Waxaraxir

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U bood: gooshitaan, raadi
Waxaraxir The Venusian symbol, a circle with a small equal-armed cross beneath it
Venus in approximately true colour, a nearly uniform pale cream, although the image has been processed to bring out details.[1] The planet's disc is about three-quarters illuminated. Almost no variation or detail can be seen in the clouds.
Global radar view of the surface from Magellan radar imaging between 1990 and 1994
Calaamadayn
Pronunciation Listeni/ˈvnəs/
Adjective Venusian or (rarely) Cytherean, Venerean
Sifooyin gaara[2][4]
Epoch J2000
Aphelion
Perihelion
Semi-major axis
Eccentricity 0.0067
Orbital period
Synodic period 583.92 days[2]
Average orbital speed 35.02 km/s
Mean anomaly 50.115°
Inclination
Longitude of ascending node 76.678°
Argument of perihelion 55.186°
Satellites None
Gacan
Sariibadaha 0[5]
Bedka oogada
Mug
Cuf
Macnaha Cufnaanta 5.243  g/cm3
Equatorial surface gravity
Escape velocity 10.36 km/s
Muddo wareeg −243.0185  Template:Convert/LoffAonDunit or textSoffTemplate:Convert/track/disp/unit or text (Retrograde)
Xawaare wareeg 6.52 km/h (1.81 m/s)
Foorar mile 177.36°[2]
Cirifka woqoooyi right ascension
  • 18h 11m 2s
  • 272.76°[6]
Cirifka woqooyi declination 67.16°
Kulka oogada yeraan dhex-dhexaad badnaan
Kelvin 737 K[2]
Celsius 462 °C
Apparent magnitude
  • brightest −4.9[8][9] (crescent)
  • −3.8[10] (full)
Angular diameter 9.7″ to 66.0″[2]
Jawiga
Cadaadiska oogada 92 bar (9.2 MPa)
Qaab dhismeedka

Waxaraxir ( summad : ♀ ) waa meeraha labaad ee baho cadceedeed ka soo Sun iyo waa ku dhawaad ​​ka wayn yahay dhulka . Sida Venus guuro hareeraha dhidibka u gaar ah jihada ka soo horjeedda ee dhaqdhaqaaqa agagaarka qorraxda si aad u dhihi kartaa in gadaal u wareegto , taasoo Venus iyo Triton kaliya ma . Venus waa meeraha keliya ee baho cadceedeed kuwaas oo maalin ka dheer tahay sanadka sababtoo ah Venus wareegto mar agagaarka qorraxda ee 225 maalmood, waxayse u baahan tahay oo buuxda 243 maalmood isbedel ku wareeg ah oo keliya oo hareeraha dhidibka u gaar ah . Like kale tan iyo Qarniyadii hore ee meerayaasha West loo yaqaan ( kuwa soo baxay iyada oo Saatun ) ayaa loo magacaabay by ahaa Gariig , kaas oo magac hiir our ( Giriigtu waxay sidoo kale sheegaysaa in Venus iyo Triton la xiriira ) . Waxaa la magacaabay ka dib markii ay ilaahadda jacayl Aphrodite , iyo , sida la meerayaasha kale , nidaamka wuxuu u sarreeyey by Romans -ka kuwaas oo magacyadooda ka dibna dhaxlo . Jacaylkoodii ilaahadda magacaabay Venus . Meeraha ayaa waxaa lagu yaqaan ka hor Qarniyadii hore iyo lahaayeen magacyo kala duwan ee dhaqamada kala duwan . Maaddaama ay inta badan waxaa lagu arki karaa macnaha of qorrax iyo qorrax ka soo baxa , waxa la yidhaahdaa waa star fiidkii iyo xiddigta waaberi oo ku qoran afaf dhawr ah . Venus sidoo kale waa jirka oo u nacaan, oo waa muuqataa in Samada ka dib markii Qoraxda iyo Dayaxa .

Meeraha ayaa waxaa la molnbeklädd leh jawi inta badan ka kooban carbon dioxide , laakiin sidoo kale qaybo yar oo nitrogen , dioxide baaruud iyo uumiga biyaha way ku jiraan . Taas ayaa ka dhigaysa dunida korkeeda aad u kulul oo aad u waantoobaan in ay nolosha , ugu yaraan foomamka aan ognahay in laga soo Earth . Sida meeraha durba waa sida weyn sida dhulku ilaa ay mararka qaarkood loo gudbin doono sidii dhulka walaasheed meeraha .

