sesea, oo noqotay xarun xukun. In kasta oo magaalooyinkii kala duwanaa ee Sesea ay xor ka ahaayeen midba midka kale, haddana waxaan ognahay inay mararka qaar u dhaqmaan sidii unug isku-dhafan markii ay la kulmaan cadaw weyn oo dibadda ah iyadoo ay ugu wacan tahay sharraxaadda boqorka Axmite-ka aan la magacaabin ee sheeganaya inuu isku mar la dagaallamayo qabiilo kala duwan oo Sesean ah.[12]

Economy[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Aasaaska iyo sidoo kale dhoofinta ugu dhaqaalaha badan ilbaxnimada Sasou waxay ku timid qaab dhoofinta dahabka ah Abyssinia. Dhacdooyinkan ganacsi ayaa caadi ahaan dhacayay sanadkiiba mar, markii ay safarka Abyssinian caravans ay ka soo muuqan doonaan dhulalka Sasou halka ay keenin alaabo kala duwan oo iyagu iskood isku beddelanaya. Alaabooyinka kale ee laga ganacsado waxaa ka mid ahaa fooxa[13]

Dhinaca Abisiniyanka, safarkani markasta waxay ahaayeen kuwo aad u hubaysan, badanaana waxay kujiraan ilaa 500 oo ganacsato ah.[14]

Sida laga soo xigtay Periplus ee Badda Erythraean, safarkii 1aad ee qarnigii CE ee uu qoray ganacsade Griig ah oo fadhigiisu yahay Alexandria, gobolka Barbara ee ugu horreeyay wuxuu ka fiday koonfurta Berenice Troglodytae oo ku taal koonfurta bari ee Masar ilaa waqooyiga Ptolemais Theron ee waqooyi-bari Suudaan, halka ay Gobolka labaad ee Barbara ka dib wuxuu ku yaal meel aan ka fogayn Bab al-Mandeb ilaa “Suuqa iyo Kaydka Xawaashka, oo ah bayaan kadis ah, dhamaadka xeebta Berber dhinaca bari” oo laga helay waqooyiga-bari ee Soomaaliya. Gobolkan labaad ee Barbara wuxuu hoy u ahaa meherado lagu yaqaanay dekedaha "fog-fog". Dhacdooyinka qadiimiga ah ee uu hoggaamiyo Neville Chittick waxay u aqoonsatay Suuqa iyo Cape of xawaashka hadda Damo.[15]

Iyada oo ay weheliyaan Habash (deriska la ah) ee Al-Habash xagga gudaha, Periplus waxay diiwaan gelineysaa Berberi ee gobolka labaad ee Barbara sidii ay ula macaamili jireen is-weydaarsiyo baaxad weyn oo ganacsi oo Masar iyo pre-Islamic Arabia. Safarka ayaa ku xusaya Berberi-yadaas inay yihiin macaamil ganacsi, oo ay ka mid yihiin badeecado kale oo kala duwan, iyada oo loo marayo magaalooyinka dekeddooda ah sida Malao, Avalites, Mundus, Mosylon iyo Opone. Doomaha kartida leh, qoraaga Periplus wuxuu kaloo tilmaamayaa in ay badda ku safrayeen Badda Cas iyo Gacanka Cadmeed ganacsi. Dukumiintiga ayaa qeexaya nidaamka dowliga ah ee Berberi inuu yahay mid baahsan, iyo asal ahaan ka kooban uruurinta magaalooyin-madax-bannaan.[16][17]

Ka dib qabsashadii Roomaanka ee Boqortooyadii Nabataean iyo joogitaankii ciidamada Badda Rome ee Cadan si loo xakameeyo burcad badeednimada, ganacsatada carbeed iyo kuwa Soomaalida ah ayaa ka mamnuucey ganacsatada Hindiya inay ka ganacsadaan magaalooyinka dekedaha ah ee bilaashka ah ee Jasiiradda Carbeed.[18]

sababtoo ah joogitaanka Rome ee dhow. Si kastaba ha noqotee, waxay ka sii wadeen ganacsigii magaalooyinka dekedaha ee Jasiiradda Soomaaliyeed, oo xor ka ahaa hanjabaad kasta oo Roomaanka ama basaasiin ah. Sababta loo diidey maraakiibta Hindiya inay soo galaan magaalooyinka dekada leh ee hodanka ah ee Carabtu waxay ahayd in la ilaaliyo oo la qariyo dhaqamada ganacsi ee ka faa iidaysta ganacsatada Somaalida iyo Carabtaba ee ganacsiga aadka u weyn ee qadiimiga ah ee Badda Cas-Mediterranean-ka.[19]

Ganacsi[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

The Silk Road trade routes connected South Asia, Persia, the Arabian Peninsula, Horn of Africa and Southern Europe.

