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KU today’s post, we will learn 11 Advantages and Disadvantages of MAN | Benefits and Drawbacks of MAN {Metropolitan Area Network} with types, applications, definition, uses and examples with diagram. The full form of MAN is Metropolitan Area Network. The Metropolitan Area Network {MAN} is a network which is much bigger than LAN but quite smaller than WAN.

The MAN covers large area of its communication.

MAN networks links uses infrared links and microwave signals links for installation.

What is Metropolitan Area Network With Examples? Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) is an extensive network spread over a city or towns and in a large campus area.

It is larger and more significant than Local Area Network {LAN} but smaller in size than Wide Area Network {WAN}.

What is Metropolitan Area Network What is Metropolitan Area Network MAN stands for Metropolitan Area Network MAN is a network that connects the computer with different components in a large area. This network is the connection of different multiple LANs to form a MAN network.

We provide internet access to the city’s entire population through the MAN network connected by optical cables.

Switches, routers, and hubs form a MAN network, which connects corporate Local Area Networks.

A single organization does not own MAN, and it is maintained by a single organization that sells the customers.

A Metropolitan Area Network links or connects to the LANs as well as through the internet to the MAN with the network.

MAN provides high capacity data which customer needs, and it can provide a lower cost and excellent efficiency than obtaining local service from the telephone company.

Several technologies are used to update MAN networks.

This includes and consists of FDDI (Fiber Distribution Data Transfer), ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode), and SMDS (Switch Multi-Megabit Data Service).

ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) is most commonly used in our daily lives.

This technique was developed in 1980 and has since become the most widely used in the world. In this technique, data is split into similar data and then transferred over time as part of a data relay system. The primary purpose of (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) ATM is to provide good quality video and audio during video conference calls.

It also incorporates the features of circuit switching and packet switching, which allow real-time transfers.

We use FDDI technology for data transfer in MAN networks because the LAN is extended by 200 kilometers, and it supports thousands of customers.

11 Advantages and Disadvantages of MAN {Metropolitan Area Network} With Image Advantages and Disadvantages of MAN Networks Advantages and Disadvantages of MAN Networks Benefits and Advantages of MAN Networks In addition to the lower cost of connecting MAN with LAN, MAN provides high-efficiency data transmission. MAN networks manage data in a central part where all the nodes are connected to devices. MAN network data is transmitted quickly, and you can also send emails fast and for free. MAN networks use fiber optics so the speed of the data can reach 1000 Mbps. Databases and files can be transferred quickly over this network. A MAN network allows users to share their internet connection, so many can benefit from the fast connection. MAN is a quicker way to connect two fast LANs together this is because of fast configuration links. MAN has a high-security data transfer speed than WAN. Their data transmission speed is comparatively faster. These networks are expensive compared to LAN networks. Their ownership is private or public. Large geographical area like town, cities and continents are covers in this sort of MAN networks. These networks allow user to connect to internet with high speed. They are secure networks compared to WAN networks. Drawbacks of Disadvantages of MAN There is a security problem and configuration due to the maximum number of LANs is connected, and their size is also significant, so it isn’t easy to manage. MAN network cannot work in traditional phone copper wire if they install the network on the copper wire then there will be low speed so if we want a high speed we want to set up fiber optics which is of high cost when we set up at the first time. In MAN, there is a high chance of stealing data by hackers as we compare to LAN networks, so there is a chance of leaking our data. If we want to secure data, it requires highly trained staff and security tools. To set up a MAN network require technical people who can set it up correctly. The people are network administrators and troubleshooters. In MAN, there is a need for more cables two connect multiple LAN networks. They are huge networks compared to LAN networks, which makes them difficult to maintain. Related Articles Applications of Star Topology Advantages and Disadvantages of Star Topology Characteristics of Star Topology Networking in Computer Applications of Ring Topology in Computer Network Functions of Bridge in Networking Features of Star Topology in Computer Networks 10 Applications of Star Topology in Real Life Characteristics of MAN in Computer Network Advantages and Disadvantages of LAN {Local Area Network} Advantages and Disadvantages of WAN Characteristics of WAN in Computer Network Advantages and Disadvantages of DNS Types of Switching in Computer Network What is Guided Transmission Media in Computer Networks Block Diagram of Optical Communication System 15+ Advantages and Disadvantages of Mesh Topology 10 Features of Ring Topology with Examples Computer Networking Tutorials Computer Basic Tutorials Basic Characteristics of WAN in Computer Network Characteristics of WAN in Computer Characteristics of WAN in Computer WAN has an large capacity and connects a large number of computers connected over a large geographical area. WAN provides connecting links between LAN and MAN to the network. Many users can connect and communicate with each other to share data and information in one network. The speed of the data transmission is sometimes fast and sometimes slow. The range of the WAN network is enormous to transfer the data across the globe. The data rate of WAN is low as compared to the data transfer rate of the local area network. Examples of MAN Networks MAN is used in digital cable television. It is used by government agencies. University campuses are also using this network. Cable operators are using this network. It is used to connect several branches of schools. This network is used in hospitals, fire stations, and an airport. This network is used between the community colleges of the country What are the 4 Types of Networks? There are four types of networks: LAN (Local Area Network) is a group of networks connected to a small group of areas such as schools, colleges in a building.

In LAN, one computer becomes the server, and the other become clients, and its transmission speed is 10 to 1000 Mbps.

4 Types of Network 4 Types of Network PAN (Personal Area Network) is a network that is approximately 10 meters, and most of the users are connecting for internet range for personal use. It has a coverage range of thirty meters.

It offers information transmission amongst the devices such as computers, smart devices, video game stations, electronic gadgets, and also songs players.

MAN (Metropolitan Area Network) is a network that covers a large geographical area by linking various local area networks to create an extensive network.

This network gives a high transfer speed of 1000 Mbps. With the help of optic fiber, it gives a higher data transmission rate.

WAN (Wide Area Network) is the network that covers a big geographical location like a country, area, and continent worldwide.

It is a network that provides a long transmission of data, voice, video or any transmission.

What are the Five Most Common Types of Computer System Networking? LAN (Local Area Network) is a team of linked computer systems and also gadgets that share a common communication line web link to a server.