Venus leh Mercury yihiin meerayaasha kaliya ee Nidaamka Solar in aadan haysan bilaha cusubu dhashaan .

Tusmada [ hide]

1 Venus Aayadaha

2 -dhismeedka Gudaha

3 Khaatumo

4 Area

5 Hore Waxyaabo

5.1 Studies wax wal oo

5.2 Studies leh AIDS-ka cusub ee indhaha

5.3 probes Space

6 Fiction

7 Seeds

7.1 Notes

7.2 Suugaanta

8 Sidoo kale eeg

9 links External

Venus Aayadaha [Wax ka bedel | edit isha ]


On 14 June 2004 , waxaa jiray maris Venus ah ; ku dhowaad 6 saacadood sida Venus maray hore ee saxan ee qoraxda . Qeybo badan oo koonfurta iyo bartamaha Sweden daruurta - daboolay subax taas oo macnaheedu yahay in badan oo seegay maris Venus . Transit A ee Venus sidoo kale 6 dhacay June 2012 . Qofka No nool ay arkeen markii ay dhacday sanadkii 2004 . Transit ee Venus ka hor taariikhda qaaday in 1882 oo ka mid ah la soo dhaafay u galay kuwaas oo si aad u aragto ka hor 2004 dalka Iswiidan waxay ahayd in 1769 . Marinada noocan oo kale ah ay ahaayeen muhiimada cilmiga xiddigaha , tusaale ahaan , in ay isku dayaan in ay dhererka fogaanta qorraxda . Next maris Venus dhacdaa 2117th Venus leeyahay dul qaado kaas oo xidhiidh ah ku dhowaad saxda ah si wareeg dhulka ee leh saamiga 13 / 8 . Sidaa darteed , Venus iyo dhulka ku dhow dhab ah meel ay isku qaraabo 8 sano ( 13 Venus Orbit ) ka dib . Tani waxay u ogolaaneysaa rakaab sida caadiga ah dhacdaa in lammaane oo laba ilaa sideed sano . Markaas , waxay qaadataa ugu yaraan boqol sano , ilaa dabada ee soo socda waxay dhacdaa .

Dhismaha Inner [Wax ka bedel | edit isha ]




Size Venus ee la xiriira dhulka ee ka

The gudaha ee Venus waa wax la mid ah Dhulka . Qaybta sare ee Venus ka kooban yahay muhiimad ahaan of lakabka adag oo ah dhagaxa weyn loo yaqaan qolof ah iyo qiyaastii 40 mayl u qoto dheer waa . Qolof ah waxaa ka buuxa oo qolalkii ah dhagaxa weyn la shubay loo yaqaan magma . Qolladihiisa magma Kuwaasi quudinta marno dushiisa . Under rafatay waa go'iisii ​​ka kaas oo qiyaas ahaan 3 000 km qoto dheer . Arrintani waa mid aad u kulul , halkaas oo dhagaxa weyn semi- la shubay wareegto sida dareere dhegdheg qaro weyn . Dhagax weyn ee go'iisii ​​gaadiid u kulaylka in ay dusha sare by Hiitarada , ku gedaaman meesha wax kulul u kacda iyo inuu dhaco ama qabow . The dushooda Hiitarada , halkaas oo arrinta kulul ugu dhaw ee dusha sare , waxaa lagu magacaabaa dhibco kulul . Hetpunkterna sababa qolladihiisa magma in la quudiyo marno iyo mararka qaarkood ay kor u qolof ah oo dhan iyo hesho dhulka si ay u bararsan yihiin . In xarunta Venus waa xudunta u ah , goobahaasi aheydna socdaal xoogan kulul ee biraha la shubay , inta badan nickel iyo birta . Heerkulka core waxaa la qabtaa ilaa sababtoo ah cadaadiska ay Venus layers sare . Qofna hubaal ah uma oga , haddii xudunta u ah waa dareere ama adag ama kaliya qayb ahaan go'an dhulka . Aragtiyaha Most of the gudaha ee Venus ka yimaadaa isbarbardhigga Earth . Waxaa loo maleynayaa in Venus iyo Earth sameeyay si la mid ah iyo in ay qayb ka mid ah habka tamarta qoraxda , sidaas arrinta in meerayaasha waxay ka kooban yihiin waa in saabsan isku .