wadada xariir

aag casri ah oo ka mid ah Soomaaliya, wuxuu ka mid ahaa 8 xarumood oo xariir taariikhi ah, oo isku xira bari iyo galbeedka adduunyada, iyo aagga casriga ah ee Soomaaliya waxay ku taal jidka waqooyi ee xariifnimada badan oo xariir la leh wadamo badan oo qadiim ah. Wadada silk ee waqooyiga ka timaada somalia ayaa Shiinaha u keentay alaabo badan sida farancaan, aloe iyo malmal ka yimid somalia; sandalwood ka soo India; dhalooyin quraarado ah oo laga keenay Masar, iyo badeecado kale oo qaali ah oo la jecel yahay oo laga keenay meelo kale oo adduunka ah,[20][21]

Iswaydaarsiga, safarkii waxay dib u celiyeen xirmooyin silk ah, xaraash, iyo fareel. Markii dambe Tangiyadii Tang wuxuu horumariyey marinka Silk Route, waxayna ahayd xilligii boqortooyadii Tang in jiritaan xoog leh oo Badda Shiinaha laga heli karo Gacanka Persian iyo Badda Cas Cas ilaa Faaris, Mesopotamia (Doonnida Wabiga Yuphrates ee casriga Ciraaq), Carabiya, Masar, Aksum (Itoobiya) iyo Soomaaliya oo ku yaal Geeska Afrika.[22][23]


Maraakiibta Romanka ee ku sii jeeday xeebta Badda Cas waxay xiriir la sameeyeen suuqyada ku teedsan waqooyiga Soomaaliya ee xeebta bari ee qaaradda Afrika, romanka waxay u yeeraan saldhigyadan ganacsi ee waqooyiga Soomaaliya suuqyada kuyaalla dekedaha dhinaca fog fog. Magaalada 'peripulus' waxay cadeyneysaa in aaga uusan xukumi karin boqor shaqsiyeed laakiin deked kasta oo ganacsi ay maamusho madax ama Tyrannida, degsiimooyinka badankood waxay ahaayeen dhul gudaha ah, midkastoo magaalooyinkan dekada leh waxay leedahay dabeecad u gooni ah qaarna waxay caasi u ahaayeen romanka kale. nabadgelyo kuxiran xaalada deegaanka iyo dhaqanka dadka deegaanka.[24][25]


Badda Cas ilaa Cape Guardafui xeebta waqooyiga Soomaaliya ayaa in kabadan 500 oo mayl masaafada udhaxeysa suuqyada waxaa loo qeybiyay si ay usocdaan doomaha udhaxeeya calamadaha. Hindiya. Tani waxay siisay waqti ku filan oo ay ku gaadhaan geeska geeska afrika kahor bilowga roobka woqooyi bari ee november. Soomaaliya waxaa la sheegay inay soo saartey tiro aad u tiro badan oo lagu qiimeeyay adduunka romaniga, Pliny waxay diiwaangelineysaa in hal rodol oo malmal ah oo soomaali ah lagu qiimeeyay 16 qalin oo Denari ah taas oo intaas ka badan waxa shaqaaluhu ku kasbaday 2 toddobaad.Cinnamon Soomaaliga ah ayaa xitaa ka soo heshay suuqyada romanka xitaa qiimo aad u badan, maaddaama aan walxahaas midkoodna lagu guuleysan karin in si toos ah looga soo dhoofiyo Soomaaliya.[26][27]


Roman ships would sail to Avalites Mundus Malao and Mosyllon these cities would offer shelterd bays where the ships could lay at anchor while the merchants went ashore to trade.

Maraakiibta Roomaanka waxay aadi doonaan Avalites Mundus Malao iyo Mosyllon Magaalooyinkaas waxay bixin lahaayeen biilal xirmooyin halkaas oo maraakiibta ay ku seexan karaan anchor halka ganacsataduna ay aadayaan xeebta si ay uga ganacsadaan.

Dhoofinta Roomaanka ee dekedaha waxaa ka mid ah jeexjeexyo dhagxaan qurxan oo dhalaalaya iyo dhar fara badan oo Masar iyo dhoofinta biraha ah kuwaas oo ay ka mid yihiin dhoobada macdanta birta ah oo tayadoodu aad u yar tahay iyo tiro aad u yar. Ganacsatada Roomaanka waxay sidoo kale dhoofiyeen cunno ay ka mid yihiin hadhuudh iyo khamri oo ay ka buuxaan saytuun laga soo qaaday xayawaanka loo dhoofiyey xaalad aan wanaagsanayn si looga fogaado in ay xumaadaan inta lagu gudajiro.

Suuqyada Malao iyo Mosyllon waxay soo bandhigeen saamiyo fara badan oo qiimahoodu sarreeyaa, sidaa darteed ganacsatada romanku waxay u iibiyeen alaabo aad u tiro badan oo dahab iyo qalin ah iyo dhagaxyo qaali ah ganacsatada Malao iyo Mosyllon.Ganacsatada Roomaanka ah ee ka soo jeeda woqooyiga Hindiya waxay kaloo ku deeqi karaan magaalooyinka dekedaha ah ee Soomaaliya ee wax soo saarka Hindida aasaasiga ah oo ay ka mid yihiin bariiska galley, saliida sisinta, dharka suufka iyo sonkorta bakooradda. Markay ahayd ganacsatada Malao roman ganacsatada waa inay la tartamaan ganacsatada arab si ay qiimo ugu yeeshaan, halka romanka ay ku baddelayaan ilaahyada romanka ee ay sidoo kale u direen avalites.[26][27]


Technology and equipment[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Tusaalaha ah muuqaalka taariikhiga ah ee Soomaaliyeed ee Muqdisho.
  • Beden – waa Raiisulwasaaraha markab badeedkii hore ee Soomaaliya in maanta ay tahay markabkii ugu cimri dheeraa ee badbaadin kara Bariga Afrika iyo adduunka




Port cities[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

The most prominent cities of the Old World from the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea.