WAN (Wide Location Network) is a network that exists over a big geographical location like a nation, continent.

WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network) is a wireless computer system that connects two or even more devices making use of wireless communication within a minimal location such as house, institution, computer system lab.

MAN (Metropolitan Area Network) is a computer network that interconnects customers with a computer source in a geographical location or region.

CAN (Campus Area Network) is a computer network composed of an adjoining local area network within a limited geographical location.

What is the Difference Between LAN and MAN? LAN MAN A LAN is a group of computer and network devices connected within the same building. A MAN is a larger network that connects several buildings in the same city or a town. LAN connections have to be broadband and also fairly affordable. MAN network is high speed and reasonably costly. LAN is a wired network; all the computer systems are linked with cables. The connections in MAN are through modem or wires. The ownership of LAN is personal or private. The ownership of MAN might be public or private. The internet speed of LAN is really high, 1000 Mbps. The internet speed of MAN is moderate, between 45 to 155 Mbps. The maintenance of LAN is easy. The maintenance of MAN is difficult and complex. Get in Touch I have also written and compiled some articles on computers and telecommunications, and please go through them.

I hope you will like reading it.

I hope that all the questions and queries related to 11 Advantages and Disadvantages of MAN | Benefits and Drawbacks of MAN have been answered here. If you have any questions related to the Pros and Cons of using MAN Networks in Computer Networking.

Don’t hesitate to get in touch with me, and if you need to add, remove or update anything from the article, please let me know in the comment section or via email.

I will be more than happy to update the article. I am always ready to correct myself.

Please share this article with your friends and colleagues; this motivates me to write more related topics.

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CategoriesNETWORKING What are the Essential Attributes of Good Software in Software Engineering with Examples? What is Cabinet in Computer System With Examples and Diagram

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Taariikhda guud ee Somaliland casriyadii hore[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Taariikhdii bilawga ahayd ee casri jahligii

Somaliland waxay ku taal geeska Afrika, dhinaca Waqooyi galbeed waxa ka xigay deris la tahay dalka Jamhuuriyada Jabouti, galbeedna waxaa ka xiga Ethiopia, barina waxaa ka xiga somalia. Tirada dadka Somalilad waxaa lagu qiyaasaa 5 malyan iyiyo badh. Baaxadda dhulka ay ku fadhido Somaliland waa 139,000 km2. Somaliland waxaa dhinaca waqooyiga ka xiga badda cas oo ku fadhida xeeb dhererkodu yahay 870 km2.

Somaliland oo leh taariikh aad u balaadhan dadkuna aanu wada aqoon. Waxay kamid tahay meelaha ugu horraysay ay ka hana qaaday ilbaxnimada adduunku. Dadka taariikhda ku xeeldheeri waxay sheegeen in farraaciintii hore asalkoodu Somali kasoo jeedaan. Deganaana jireen dhulka xeebaha badda cas, taasoo markii danbana ay xidhiidh qoto dheer la lahaayeen Somaliland. Waxaana xaddaaradda Somaliland ku simantahay ilaa 7000 sanadood ciise hortii.

QORAA 1:- Cabdiqani Maxamuud Muxumed

QORAA 2:- Cabdishakuur Yuusuf Xuseen

QORAA 3:- Maxamed daud maaweel

Diinta islaamka iyo saamaynta ay kulahayd somali[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Markii diintu soo degtay qarnigii 7aad, geeska Afrika waxay noqotay meel aad u muhiima markii uu muslimay boqorkii Xabashida ee Najaashi. Waxaana xeebaha Somaliland ahaayeen meel istiraaji ah oo asxaabtii usoo hijrootay.

Qarnigii 13naad waxaa culimadii carbeed ee dalka timid kadhiseen saldanad la odhan jiray Bebad oo ay xukumi jirtay boqortooyadii Walaashma. Waana markii koowaad inta taariikhda lagu hayo qabaa'ilkii Somalidu yeeshaan maamul dhexe.

Somaliland waxaa ay kamid tahay bariga Afrika marka laga yimaado Itoobiya dalkii ugu horreyey ee ay ka hanaqaaday maamul dawladeed, inkastoo aan runta laga sheegin taariikhda dhab ah ee Somaliland haddana waxaan muran ku jirin in Somaliland qarnigii 15naad ay lahayd dawlad dunida laga ictiraafsanyahay gaar ahaana markii uu hoggaanka qabtay Immam Ahmed Qasali( Guray). Maamulkaas oo markii danbe la magac baxday dawladii Awdal. Xukumina jirtay inta u dhaxaysa xeebaha badda cas ilaa Herer.

QORAA1:- Cabdiqani Maxamuud Muxumed

QORAA 2:- Cabdishakuur Yuusuf Xuseen

QORAA 3:- Maxamed daud maaweel

Xidhiidhka reer galbeed[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Sannadkii 1869kii ayaa waxaa la furay marinka kanaal Suways oo taasi ku dhiirigelisay gumaystayaashii reer Yurub ee Afrika qaybsaday 1884 shirkii Barlin.

Waxaana la aamisan yahay in Somaliland oo ahayd dal ku fiican dhinaca istiraajiyada oo isku xidhaayey bada cas iyo bad weynta India. Haddaba salaanka gumaystayaasha ee Somaliland waxaa uu kaw saday 1839kii markii Ingiriisku qabsaday magaalada xeebta ah ee Cadan.

Sannadkii 1827kii ayaa Captain Bermer oo ahaa badmareenadii ingiriis ahi yimid Somaliland oo uu xidhiidh la yeeshay odayaashii dhaqanka ee Somaliland. Lugtii ay lasoo galeen gumaystayaashu Somaliland waxay dhaafi kari waayeen xeebaha waxaana usuuroobi wayday inay waddanka horuu galaan intii ka horraysay Captain Sir Richman Burton. Mr. Burton wuxuu galay gudaha dalka waxaanu tagay dhulka miyiga ah, waxaana uu sanadii 1854kii lug kumaray xeebta Berbera ilaa magaalada Herar.