Khaatumo [Wax ka bedel | edit isha ]


Venus leeyahay jawi ka kooban intooda badan ee kaarboon iyo ku yar nitrogen . Waxay leedahay cadaadiska at dusha ku saabsan tahay 90 jeer ka weyn yahay cadaadiska on Earth ( cadaadiska siman on mile ah oo qoto dheer badda ah on Earth ) . The weyn oo CO2- hodanka ah gudbikaraa oo qaaradda wada jir ah ula natiijada ay aad u sarayso cadaadis atmosfeerta in saamayn xooggan lagu koriyo in kicisaa heerkulka dushiisa oo ku saabsan 400 ° C ka badan waxa ay leeyihiin haddii kale lahaa , si heerkulka dusha ka gaari karto 500 ° C. Taas ayaa ka dhigaysa Venus ' dusha gubniinka Mercury , inkastoo Venus waa ku dhowaanayaan labanlaab ka fog qorraxda .

Waxaa suurto gal ah in Venus mar lahaa biyaha dareere badan sida Earth . Afar bilyan oo sano ka hor inta qorraxda ka timaada kulaylka aan sida badan laakiin sida kulaylka u kacay biyo is afgarasho kaarboon si jawiga iyo dioxide kaarboon la sameeyo si kulaylka ee dusha meere ee sii kordhay ilaa dalaka lahaa gabi ahaanba is afgarasho . Marka laga xorreyn- bannaan ee Magellan sahamiyey dunida korkeeda , waxaa jiray rajada in la ogaado lahaa raad webiyaashaada oo qalalan ama calaamado kale oo uu biyo laakiin sida jirin ahaa marna helay . Haddii ay jirto ayaa biyaha in uu leeyahay raad sida la waayay tan iyo Venus weli waa volcanically firfircoon . [ 6 ] Sida uumiga biyaha , Alshaab ayaa ka soo dalaka ayaa sidoo kale si tartiib burburiyey uumi ee qorraxda ee shucaaca iyo hydrogen aasaasay iyo oksijiin . Hydrogen The shucaaca ionized iyo oksijiin ayaa la xidhxidhnaa halkii ay u macdanta ee ciidda in ogsijiin ugu horeysay oo kale dhulka . Sababo la Venus uu leeyahay xawaare aad u hooseeyo , kaayesi lafteeda agagaarka , taas oo tusaale ahaan waa dhulka xawaaraha Equatorial kaayesi ee 465,1 m / s halka Venus 1.81 kaliya m / s , ma ahaan ku beer magnetic taasoo hayn karo hydrogen ee ionized of jawiga laakiin waxaa jira post hore halkii meel dabaysha qoraxda . [ 7 ]

Area [Wax ka bedel | edit isha ]




Image A 3D ah ee dusha ee Venus

Venus ' dusha Dadwaynaha bannaankii baaxad weyn . Waxa kale oo jira kolayba ah grooves oo ballaadhan , sida Atalanta Planitia Guinevere Planitia iyo Lavinia Planitia . Waxaa jira laba buuraleyda waaweyn ee , HTML Terra ee soo hijrootay dhulalka waqooyiga ( oo ku saabsan size of Australia ) iyo Aphrodite Terra weheliyaan dhulbaraha ( oo ku saabsan cabbirka South America ) . On HTML Terra waa oogada ah , Lakshmi Planum , kaas oo la hareereeyey oo buuraha ugu sareeya on Venus oo ay ku jiraan ballaarnaa Maxwell Montes by . Xogta uu ka soo radar image Magellan waxay muujinaysaa in inta badan dusha ee Venus waa la daboolay durdurro dhagax dab . Waxa jira dhowr marno ballaaran (oo la mid Hawaii ama Olympus , isaguse ) sida Sif , isaguse . Natiijooyinka Recently ku dhawaaqay ayaa tilmaamaya in Venus weli waa volcanically firfircoon , laakiin kaliya meelo yar oo . In ka badan boqol milyan oo sanadood ee ugu dambeeyey , waxa ay ahayd firfircoon . Ma jiraan wax craters yar yar on Venus : meteorites yar yar la burburiyey ee Venus ' jawi cufan ka hor ay garaaci kartaa hoos . Craters wuxuu u muuqdaa inuu yimaado in rucubood oo muujinaysa in meteoroids waaweyn marka laga reebo jebiyaan inta ay ka gaarayaan dusha sare . The terrains oldest on Venus u muuqda in ay 800 oo milyan oo sano jir . Kobenhagen Riiraaqey waqtiga la tirtiro inta badan dusha hore .