Reference[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

  1. Hourani, G. F. (1995). Arab seafaring in the Indian Ocean in ancient and early medieval times. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  2. Beazley, Charles (2011). The Dawn of Modern Geography. A history of exploration and geographical science from the Conversion of the Roman Empire to A.D. 900 (c. A.D. ... of the principal maps of the time. (II ed.). p. 210. 
  3. Amina, Chire (2011). Traversées, histoires et mythes de Djibouti. Revue de l'Université de Djibouti. p. 100. Sasou est très vraisemblablement une région qui correspond aujourd'hui au territoire de Djibouti et à la portion nord de la Somalie 
  4. Munro-hay, 1991, Chapter 11, Aksumite escriptions
  5. 10th century historian Al-Masoudi
  6. Freeman-Grenville, Greville Stewart Parker. The Times of Ignorance: A Review of Pre-Islamic and Early Islamic Settlement on the East African Coast. Uganda Museum, 1959.
  7. Anfray, 1999, 137
  8. 8.0 8.1 Cosmas Indicopleustes - Christian Topography Page 77
  9. "The Sacred City of the Ethiopians: Being a Record of Travel and Research in Abyssinia in 1893 - 2017, by J. Theodore Bent"
  10. Beazley, Charles (2011). The Dawn of Modern Geography. A history of exploration and geographical science from the Conversion of the Roman Empire to A.D. 900 (c. A.D. ... of the principal maps of the time. (II ed.). p. 210. 
  11. BRETON, JEAN-FRANCOIS; MUNRO-HAY, S. C. H. (November 2002). "New Himyaritic coins from Aksum (Ethiopia)". Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy. 13 (2): 255–258. ISSN 0905-7196. doi:10.1034/j.1600-0471.2002.130207.x. 
  12. Cosmas Indicopleustes - Christian Topography Page 77
  13. "The Sacred City of the Ethiopians: Being a Record of Travel and Research in Abyssinia in 1893 - 2017, by J. Theodore Bent"
  14. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named beazly3
  15. Chittick, Neville (1975). An Archaeological Reconnaissance of the Horn: The British-Somali Expedition. pp. 117–133. 
  16. Schoff, Wilfred Harvey (1912). The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea: Travel and Trade in the Indian Ocean by a Merchant of the First Century. London, Bombay & Calcutta. Archived from the original on 4 February 2017. Retrieved 7 June 2016.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  17. Mohamed Diriye Abdullahi, Culture and Customs of Somalia, (Greenwood Press, 2001), pp.13-14
  18. E. H. Warmington, The Commerce Between the Roman Empire and India, (South Asia Books: 1995), p.54
  19. E. H. Warmington, The Commerce Between the Roman Empire and India, (South Asia Books: 1995), p.229
  20. Killion, M. Ulric (2010-01-15). "The Function of Law in Habermas' Modern Society". Global Jurist. 10 (2). ISSN 1934-2640. doi:10.2202/1934-2640.1312. 
  21. Lindley, Jade (2016-06-23). Somali Piracy: A Criminological Perspective (in Ingiriisi). Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-80684-3. 
  22. Killion, M. Ulric (2010-01-15). "The Function of Law in Habermas' Modern Society". Global Jurist. 10 (2). ISSN 1934-2640. doi:10.2202/1934-2640.1312. 
  23. Bowman, John (2000-01-31). Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture. New York Chichester, West Sussex: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-50004-3. 
  24. McLaughlin, Raoul (2014-09-11). The Roman Empire and the Indian Ocean: The Ancient World Economy and the Kingdoms of Africa, Arabia and India (in Ingiriisi). Pen and Sword. ISBN 978-1-78346-381-7. 
  25. McLaughlin, Raoul (2010-05-06). Rome and the Distant East: Trade Routes to the ancient lands of Arabia, India and China (in Ingiriisi). Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4411-6223-6. 
  26. 26.0 26.1 McLaughlin, Raoul (2014-09-11). The Roman Empire and the Indian Ocean: The Ancient World Economy and the Kingdoms of Africa, Arabia and India (in Ingiriisi). Pen and Sword. ISBN 978-1-78346-381-7. 
  27. 27.0 27.1 McLaughlin, Raoul (2010-05-06). Rome and the Distant East: Trade Routes to the ancient lands of Arabia, India and China (in Ingiriisi). Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4411-6223-6. 
  28. The Culture of the East African Coast: In the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries in the Light of Recent Archaeological Discoveries, By Gervase Mathew pg 68