Hadaba Boqortooyadii Engiriiska waxay yimaadeen xeebaha Somaliland. Ingiriisku dhowr jeer buu heshiisyo kala duwan la saxeexday odoyaashii Somaliland. Waxanaa ugu caansan heshiiskii hargaha ee sannadkii 1887kii oo heshiisyo la saxeexdeen odoyaashii Beelaha Somaliland.

Gumaystihii iyo Daraawiishta[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Sannadkii 1896kii waxaa bilawday kacdoon iyo dhaqdhaqaaqyo lagaga soo jeedo gumaysigii ingiriiska. Waxaana guluf iyo dagaal dhexmaray ciidamadii Diiriye Guure ee daraawiishta iyo dawladdii Ingiriiska . Ugu danbayna waxaa la jebiyey Daraawiishta uu Diiriye Guure madax ka ahaa, oo Ismaaciil Mire:na abaanduulle guud ka ahaa sannadku markuu ahaa 1921kii.

Waxaana halkaas kasii anbaqaaday halgamaayaashii Shiikh Bashiir iyo Faarax Oomaar u soo halgamay xornimadii aan qaadanay lixdankii.

QORAA 1:- Cabdiqani Maxamuud Muxumed

QORAA 2:- Cabdishakuur Yuusuf Xuseen

QORAA 3:- Maxamed daud maaweel

Saxwadii Xornimodoonka ee 1950eeyihii[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Waxa dagaalkii labaad ee adduunka ka dib sii kordhay sawaxanka iyo dareenka xornimodoonka ee qaaradda Afrika oo dhan. Dhaqdhaqaaqyadaasi oo ahaa laba nooc: qaar qabaliya iyo qaar madaniya oo ururro bulsho ku aroorayay. Qaybtaa madaniga ahayd waxa ka soo dhex baxay Ururkii Somali National Society ee 1945-kii lagaga dhawaaqay Burco. Af Somali wuxu ku noqonayay Bulshada Soomaaliyeed ee Waddaniga ah, waxaana loo soo gaabsan jiray SNS. Somali National League (SNL) wuxuu ahaa Xisbigii siyaasiga ahaa ee horseedka u ahaa halgankii siyaasadeed ee Maxmiyaddii Somaliland.Shacbiga intiisa badan Xisbigaa waxay u yaqaanneen SNL, sidaana waa loogu dhawaaqi jiray. Afka Carabigana waxa loo yaqaannay 'Raabidadda'.

SNL waxay ahayd xarakad waddaniya, gumeysi-diid ah oo ka mid ahayd dhaqdhaqaaqyadii gobannimo-doonka ahaa ee Afrika. SNL oo ka soo xuub-siibatay SNS-tii, waxa lagaga dhawaaqay Shirweyne lagu qabtay Burco, 1951. Sida aan xogta lagu hayo ama waayihii berigaa oognaa, SNS ma ay yeelan karayn ujeeddooyin siyaasadeed. SNS waxay ku koobnayd ururinta mujtamaca, ka-hor-tagga qabyaaladda iyo gubaabinta dadweynaha. Abaabul siyaasadeed oo hor leh ayaa mar kale tisqaadaya oo ay ummaddu ku hoollinaysay ambo-qaad cusub oo siyaasadeed oo lagu xaqiijinayay madax-bannaanida Somaliland.

Mandaqaddan loo yaqaannay British Somaliland ee ingiriisku joogay waxa cadho dheeraada iyo dareen weyn keenay markii dhulkii reseerf eeriyaa ee Somalidu lahayd ingiriisku ku wareejiyay Amxaarada. Tani waxay keentay kacdoon dheeraada oo suurtogaliyay in odayaashii markaa joogay a doontaan rag ninkan ingiriiska ah afkiisa yaqaanna oo qayb weyn ka qaata ka hortagga aafadan ku habsatay ummada. Waxa marwalba la eegayay dhinaca cadan ee dalka Yaman oo ay deganaayeen aqoonyahanno badan oo xilligaa ka hawl gali jiray xafiisyada iyo bangiyada ingiriiska ee Cadan. Waxa ka mid kana halyayada nimanka shaqadoodii iyo naftoodii ugu tabarrucay qaadashada xornimada Ibraahim Cali Ducaale, Maxamed Cali Faarax, Axmed Ismaaciil (Duqsi), iyo kuwa kale oo dardar galiyay dedaalkii xornimo-doonka. Gumaystaha ingiriisku wuxuu ugu necbaa Ibraahim Cali Ducaale oo ahaa xoghayaha xisbiga horena shaqo ahaan ka shaqayn jiray Bangiga Ingiriiska ee Cadan, walibana ahaa nin ka mid ah dadkii ingiriisku wax soo baray, laakiin saxwadii gobonimadoonka carabaha kala yimid. Waxa uu lahaa balaaqo af-soomaali, carabi iyo ingiriisi oo goobta khayriyada ee Hargeisa waxa looga bartay nin kiciya dhammaan quluubta dadweynaha. Maxamed Cali Faarax iyo Ibraahim Calie Ducaale waxay ahaayeen kuwii ugu horreeyay ee siyaasad gumaystuhu ugu xidho (xadhig siyaasadeed) halkaasoo isagoo xabsiga weyn ee Hargeysa markuu ku xidhnaa Ibraahin Cali Ducaale ku wareejiyay Xoghayenimada xisbiga SNL Maxamed Ibraahin Cigaal. Xisbiga SNL waxa guddoomiye u ahaa Xaaji Cumar Askar oo noqon doona madaxweynihii ugu horreeyay ee 26 Juun ilaa 1da Juulaay maamulayay Somaliland. Dhinaca kale Maxamed Xaaji Ibraahin Cigaal wuxuu ahaa nin taariikh weyn ku yeeshay intii ka dambaysay xornimada. Cumdayaasha siyaadda ee xilligaa waxa kale oo ka mid ahaa Axmed Xasan, Maykal Mariano, Garaad Cali Garaad Jaamac, Xaaji Ibraahin Nuur iyo qaar kale oo badan.