Early Waxyaabo [Wax ka bedel | edit isha ]


Marka Venus waa shayga ugu maskax wanaagsan oo samada ka dib markii Qoraxda iyo Dayaxa , waxa uu lahaa qiimo weyn tahay dad badan .

Venus ayaa loo yaqaan labada " The Star Morning " iyo " Evening Star " , magaca sheegaysa in planet markii hore loo arkay sidii laba shey oo kala duwan . Inkasta oo Aborigines , kuwaas oo haddii kale waxaa loo yaqaan for fiiro ah sumalka uguma ay , ku magacaaban Venus , magaca Barnujbir , iyo waxaa jira xafladaha qadiimiga ah oo la xidhiidha dunida korkeeda .



Ammisaduqas Venus rinjiyeynta , taariikhaysan, 1581 f.Kr muujinaysaa indha-indhaynta sameeyo xiddigiyayaashii oo Baabuloon laga . Venus waxa lagu sheegay sidii Nin - Dar- ah - na

The note ah sumalka uguma ugu horeeya on Venus yimaado Baabuloon ka yimid , oo hoos King Ammisaduqas oo boqornimadiisa (inta u dhaxaysa 1646 BC iyo 1626 f.Kr ) . Venus Leaderboard ka soo Ammisaduqa , taariikhaysan, 1581 BC muujinaysaa in Baabilooniyans oo garatay Star ay subaxda iyo fiidkaba Star ahaa shay la mid ah . On board ee loo yaqaan Venus Nin - Dar- ah - na , " boqoradda dhalaalaya oo samada oo " oo macnaheedu yahay . [ 8 ]

Giriigtu waxay arkeen Venus sidii laba xiddigood oo kala duwan , Phosphoros ( " sidayna iftiin" ) iyo Hesperos ilaa Baytagooris ee 600 BC [ 9 ]

Romans The arkay Venus Aroortii arooryadow , taas oo macnaheedu yahay " Light qofka sita ," iyo Venus fiidkii Vespers . Norsemen waxa loo yaqaan Friggjarstjærna ka dib markii Freja .

Kii u horreeyey ayaa caddeeyaa Venus Transit la sameeyey by Yeremyaah Horrocks December 4 , 1639 ( 24 November sida ay Julian in ay ahayd in la isticmaalo ) oo ay weheliso saaxiibkii William inooga [ 10 ]



Transit ee Venus ee 1769 .

Waxa kale oo jira cadaymo muujinaya in ku meel gaar ah ee Venus lahaa ayaa la arkay mar hore in 1032 by astronomer ee Persian Avicenna . Markaas ku soo gabagabeeyey by Venus ahaa dhaw Earth badan Sun . [ 11 ] In 1100s ah , astronomer Andulusianka Ibn Bajjah ayaa lagu arkay " laba meerayaasha dhibco madow on qorraxda , sida " taasi oo markii dambe la ogaaday inay noqon Mercury iyo Venus Aayadaha .

