Mikhail Gorbachev

Ka Wikipedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Mikhail Gorbachev
Михаил Горбачёв
Gorbachev (cropped).png
Gorbachev in 1986
Madaxweynaha Midowgii Soofiyeet
Xafiiska
15 March 1990 – 25 December 1991
Madaxweyne kuxigeen Gennady Yanayev
ka horeeyay Office established
(xoogaa xagiisa )sida Gudoomiye ka mid ah Soviet Sare)
Ku xigay Office abolished
Xoghayaha Guud ee Xisbiga Shuuciga ee Midowgii Soofiyeet
Xafiiska
11 March 1985 – 24 August 1991
Raiisel wasaare
Ku xigeen Vladimir Ivashko
ka horeeyay Konstantin Chernenko
Ku xigay Vladimir Ivashko (jilitaan)
Guddoomiyaha Soofiyeeti Sare ee Midowgii Soofiyeeti
Xafiiska
25 May 1989 – 15 March 1990
Ku xigeen Anatoly Lukyanov
ka horeeyay Xaggiisa sida Gudoomiye ka mid ah Soviet Sare
Ku xigay Anatoly Lukyanov
Guddoomiyaha Presidium ee Soofiyeeti Sare ee USSR
Xafiiska
1 October 1988 – 25 May 1989
ka horeeyay Andrei Gromyko
Ku xigay Xaggiisa sida Gudoomiye ka mid ah Presidium ee Soviet Sare
Additional positions
La-Guddoomiyaha Ururka Midowga Dimuqraadiga
xafiiska la wareegay
11 March 2000
ka horeeyay Office established
Second Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
Acting
Xafiiska
9 February 1984 – 10 March 1985
ka horeeyay Konstantin Chernenko
Ku xigay

Yegor Ligachev

Faahfaahin shaqsiyadeed
Dhashay
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev

(1931-03-02) 2 Maarso 1931 ( 90jir)
Privolnoye, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union (now Russia)
Jinsiyadda
  • Soviet (1931–1991)
  • Russian (since 1991)
Xisbiga Union of Social Democrats (2007–present)
Other political
affiliations
Xaaska
Raisa Gorbacheva
(g. 1953; d. 1999)
Ciyaalka Irina Virganskaya
Alma mater Moscow State University
Abaalmarinta Nobel Peace Prize
Saxiixa
Website websiteka

hogaamiyaha Soviet Union
  • Chernenko
  • waxna (kan ugu danbeeyay oo qabtay)

Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (wuxuu dhashay 2 Maarso 1931) waa siyaasi ruush ah horeyna u ahaa siyaasi Soviet. Wuxuu ahaa hoggaamiyihii siddeedaad ee ugu dambeeya ee Midowgii Soofiyeet, wuxuu ahaa Xoghayaha Guud ee Xisbiga Shuuciga ee Midowgii Soofiyeet sannadihii 1985 ilaa 1991.

Wuxuu sidoo kale ahaa madaxweynihii dalka 1988 ilaa 1991, isagoo gudoomiye ka ahaa Presidium of the Soviet.

Wuxuu ahaa Soviet-kii ugu sareeyay intii u dhaxeysay 1988 ilaa 1989, gudoomiyaha Soviet-kii ugu sareeyay intii u dhaxeysay 1989 ilaa 1990, iyo madaxweynihii midowgii sofiyeeti 1990 ilaa 1991.

Fikir ahaan, wuxuu markii hore u hogaansamay Markis-Leninism inkasta oo horaantii 1990-meeyadii loo gudbay dhanka dimuqraadiyada bulshada.

Dhaxalka isku dhafan ee Ruushka iyo Ukraine, Gorbachev wuxuu ku dhashay Privolnoye, Stavropol Krai, wuxuu ka dhashay qoys sabool ah.

Markii uu ku soo koray xukunkii Joseph Stalin, yaraantiisii ​​wuxuu ku shaqeysan jiray kuwa isku aruursada beeraha wadajirka ah ka hor inta uusan ku biirin Xisbiga Shuuciga, oo markaa u maamuli jiray Midowgii Soofiyeeti dowlad hal xisbi ah sida ku cad caqiidada Marxist-Leninist.