Waxa kale oo ka mid ahaa nimankii dardartii xornimadoonka niman badan oo thaqaafo leh oo ay ka mid ahaayeen Yuusuf Meygaag Samatar, Axmed Maxamed Guuleed (Axmed Jimcaale), Maxamed Cali Faarax, Yuusuf Ismaaciil Samatar (Gaandi), Axmed Yuusuf Ducaale, Cabdilqaadir (Tifaf-tirihii Al-saraaxa) iyo qaar kaleba.

SNL halgankaas in kasta oo ay horseed ka ahayd, haddana keli kuma ay ahayn. Waxa kale oo jiray xisbi la odhan jiray United Somali Party (USP) oo ay SNL isku gaashaan-buuraysteen Is-bahaysigii SNL-USP. Xisbigaa USP waxa ku bahaysnaa Beelaha Bariga iyo Galbeedka Somaliland SNLna hiil badan ayay tareen taas oo keentay in 33kii kursi ee Baarlamaankana SNL-USP 32 ku guulaysatay. Xisbigii National United Front (NUF) oo mar danbe la sameeyay halgankii siyaasadeedna qaybtiisa ka soo qaatay ayaa kursigii hadhay isaguna ku guulaystay. Urur la odhan jiray Xisbullaahi oo la ollog ahaa SNL ayaa isaguna ka mid ahaa xoogaggii halgankaa ka qayb qaatay ee weliba doorka shariifka ah ka galay.

Xoriyadii 1960 iyo wixii kadanbeeyay[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Dawlada Ethiopia ayaa waxay qorshaynaysay sidii ay u aqoon san lahayd somalailand

Bishii febraayo 1960kii ayaa wefti uu hoggaaminaayo Alle ha u naxariistee Maxamed Xaaji Ibraahim Cigaal u anbaxaxeen dalka Ingiriiska, waxaanay heshiis ay la soo galeen dawladdii ingiriiska in Somaliland xornimo buuxda lasiiyo.

26 Juun 1960kii bay markii maxmiyadii ingriiska ee Somaliland "British Somaliland protectorate" xornimadeeda ka qaateen dawladii Ingiriiska,sida aan la socono intii ka horraysay 01 Luulyo 1960kii Somaliland waxay ahayd dawlad gooniya( indepedent state). waxayna noqdeen dawlad madax bannaan oo la aqoonsan yahay ilaa 01 Luulyo 1960kii. Isla maalintaas Koonfurtu xorayday ayaa labada dal midoobeen inkastoo midawgaas mad madaw badani ku jiro. Dad badanina u haystaan in midowgaasi ahayn mid sharciya.

QORAA 1 :- Cabdiqani Maxamuud Muxumed

QORAA 2:- Cabdishakuur Yuusuf Xuseen

QORAA 3:- Maxamed daud maaweel

QORAA 4:-Abokor salax maxamuud dhoolaayre

Shacabka reer somaliland oo markiiba Dareemay In la Khiyaameeyay[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Dadka reer Somaliland waxay midow ku sheegaas doonayeen inay kaga dhabeeyaan riyadoodii ahayd in la sameeyo dawlad salbalaadhan oo ay kasoo qayb galaan wixii afsoomali ku hadlaa meel kastoo ay joogaanba. Laakiin waxaa markiiba beenawday riyadaas, dadka reer Somalilandna waxaa la duudsiiyey xuquuqdii wadaniyeed ee ay lahayeen.

Dadka reer Somaliland oo markiiba dareemay in la khiyaamay oo isla markiiba bilaabay inay xornimadooda kala soo noqdaan reer koonfureedka, waxaad arkaysaa suugaantii markii hore kuwada baaqaysay midowga iyo Somalinimada oo marqudha isu badashay inay sheegaan sida lookhiyaameeyey. Wuxuu yidhi Cabdillahi Suldaan Timacade( alla haw naxariistee) tix uu arrintaas kaga hadlayaayey waxaa kaimd ahaa beedkeedii"DUQAYDII BARLAMAANKIYO DEKADIIBA WAA XAMAR".

Waxaa kale oo Qaasim oo ka mid ah abwaanada Somaliland yidhi maanso ay ka mid ahaayeen eraydan:-


Bishii Luulyo1961kii waxaa dadka reer Somaliland gaashaanka ku dhufteen oo cod aqliyad ah ku diideen distoorkii qeexayey ee lagu sharciyeynaayey israaca labada dal ee Soomaaliya iyo Somaliland. Laakiin nasiib darro dawladdii markaas jirtay oo reer Koonfureedka ahayd waxay diideen inay aqoonsadaan maxsuulkii doorashadaas sababtoo maslaxad baan ugu jirin arrintan.

Bishii december 1961 waxaa madaxdii ciidamada qalabka sida ee Soomaaliya isku dayeen inay dhigaan inqilaabkii dhicisoobay. Inqilaabkaasna waxay doonayeen inay kula soo noqdaan madaxbannaanidii luntay.

1967kii waxaa dalka ka noqday raysal wasaare Mohamed H.Ibrahim Cigaal. Halka uu madaxweynaha ka noqday Cabdirashid Cali sharmake. 15 Oktober 1969kii waxaa magaalada laascaanood lagu dilay madaxweynihii Jamhuuriyadda Somalida ee Cabdirashid Cali Sharmaake.

QORAA 1:- Cabdiqani Maxamuud Muxumed

QORAA 2:- Cabdishakuur Yuusuf Xuseen

QORAA 3:- Maxamed daud maaweel

Inqilaabkii 21 oktober iyo wixii kasoobaxay[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Waxaana midnimadii 60kii guul darro ku dhamaatay markii 21 Oktober 1969kii uu dalka ka dhacay inqilaab aan dhiig ku daadan ee ay dhigeen ciimada qalabka sidaa, waxaana talada la wareegay ciidamada oo uu hoggaaminaayo Gen. Mohamed Siyaad Barre.

10 januari 1970kii waxaa kelidii taliyihii Siyaad Barre sameeyey maxkamadii badbaada oo xukumi jirtay xukunka dilka si looga takhaluso dadka aan taageersanayn madaxweynaha.