Studies wax wal oo [Wax ka bedel | edit isha ]

Galileo Galilei ahaa baranayay Venus isagoo xoqad iyo arkay in wejiyada ay corresponded in ay Dayaxa . Waxa uu noqday mid ka mid ah doodaha uu for sababta nooc ee Copernican baho cadceedeed ahayd ka khayr badan Ptolemy . Midkoodna ma Galilei iyo Christiaan Huygens sano kadib arki karin dhismayaasha qaarkood . Kii u horreeyey ayaa sheegtay in ay arkaan qaar ka mid ah dhismayaasha on Venus ahayd astronomer hiwaayadda Talyaani , Francesco Fontana , waxa uu arkay waxay ahayd keliya saamaynta indhaha ka xoqad . Inkastoo Giovanni Domenico Cassini isu tixgeliyaa arki qaababka iyo iyaga qiyaasay ilaa laga soo wareeg ah in 23 saacadood iyo 21 daqiiqo . Si kastaba ha ahaatee , waxaa shaki haddii wuxuu arkay wax kasta oo qaabab dhab ah . Taasi la mid ah ay u soo baxday markii la sameeyey ee qarniyadii soo socda , marka cover daruur meere ee qariyaa dusha meere ee . Astronomers badan oo isku dayay in uu cabiro wareeg meere ee , natiijooyin kala duwan , inta badan si ay of 24 saacadood .

Ka sokow uu arko dhismayaasha on meeraha wuxuu ku fikiray waxay Fontana iyo Cassini sidoo kale aragnay moon ah . Waxay ahaayeen soo raacay, in bartamihii 1700 - by dadka kale , laakiin by 1764 ma jirin indha-indhaynta cusub ee dayaxa ku jirin .

Iyada oo daraasadda ee Venus oo dhan qorraxda ee 1761 yimid cilmiga Ruush Mikhail Lomonosov soo gabagabeeyey in meeraha ku lahaa jawi in uu ahaa ugu yaraan sida ballaaran , sida dhulku . [ 12 ] Dhawr tobanaan sano kadib , Johann Hieronymus Schröter helitaanka marqaatiyo more of its jawi

Percival Lowell la daabacay 1897 barbaro by channels on Venus oo kaliya sidii uu arkay on Mars , ayay yeeleen heli dhaweynta a more qabow , u sabab dhibaatooyin si ay u arkaan qaababka on Venus , sababta oo ah jawi .

Studies leh AIDS-ka cusub ee indhaha [Wax ka bedel | edit isha ]

Baaritaanadii u spectroscopic marka hore ka tayo loo sameeyay iyadoo la astronomers American ee 1932 iyo muujisay in jawiga badanaa ku jira kaarboon . Meeraha ayaa ahaa bartay by radar markii ugu horeysay ee 1961 .

Isku day Failed to spectroscopically cabiro time wareeg ah by arkaya saamayn Doppler ka muujisay in muddo wareeg ah waa in ay ka dheer . By sawirayo in qayb ka mid ultraviolet of roobeed oo ka FE Ross arki karin daruuraha . Meesha cabbirka ka muujiyay in heerkulka ee layers daruur sare ahaa oo hooseeya ( qiyaastii -35 ° C) iyo jawiga uu ahaa sidaas qaro weyn in cadaadiska hawada on dusha meere ee waa in ay ahaataa oo ku saabsan 90 times in dunida oo .

Probes Space [Wax ka bedel | edit isha ]



: rn@revisorsnamnden.se 2

The probe meel bannaan marka hore in isku dayay in lagu gaaro Venus ahaa Venera 1 kaas oo ahaa shay gudaha February 1961 by Midowga Soofiyeeti . Astronomers , si kastaba ha ahaatee , ugu dhakhsaha badan laga badiyay xiriir la Farsamada gacanta . Inkasta oo probe Maraykanka : rn@revisorsnamnden.se 1 guuldareysatay inay gaaraan bartilmaameedka .

Dayaxgacmeedka ayaa marka hore si dhab gaarey Venus ahaa labaad : rn@revisorsnamnden.se Waxaa gudbay December Planet 14 , 1962 at masaafo qiyaastii 30.000 km . Meesha cabbirka laga in aaladaan dib u diray oo muujisay in heerkulka dusha ku saabsan tahay 430 ° C. Waxa kale oo ay muujiyeen in meeraha uu leeyahay maya field magnetic la cabbiri karo iyo rogista cajaladda waa mid aad u dheer , 243 maalmood Earth . Probe The ogaadeen in Venus ee jawi waa sun iyo ka kooban oo leh xubno ka sulfuric acid . Dushiisa , cadaadiska hawada yahay 100 jeer ka wayn on Earth . [ 13 ]

Kuwa soo socda isku dayo ay quutan u soo diri meel u yeelaysa ilaalo hubaysan si ay Venus , Venera 2 iyo Zond 1 , waxay ahaayeen kuwo aan lagu guuleysan . Mana Venera 3 maamula si ay u soo celiso xogta qaar ka mid ah , laakiin sida ay astronomers Ruush ayaa shil - degay dunida korkeeda , sidaas darteedna wuxuu noqday meel bannaan oo probe ugu horeysay in degay dunida korkeeda .