Intii uu wax ka baranayay Jaamacadda Moscow, wuxuu guursaday arday la dhalatay Raisa Titarenko 1953 ka hor inta uusan helin shahaadada sharciga ee 1955. U guurista Stavropol, wuxuu u shaqeynayay ururka dhalinyarada ee Komsomol, dhimashada Stalin ka dib, wuxuu noqday qof si weyn u taageersan de-Stalinization dib-u-habeyntii hoggaamiyaha Soofiyeeti Nikita Khrushchev.

Waxaa loo magacaabay Xoghayaha Koowaad ee Guddiga Gobolka ee Stavropol 1970, jagadaas oo uu kormeeray dhismaha kanaalka weyn ee 'Stavropol Canal'. Sannadkii 1978 wuxuu ku noqday magaalada Moscow si uu u noqdo Xoghayaha Golaha Dhexe ee xisbiga wuxuuna 1979-kii ku biiray siyaasaddiisa xukunka haysa. Saddex sano gudahood dhimashadii hoggaamiyihii Soofiyeeti Leonid Brezhnev, ka dib nidaamyadii koobnaa ee Yuri Andropov iyo Konstantin Chernenko, Politburo wuxuu Gorbachev u doortay Xoghayaha Guud, madaxa rasmiga ah ee dawladda, 1985.

In kasta oo ay ka go'an tahay ilaalinta dawladda Soofiyeedka iyo himilooyinkeeda hanti-wadaagga, Gorbachev wuxuu rumaysnaa in dib-u-habeyn weyn ay lagama maarmaan tahay, gaar ahaan musiibadii 1986 ee Chernobyl.

Wuxuu ka baxay Dagaalkii Soofiyeeti iyo Afgaanistaan ​​wuxuuna bilaabay shirar uu la yeeshay Madaxweynaha Mareykanka Ronald Reagan si loo xaddido hubka nukliyeerka loona joojiyo Dagaalkii Qaboobaa. Gudaha, siyaasadiisa glasnost ("furnaanshaha") ayaa loo oggol yahay xorriyadda hadalka iyo tan saxaafadda ee kor loo qaaday, halka perestroika ("dib u habeyn") uu isku dayay in la daadejiyo go'aan sameynta dhaqaalaha si loo wanaajiyo waxtarka.

Tallaabooyinkiisa dimoqraadiyeynta iyo sameynta Golaha Wakiillada Dadweynaha ee la soo doortay waxay wiiqeen dowladdii hal xisbi. Gorbachev wuu diiday inuu faragalin militari sameeyo markii dalal kala duwan oo ka tirsan Bariga Bloc ay ka tureen maamulkii Markis-Leninist 1989-90.

Gudaha, dareenka wadaniyadeed ee sii kordhaya wuxuu ku hanjabay inuu kala goyn doono Midowgii Soofiyeeti, taasoo horseed u ahayd kooxaha xagjirka ah ee Marxist-Leninist inay bilaabaan Afgambigii dhicisoobay ee Ogosto ee ka dhanka ahaa Gorbachev 1991.

Xilligaas ka dib, Midowgii Soofiyeet wuu kala diray wixii uu rabay Gorbachev wuuna is casilay.

Markii uu xafiiska ka tagay, wuxuu bilaabay aasaaskiisa Gorbachev, wuxuu noqday nin si weyn u dhaliila madaxweynayaasha Ruushka Boris Yeltsin iyo Vladimir Putin, wuxuuna u ololaynayay dhaqdhaqaaqa bulshada ee dimuqraadiyadda Ruushka.

Si ballaaran ayaa loo tixgeliyey mid ka mid ah tirooyinka ugu muhiimsan ee qeybtii labaad ee qarnigii 20-aad, Gorbachev ayaa weli ah mawduuca lagu muransan yahay.

Qofka helay abaalmarino kala duwan - oo ay ku jiraan abaalmarinta Nabadda ee Nobel - waxaa si weyn loogu ammaanay doorka muhiimka ah ee uu ka qaatay soo afjaridda Dagaalkii Qaboobaa, yareynta xadgudubyada xuquuqda aadanaha ee Midowgii Soofiyeeti, iyo u dulqaadashada dhicitaankii maamulladii Marxist-Leninist ee bariga. iyo bartamaha Yurub iyo midowgii Jarmalka. Taa bedelkeeda, Ruushka waxaa badanaa loogu jeesjeesaa inuusan joojin joojintii Soofiyeeti, dhacdo keentay hoos u dhac ku yimid saameynta adduunka ee Ruushka oo soo dedejisay xiisad dhaqaale.