21 Oktober 1970kii wuxuu Siyaad Barre ku dhawaaqay in Soomaaliya qaadatay nidaamka hantiwadaaga cilmiga ku dhisan. Taasoo rabay inuu ugu bedelo inqilaabkii hab ku salaysan dhaqaaq siyaasadeed oo ku salaysan aydhiyooliyadda hantiwadaaga. Waxaana loo ololeeyey wixii loogu magacdaray kacaankii hantiwadaaga Somaliyeed.

Xagaagii 1972kii waxaa la sameeyey ciimadii guulwadayaasha oo ujeedadoodu ahayd inay cabudhiyaan oo xabsiga u taxaabaan dadka shacbiga ee lagu tuxmo inay kacaan diid yihiin.

July 1972kii waxaa la dilay labadii Jenaraal ee Salaad Gabayle, iyo Mohamed aynaanshe oo ka tirsanaa saraakiishii inqilaabka dhigay. Salaad gabayle wuxuu ahaa madaxweyne ku xigeen. Waxaa lagu xukumay dil ka dib markii lagu eedeeyey inay maleegayeen shirqool ay xukunka kaga tuurayaan Siyaad Barre.

Oktober 1972kii waxaa lagu dhaqaaqay in la qoro Af-soomaliga oo uu noqdo luqadda rasmiga ah ee dalka.

1972kii-1975kii waxaa la qaaday ololihii barashada qorista Somaliga oo markii danbana isu rogay olalihii horumarinta reer miyiga ee la rabay in dadku waxna qoraan waxna akhriyaan.

1975kii waxaa la sameeyey 15 gobol oo cusub oo lagu bedelayeey 8 gobol ee hore u jiray. Waxaana ay ka koobnaayeen 78 degmo. Somaliland oo ka koobnayd 3 gobol looma samayn gobolo iyo degmooyin cusub toona. 1975kii Siyaad Barre wuxuu shaqadii ka eryey 50 saraakiil sare iyo madax ah oo badankooda ka soo jeeda Somaliland, waxaana uu ku bedelay dadka uu ku tuhmaayey inay taageersanyihiin kacaanka oo u badnaa caa'iladiisa ah.

1977kii maamulkii siyaad Barre wuxuu weerar ku qaaday dalka Itoobiya, waxaana markii hore uu ku guulaystay dagaalkaas. Laakiin waxaa dagaalku dhamaaday markii ciidamo Ruush iyo Kuubaan ahi usoo gurmadeenItoobiya ee ay si toosa dagaalka usoo galeen. Waxaana ciidamadii Soomaaliya dibuga soo noqatay dhammaan dhulkii horuu qabsadeen.


1978 waxaa dhacay inqilaabkii baaqday ee uu hoggaaminaayey Col. Cirro. Taasoo Siyaadna ku way raxay dadkii shacbiga ahaa ee deganaa gobolada dhexe.

Kadib markii shacbiga Somaliland u adkaysan waayeen dhibaatada baladhaan ee uu ku hayo taliskii siyaad barre oo lagu hayey shaciga cadaadis ballaadhan oo isugu jira dil dhac, xadhig, kufsi waxaa sannadkii 6 dii abril 1981 waxaa lagu dhawaaqay ururkii SNM oo ay taageersanaayeen shacbiga Somaliland si ay ula soo noqdaan xornimadoodii luntay 60kii.

20 Februari 1982 waxaa dalka ka bilowday kacdoon shacbi kadib markii dil lagu xukumay dhallinyaradii UfO. Isla sannadkaasna waxaa baxay saraakiil ka tirsanaa ciidamada qalabka sida kuna biiray ururkii SNM, halkaasoo ay dagaal hubaysan kala hortageen taliskii Siyaad Barre.

Isla sannadkaas waxaa la xidh xidhay madaxdii sare ee dawladdii Siyaasad Barre kaga jiray reer Somaliland, madaxdaas oo ay kamid ahaayeen Ismail Ali Abokor iyo Cumar Carte Qaalib waxaa lagu eedeeyey inay yihiin qaran dumis waxaana iyaga saraakiishii kaleba lagu xumuy dil.

Intii intaas ka danbaysay waxaa sii badanaayey kacdoonka dadweynaha, waxaana shacbigu taageero hagar la'aana u hureen ururkii SNM. SNM waxaa ay weerar siyasadeed iyo mid ciidan ba ku qaadatay taliskii wakhtigaas jiray.

Bilowgii sannadkii 1988 markuu taliskii Siyaad Barre u adkaysan waayey halgankii SNM ayuu si kadis ah ula heshiiyey dawladda Itoobiya oo uu ka dhaxaysay colaad iyo guluf xumi.

27 Mey ciidamadii SNM waxay weerar lama filaana ku qaadaan ciimadii gaaska 4aad ee fadhiyey magaalada Burco. Sidoo kalena 31 Mey ayaa cutubyo kale oo SNM ay iyana guluf galaa baxsheen ciimadiii qaybta 26naad ee saldhigoodu ahaa magaalada Hargeysa. Weeraradaas oo ay SNM kasoo hooyeen guul badani, sidoo kalena keenay qasaare.

Kadib markii ay ciidamadii daacadda u ahaa Siyaad Barre u babac dhigi kari waayeen halgankii SNM waxay weerar aargoosi ah ku qaadeen shacbigii masaakiinta ahaa ee reer Somaliland. Waxaana sannadkii 1988 ka dhacay gobolada waqooyi mid kamid ah xasuuqa ugu ba'an ee soo mara qaaradda Afrika. Waxaana isla sannadkaas oo qudha ururka xuquuqda aamdiga ee African watch warbixintii 1990 ku qiyaaseen in la gawracay intii udhaxaysay May 1988 ilaa Maarso 1989 50,000 oo shacbi ah oo aan waxba galabsan.

14 July 1989 waxaa magaalada Muqdisho lagu xasuuqay 47 qof oo kasoo jeeda reer Somaliland. Xasuuqan oo la magacbaxay gawracii Jasiira. Dadkaas la xasuuqay oo u badnaa arday iyo macalmiin aan waxba galabsan, waxaa la qafaashay iaygoo guryahoodii iska hurda waxayna naftooda u waayeen qabiilka ay yihiin oo qudha.