Venera 4 guul ah in 1967 , ka duwan ka horreeyay ee lagu gaari Goolashii ugu badnaa ee ah in la dhigay . Waxaa la gaarey Venus iyo hoos u soo diray kaabsolka ah in degay ee Eistla marugada , iyada oo aan loo diro dib wixii xog ah ka dib markii degay . Isla sannadkaa gudbin 5 : rn@revisorsnamnden.se ee Venus of qiyaastii 4000 oo kiilomitir .

Venera 5 iyo Venera 6 ahayd isku day lagu guuleysan in ay dhul bannaan ee kaabsoosha on Venus , halka Venera 7 sano ee 1970 maamula dalka Navka Planitia iyo dib u soo celiso in 23 daqiiqo xogta . Laba sano ka dib degay Venera 8 hal goob ah iyo soo dirtay dib u xogta ah ee 50 daqiiqo . Waxaa ilaa qiyaasay xawaaraha dabaysha hooseeyo . : Rn@revisorsnamnden.se 10 gudbay Venus at ah oo ku saabsan 5768 kiilomitir on hab si Mercury .

Venera 9 iyo Venera 10 ahayd sida faah isku dayaan in ay dalka Dhulluxyadu on Venus . Waxay gaadheen Venus in October 1975 . Waxay ahaayeen guul iyo soo qaaday sawirro tayo sare leh ee dusha meeraha . Sawiradaasi waxay muujiyeen dusha Rocky iyadoo aanay jirin calaamado muuqda ee nabaadguurka , kaas oo ay sheegi kartaa joogitaanka dareere ah . Venera 9 qiyaasay heerkulka in ay 480 ° C iyo hal saac gudahood si qamaar loogu dhammaatay shaqeystaan ​​. Saddex maalmood ka dib degay Venera 10 iyo labada photos from probes kuwanuna waa images oo keliya in ay ka soo dusha Venus ee . [ 13 ] Venera 11 iyo Venera 12 ahaayeen more horumaray boos probes of type isku mid ah. Waxay gaadheen Venus 1978 iyo soo dirtay dib u xogta , laakiin ku guuldareystay , si kastaba ha ahaatee , si ay u soo celiso sawirada telefishanka dushiisa . USA u diray isla sanadkaas iska Pioneer 12 iyo Pioneer 13 , sidoo kale loo yaqaan Pioneer Venus 1 Pioneer Venus iyo labaad ee Pioneer 12 tegey oo wuxuu galay idiinna hareeraha dunida korkeeda ilaa 1992 . Pioneer ku jira afar Lander kaas oo degay ee Beta marugada , HTML marugada , Themis marugada iyo waqooyi ee Aino Planitia . Labada probes ahaayeen guul , iyo dib u diray oo u badan oo loo data , oo ay ku jiraan ka kooban of jawiga .



Magellan marka laga sii daayo dayax gacmeedka ee

Venera 13 iyo Venera 14 , kaas oo lagu gaarey Venus 1981 , ka koobnayd labada of dayax a idiinna , iyo Lander ah . Oo waxay ka sameeyeen baaritaanno ugu horreeya ee ciidda . Vega 1 iyo Vega 2 ahaa ee Soofiyeeti boos probes in gudbay Venus on hab si Algeeriya Halley iyo Venus maray in June 1985 . Waxay lahaa iyaga la Lander ah goobahaas , taasoo keenaysa in la keenay ay weheliyaan buufin goobahaas kuwaas oo ku noqday ku -kulka iyo dabayshu xogta xawaaraha .

Banaanka probe US Magellan tegey oo wuxuu galay idiinna agagaarka Venus u dhaxaysa August 1990 iyo Oktoobar 1994 . The xebaha oo meeraha ayaa ilaa xad ka weyn yahay sidii hore . Total xebaha oo 98 % ka mid ah oogada meere ee . In 1990 , gudbay by the planet Galileo iyo Cassini on hab si Jupiter iyo Saatun .