May 1990 waxaa kooxdii manifeesto oo ka koobnaa 100 qof oo isagu jira madax siyaasadeed iyo baayacmushtar ay soo saareen codsi ay dawladda kaga codsanayaan inay la heshiiso mucaaridka, shacbigana taladana wax laga siiyo. Codsigaas oo uu diiday madaxweyne Siyaad waxaa la xidhay 45 qof oo kamid ahaa kuwii codsiga sameeyey laguna eedeeyey inay yihiin danbiilayaal qaran.

8 august 1990 waxaa dalka Itoobiya ku kulmay ururadii mucaaridka ahaa ee SNM, USC, iyo SPM waxaanay ku heshiiyeen inay dagaal midaysan ku qaadaan taliskii Siyaad Barre si looga xoreeyo ummadda. taliski macangaga ahaa ilma dooxaa intas ku dar.

QORAA 1:- Cabdiqani Maxamuud Muxumed

QORAA 2:- Cabdishakuur Yuusuf Xuseen

QORAA 3:- Maxamed daud maaweel ,,,QORAA 4:-Abdisalam Aden Abdi

burburintii taliskii siyaad barre[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

26 Janaayo 1991 ayaa madaxweyne Siyaad Barre ka baxay magaalada Muqdisho, kadib markuu ka dhacay magaala madaxda gadood shacbi oo taageerayaan ururkii USC ee uu hogaaminaayey Mohamed Farah Caydiid. 27 Janaayo waxaa iyadaan lagala tashan bulshada Somaliyeed madaxweyne ku meelgaadh ah loogu magacaabay Ali Mahdi oo katirsanaa kooxdii manifeestada.xiligaas oo ay dakii ku noolaa muqdisho ay bililliqayteen hantidii taaley madax tooyadii muqdisho


27 Jannayo 1991 ayaa ciidamadii SNM gacanta ku dhigeen dhamaan dalkii hore loo odhan jiray Somaliland. Dabadeedna madaxdii SNM waxay ka shaqeeyeen inay heshiiyeen oo walaaleeyaan beelihii walaalaha ee ay iska horkeentay dawladii hore ee Siyaad Barre.

18 Mey 1991 shirbeeleedkii ka dhacay magaalada Burco ayaa lagu go'aansaday lagagana dhawaaqay gooni isu taagga qaranimada Somaliland.

Maalintaas oo ay Somaliland la soo noqotay marlabaad xornimadoodii luntay, noqotayna dal madax bannaan oo buuxinaya dhamaan astaamaha ay leedahay dawladi. Laakiin wali Jamhuuriyadda cusubi waxay sugaysa aqoonsi caalamiya. Waxaanan rajaynayaa in reer maandeeq dhakhso u heli doonto ictiraaf caalamiya oo ay rumawdo riyada shacbiga Somaliland oo ahayd inay noqdaan dowlad madax banaan caalamkana laga aqoonsan yahay sidi 1960.

QORAA 1:- Cabdiqani Maxamuud Muxumed

QORAA 2:- Cabdishakuur Yuusuf Xuseen

Kadib Madaxbanaanidii 1960[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Somaliland map.png

Xafiiska lagu kaydiyo qoraalada taariikhda ee ku yaala magaalada London, loona yaqaano ‘Public Record office’, ayaa sannad kasta lagu soo bandhigaa qoraaladii sirta ahaa marka ay u dhammaato 30 sano mudadii ay qoraaldaasi ka qarsoonayeen indhaha dadweyanaha. Bisha January ee sannad kastana waxaa xafiiskasi u baratama aqoonyahanada taariikhda raadraaca iyo weriyayaasha warbaahinta si ay u milicsadaan sirta cusub ee la soo bandhigay. Bishii January ee sannadkii 1991 ayaa la soo bandhigay sirihii soddonka sano qarsoonaa oo ay ka mid ahaayeen dhacdooyinkii siyaasiga ahaa ee dalka Somaliland ka socday sannadkii 1960.

Waxaa qoraalada la soo bandhigay ka mid ahaa saddex fayl oo buuxsamay kuna Magacaaban “Union of Somaliland and Somalia.” Waxaa kale oo ka mid ahaa sirtaasi la soo bandhigay diiwaan weyn oo lagu magacaabo “Minutes of legislative council 1960.” Kaasoo ay ku qoranyihiin hadalladii xildhibanada Golaha Sharcidejinta Somaliland ee Fadhiyadii Golahaasi yeeshay sannadkasi .

Waxay qoraladaasi xusayaan mudanyaashi Golihii Sharcidejinta ee Saddexaad, lana soo doortay 17 kii bishii Feb, 1960, inuu fadhigoodi ugu horreeyay qabsomay 5tii Bishii April ee sannadkii 1960, kuna qabsoomay qolka Shirarka ee Goluhu ku lahaa goobta maanta aynuu u naqaanno “Goodirka” ee Hargeysa.

Kulankaasi waxaa ka soo qaybgaly 36 xubnood oo ka mid ah Golaha sharcidejinta. Waxay 33 ka mid ahi ahaayeen xildhibanaadii ku guulaystay doorashaddii 17 Feb, 1960 ka qabsoontay dalka kana kala socday xisbiyada SNL. USP iyo NUF oo ay ka mid yihiin 4 wasiir iyo hal wasiir ku xigeen. Saddexda kalena waxay ahaayeen xubno Ingiriisa oo wasiirro ah kana tirsanaa Xukuumadda Somaliland. Waxaa kale oo isna fadhiyay kulankaasi Badhasaabkii dalka Somaliland ka talinayay.

Ugu horreyn, Badhasaabkii Somaliland, Sir Douglas Hall, ayaa khudbad aad u dheer ku furay shirkii ugu horreeyay ee Golahaasi la soo doortay yeesho. Taasoo uu kaga hadlayo barnaamijka hawlqabad ee dawladda uu madaxda ka yahay iyo qorshaha dhow ee mustaqbalka. Waxaa xigay in la dooorto, loona codeeeyo ku-xigeenka shirgudoonka, taasoo oo uu ku guulestay Jaamac Cabdillahi Qaalib ( Ina diir qadhaadh).

Kadibna waxaa la gudogalay soo jeedintii ajandaha ugu horreeyay ee Goluhu ka doodi doono oo uu soo jeediyay xildhibaan Maxamuud Biixi (Shuuriye) oo ka tirsanaa xisbiga S N L lagana soo doortay degmo doorashada Baanka ee magalada Hargayesa. Wuxuuna yidhi “ Ajandahan oo ah “Xornimo iyo Midnimo” waa mid ay ku soo heshiiyeen xisbiyada aqlabiyada ku leh Golahani ( SNL iyo USP), inuu noqdo ajandaha ugu horreeya ee Golahani ka doodo. Tiiyoo la filayo in Somalia ay dhowaan qaadan doonto xornimadeedii, haddii isla maalin ahaantaasi dalkanina (Somaliland) la siiyo xornimadiisa waxaa suurtogelaya in mushkiladihii midnimadu yeelan lahayd ay meesha ka baxayso….…..Waxaa la gaadhay xilligii aad dawladda Ingiriiska ku talo siin lahaydayn in Soomaalida la siiyo xornimadeeda.

Soomaalidu ma aqoonsana xuduudahan maanta jira. Waxaanay u haystaan inay yihiin qaar been ah oo kala qoqobaya. Dhamaan dhulka ay somaalidu deggantahay waa dal keliya oon la kala jarjari karin. Sidaasi awgeed waa in dalkani la siiyo xornimadiisa kowda bisha Julay oo ku beegan maalinta Somalia xornimadeeda qaadanayso, si isla maalintaasi ay u wada suurto galaan xornimada iyo midnimadu.”

6dii bishii April ee 1960, ayay dodaani si kulul uga dhex socotay Golahaasi Sharci dejinta. Waxaa hadaba is waydiin mudan sababta laba arrimood oo kala duwan looga dhigay ajande keliya . Waayo midi waxay ku saabsantahay Madaxbanaanida Somaliland oo Ingiriisku gacanta ku hayey? Ta kalena waa arrin ku saabsan midowga dhex mari doona Somaliland iyo Soomaaliya .

Waa laba arrimod oo kala duwan oo mid waliba yealan karto doodeeda u gaarka ah. Hadana wuxuu Goluhu go’aansaday inay labadaasi arrimood ee kala duwani noqdaan ajande keliya, loogana doodo si wadajir ah tiiyoon la kala qaadin. Marka la dhuuxo qoraalada, lagana baaraan dego doodaasi iyo hadaaladii xildhibaanadii doodaasi ka qayb galay soo jeediyeen, waxaa inoo muuqunaya sababta Goluhu iskugu dhafay labadaasi arrimood, ugana dhigay ajande kaliya.

Sida ku qeexaan qoraalada diiwaanada hadalada xildhibaanada Somaliland ee doodaasi ka qayb galay waxay dhammantood u arkayeen in madaxbanaanida Somaliland iyo la midowga Somalia yahay arrin keliya oo isku dhafan, habboontahayna in aan gooni gooni looga kala doodin. Taasoo ay xildhibaanadu si cadaan ah oo marag ma doon ah u qeexayaan in madax banaanida Somaliland iyo midnimada ay Somalia la yeelanayso ay wada dhacaan maalin keliya oo ku beegan Kowda Bisha Julay ee 1960. Waxayna ugu muuqatay in haddii midkood la waayo ka kalena aanu jirayn .

Tiiyoo aynaan halkani ku soo wada koobi karin hadaladii xildhibaanada oo idil, nuxurka hadaladooduna yahay mid meel u wada jeeda oon wax khilaaf ahi ku dhex jirin, hadana tusaale ahaan aan soo qaadanno fikradihii ay xildhibaanada Somaliland rumaysnaayeen tiyoo aynu tixraacaynno hadaladii dhowr xildibaan oo xisbiyada kala duwan ka socda:

Ugu horreyn waxay xildhibaanada Somaliland doonayeen in Soomaali oo idili yeelato dawlad keliya. Xildhibaan Ibraahim cismaan food( Basbaas) oo ka tirsanaa Xisbiga SNL, lagana soo doortay degmo doorashada Cadaadley oo arrintaasi qeexayaana wuxuu yidhi “ Soomaalidu ma doonayso shan dawladood oo kala goon gooniya. Xataa laba dawladood oo keliya ma doonayso. Waxay Somalia qaadanaysaa xornimadeeda kowda bisha Julay. Waxaanuna rajaynaynaa in aanaan annakuna maalintaasi dib uga dhicin.”

Waxaa kale oo ay rumaysnaayeen in xornimada Somaliland iyo midnimada Somalia maalin keliya noqoto. Xildhibaan Xaaji Ibraahim Nuur oo ka tirsanaa xisbiga USP lagana soo doortay degmo doorashada Dila oo arrintani qeexayaa wuxuu yidhi “ Waxay Soomaaliya qaadanaysaa xornimadeedii kowda bisha Julay, annakuna waa in aanu maalintaasi qaadanaa xornimadayada si ay u suurtogasho in isla maalintaasi aanu midowno”

Waxaa kale oo ay rumaysnaayeen in midnimada Somaliland iyo Somalia u horseedayso midnimada shanta Soomaaaliyeed. Xildhibaan Michael Mariano oo ka tirsanaa xisbiga NUF lagana soo doortay degmo doorashada Ceel Afweyn oo arrintaasi qeexayaa wuxuu yidhi: “Soomaali oo idil ayaa sugaysa midowga labada dale e Somaliland iyo Somalia. Waxayna midnimada labadaasi qaybood u horseedi doontaa sidii shanta soomaaliyeed oo idili u midoobi lahayd.”

Hadaladaasi waxay ahaayeen dhowr tusaale oo aan ka soo qaatay doodii 6da April ee mudanayaashii laga soo doortay Somaliland. Waana mid diiwaanada ay ka muuqato inay dhammaantood doonayeen xornimo iyo midnimada Somalia.