Probe The Venus Express tegey oo wuxuu galay idiinna agagaarka Venus 11 April 2006 . Waxaa iska leh ee ESA , Agency Space Yurub , iyo ayaa la bilaabay ka soo Kazakhstan on 9 November 2005 .

Fiction [Wax ka bedel | edit isha ]


Venus waa more of goobaha tababarka aayad ee koonkan Star November khayaalka iyo Venus ku xusan Arthur C. Clarke ee 3001 - safar ugu danbeysay . Waxaa kale oo halkan in lagu kaydiyo si ay buugaag Frederik Pohl ee Stargate qaadataa meel .

In labada buugaag , World iyo Zero - A iyo Players iyo Zero - A by AE van Yaasiin Nuur waa Venus uu kula dardaarmayo oo kaliya Zero - A qaranka : Zero - A -sooraan oo dunida mythic van Yaasiin ee .

[ Edit | edit isha ]


Notes [Wax ka bedel | edit isha ]

^ [ A d e b c ] Williams , Dr David R. ( April 15 , 2005 ) . " Xaashida Xaqiiqada ee Venus " . NASA . Keenay on 12 October 2007 .

^ [ B A ] Seidelmann , P. Kenneth (2007) . " Warbixinta oo ka mid ah IAU / IAGWorking Group on coordinate cartographic iyo xubno ka kaayesi : 2006 " . Makaanikada Murashax oo u badantahay in Dynamical 90 : ss . 155-180 . doi : 10.1007/s10569-007-9072-y . Keenay 28 August 2007 .

^ " Warbixin ku saabsan Working Group IAU / IAG ku on coordinate cartographic iyo xubno ka kaayesi of the meerayaasha iyo satalayt " . International sumalka Midowga . , 2000 . Keenay on 12 April 2007 .

^ " Venus : Facts & Figures " . NASA . Keenay on 12 April 2007 .

^ " Topics Space : Is barbardhig meerayaasha : Mercury , Venus , Earth , dayaxa, iyo Mars . " Planetary Society . Keenay on 12 April 2007 .

^ Shostak ( 1998) , pp 20-21

^ National Geographic : Venus , dhulka mataan shar ( 2009 )

^ Waerden , Bartel ( 1974 ) . Baraaruga Science II : dhalashada cilmiga xiddigaha . Springer . sin . 56 . ISBN 90-01-93103-0

^ Pliny the Elder (1991) . History Dabiiciga II :36 - 37 . Harmondsworth , Middlesex , UK : Mary Harper oo

^ Koller Strom , Nicholas ( 2004 ) . " William inooga muuqda ee Venus daawashada transit . " Proceedings IAU Libiya Maya . 196 , 2004 . International sumalka Midowga . Keenay on 10 May 2012 .

^ Goldstein , Bernard R. (1972) . "Aragtida iyo daawashada cireeyada Kilaas Jaamac " . Isis 63 ( 1 ) : p . 39-47 .

^ Marov , Mikhail Ya . ( 2004 ) . Mikhail Lomonosov iyo daahfurka ee jawiga of Venus Inta lagu jiro arrimihii ay 1761 . Cambridge University Press . sin . 209-219

^ [ B A ] Shostak ( 1998) , p.20

Suugaanta [Wax ka bedel | edit isha ]

Patrick Moore (2003) . Venus . Hong Kong : Cassell Illustrated . ISBN 1-84403-404-6

Seth Shostak ( 1998) . Wadaagista & TV . Aragtida on Extraterrestrial Life .. Berkeley : Berkeley Hill Books . ISBN 0-9653774-3-1

[ Edit | edit isha ]


Gumeysiga ee Venus

Cycle Venus

Venus ( sugantahay )

jawi Venus

List of buuraha on Venus

List of craters on Venus

External links [Wax ka bedel | edit isha ]


Commons - Maldiif Wikimedia Commons leedahay warbaahinta oo la xiriira Venus .

Warqada xaqiiqda ee Venus - NASA

Ruush Venus probes

Transit NASA Venus by abdisamad ibrahim
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