Bal aynu haatanna eegno aragtidii xubnihii Ingiriiska ee kulankaasi fadhiyay. Phillip Carrel oo ahaa Chief Secretray wuxuu yidhi isagoo ka jawaabaya hadaladaasi ay xildhibaanadu halkaasi ka jeediyeen “ Shaki igagama jiro in ay dadka ku nool Somaliland doonayaan inay la midoobaan Somalia. Waxaanan hubaa in dawladda Ingiriiskuna ku taageeri doonto himiladooda. Laakiin bishii u danbaysay ayay dadka gashay jibbo weyn oo ay ku doonayaan in ay la midoobaan Somalia kowda bisha julay oo ah islamaalinta dalkaasi qaadanayo xornimadiisa.

Ilaa iyo hadda wax wada hadal ah oo arrintaasi ku saabsan oo labada dal (Somaliland iyo Somalia) ka wada yeesheen ma jirto. Waxaana jira arrimo badan oo u baahan in laga wada hadlo inta aan la midoobin ka hor. Ugu horreyn waa in labada dal ku heshiiyaan distoor ka wada dhexeeya. Si loo ilaaliyo xuquuqda iyo danaha dadka heshiika wada gelaya oo idil waa in arrintani laga gaadhaa heshiis ka hor intaan la midoobin.

Sidoo kale waa in laga heshiiyaa, sharciyada doorashada, qaabka dawladdu noqonayso, afka rasmiga ah, habka cashuuraha, lacagta la isticmaalayo, mushaharka shaqaalaha dawladda iwm. Waxaasi oo idili waxay u baahanyihiin in dad khubaro ah loo xilsaaro si ay u darsaan ugana soo talo bixiyaan. Si dawladda midnimadaasi ka dhalataa ay u noqoto mid ku taagan dhidibbo adag.”

Isagoo sii wata hadalkiisii wuxuu yidhi “ Arrinta ugu daran ee u baahan in laga tashado waxay tahay arrinta Hawd iyo Reserve area. Maalinta aad xornimada qaadataan ee ay midnimadu dhacdo, waxaa dhammaanaya xilkii Ingiriiska ka saarnaa Maxmiyadda Somaliland. Haatanna dawladda Ingiriiska ayaa bixisa Kharashka ku baxaya Hawd iyo Reserve Area. Haddii aan heshiis cusub laga gaadhin hawlaha halkaasi ka socda oo dhan ayaa joogsanaya.

Taasoo ah in heshiiskii Etoobiya lala galay 1954 uu noqonayo mid dhammaaday. Inkastoo heshiiskaasi aan ogahay in aydaan jeclayn hadana dadka reer Somaliland ayuu u suurtogeliyay maamul xuquuqdooda ilaaliyaa inuu halkaasi joogo marka ay u tallaabaan dhinaca Hawdka. Haddii aan heshiis cusub lala gelin Etoobiya waxaa meesha ka baxaya maamulkii ilaalinayay xuquuqda dadkaasi. Ilaalada halkaasi joogta oo idil ayaa loo soo rari dhinaca Somaliland, mana jiri doonto cid kala ilaalisa beelaha diriri ka dhex aloosanto. Mana helayaan taageero waxbarasho iyo mid caafimaad toona.”

Ugu danbayntii ayuu Douglas Hall, badhasaabku, khudbad dheer jeediyay, waxaana ka mid ahaa hadaladiisii: “Anigu dawladda Ingiriiska ayaan u gudbin doonaa sida dadka reer Somaliland u doonayaan xornimo iyo midnimo. Hase ahaatee waxaa idin saaran xil weyn oo ah in aad gudataan waajibaadka ay idinku leeyihiin dadkii idin soo doortay oo ah in aad ka ilaalisaan dhibaatooyinka ay ku keeni karto midnimo aan loo dhammaystirin hawlihii lagama maarmaanka u ahaa, oo si fudud oo degdeg ah loo galay”. Wuxuuna ku soo gunaanaday hadalkiisii “ Waxaan idinkula dardaarmayaa: khatar ha gelinina mustaqbalka dadka iyo dalka Somaliland”

Marka qoraalada diiwaanada ee xildhibaanadii halkaasi ka dooday loo fiirsado waxaa muuqanayaa in Goluhuu u kala qaybsanaa laba dhinac oo is fahmi la’, kala rumaysnaana laba fikradood oo kala duwan. Fikrad waxaa rumaysnaa xildibaanada Somaliland laga soo doortay oo doonayay in la siiyo xornimo maalinta kowda Julay oo ku beegan maalinta ay Somalia xornimadeeda qaadanaysay, si islamaalintaasi ay u suurtogasho xornimo iyo la midowga Somalia.

Taasi oo ay doonayeen si labadani dal ee midoobay ay u noqdaan gundhigii u horseedi lahaa midnimada shanta Soomaaliyeed. Hase ahaatee marnaba kamay hadlin sida hawlaha lagama maarmaanka u ah midnimada ay u sii diyaarinayaan ama ugu hawlgalayaan.

Fikradda labaadna waxaa rumaysnaa xubnaha Ingiriiska ah oo ku doodayey in ka hor intaan lala midoobin Somalia laga wada hadlo laguna heshiiyo qaabka midnimada labada dal noqonayso, tiiyoo midnimada ka hor loo baahanyahay in la sii lafa guro, lana derso hawlaha labada dal ku kala duwanyihiin, arrimahaasina loo saaro khubaro ka soo talo bixiya. Kadibna laga gaadho heshiis labada dhinac oggolyihiin.Waxaa kale ooy rumaysnaayeen in labada dhinac mid waliba gooni ahaanteed ay marka hore u noqoto dawlad madaxbanaan kadibna labada dawladood ka wada hadlaan arrimaha midnimada heshiis laysla ogyahayna ka gaadhaan.

QORAA 1:- Cabdiqani Maxamuud Muxumed

TELL :- +252634621573

QORAA 2:- Cabdishakuur Yuusuf Xuseen

TELL  :- +252634962756

QORAA 3:- Maxamed daud maaweel

TELL  :- +252634424110

QORAA 4:- Nasteexo Abiib Yuusuf

TELL :- +252634635989

Links[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]