Meere

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Meere

Meereyaasha iyo xajmigooda. Labada ugu sareeya: Uraano (Uranus) iyo Docay (Neptune); Sadexda dhexe: Dhulka, xidiga Sirius B iyo Waxaraxir (Venus); Qeybta hoose: Dusaa (Mercury) iyo Farraare (Mars); Ugu hooseeya: Dayaxa, Meereyasha yar-yar Buluuto (Pluto) iyo Haumea.
Muuqaalka Meereha aan ku noolnahay ee Dhulka.


Muuqaalka Meereha Farraare ama Mars.
Meerayaasha 1854–1930, 2006–wakhti xaadirkan
1
Dusaa
☿
2
Waxaraxir
♀
3
Dhulka
⊕
4
Farraare
♂
5
Cirjeex
♃
6
Raage
♄
7
Uraano
♅
8
Docay
♆

Meere (ingiriis:Planet) waa dhul ama duni ka sameysan dhagaxaan, caro iyo hawo oo ku wareegta xidig ama qorax. Sida Cilmi Fallagu sheego waxa jira in ka badan balaayiin meereyaal Koonkan eeynu ku noolnahay. Meerayaasha waxaa guud ahaan loo qeeyniyaa labo: mid xajmi wayn oo cufkiisu yar yahay kana samaysan hawooyin iyo mid xajmi yar oo cufkiisu wayn yahay kana samaysan oogo dhagaxaan ah.[lower-alpha 1][1]

Sideedaas Meere waxay kala yihiin Dusaa (Mercury) oo Qoraxda ugu dhow, Waxaraxir (Venus), Dhulka iyo meeraha Farraare (Mars).

Meerayaasha waawayn ee neefta ka samaysan; Cirjeex (Jupiter), Raage (Saturn), Uraano (Uranus) iyo meeraha Docay (Neptune).

Ka dib waa meerayaasha xajmiga waaweeyn ee ka samaysan hawada iyo boodhka ee Cirjeex (Jupiter), Raage (Saturn), Uraano (Uranus) iyo meeraha Docay (Neptune).

Sidoo kale waxaa jira meerayaal yar-yar oo dhamaantood baraf, hawo iyo xoogaa caro ah ka sameysan waxaana ka mid ah meeraha yar ee Bluto (Pluto) oo waqtiyadii hore loo aqoonsanaan jirey in uu ka mid yahay Bahda Midaysay Qoraxdu.[2]

Meerayaashu weey kala xajmi duwan yihiin oo kala cimilo duwan yihiin. Meerayaasha qaar, sida Dusaa ama Venus aad ayuu u kulul yahay maadaama qoraxda aad ugu dhow yahay. Halka meerayaasha qaar leeyihiin dayaxyaal aad u faro badan, sida meeraha Raage ama Saturn wuxuu leeyahay 32 dayax oo ku wareega meerahaasi.

Taariikhda Cilmi Falaga[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Dadku waxay waligoodba jeclaayeen ineey fahmaan isla markaana ogaadaan in duunyooyin kale oo sida dhulka ah jiraan. Shan meere (qoraxda, dayaxa, dusaa, waxaraxir, farraare, cirjeex iyo raage) oo isha lagu arki karo ayaa aqoon yar loo lahaa tan iyo tobanaan qarni[3] ka hor, kuwaas oo saamayn ku lahaa dadkii wakhigaas noolaa.

Wakhtiyadii hore dadka xidigyahanada ahaa waxay aqoon u lahaayeen sida iftiino gaar ahi cirka u dhex maraan, xidigaha qaar wakhtiyada ay soo baxaan, kuwaas ooy u isticmaali jireen ineey ku safraan oogada dhulka iyo badaha waawayn dhexdooda. Ilbaxnimooyinkii hore, sida Giriiga, Shiinaha, Baabiloon (Babylon) iyo kuwo kaleba waxay aaminsanaayeen in dhulku badhtan u yahay dhamaan koonka.[4]

Baabiloon[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Ilbaxnimadii ugu horeeysay ee yeelata aqoon iyo fahan meerayaasha waxay ahayd Baabiloon[5] (babylon) oo ku dhex taalay Mesobotaamiya wakhtiyadii u dhaxaysay 2'000 sano ilaa 1'000 sano ciise hortiis.[6] Qoraalo duug ah oo ku beegan 700 sano ciise hortii kuwaas oo ka hadhay ilbaxnimadii Baabiloon waxa ku xusan liiska dhowr meere uu ka mid yahay waxaraxir. Sidoo kale waxaa ku qornaa liiska socodka meereyaasha waxaraxir, dusaa, farraare, cirjeex iyo raage; iyo meelaha ay ka iftiimaan wakhtiga habeenkii iyo wakhtiyada la arki karo sanadka.[7]

Giriiga & Romanka[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Horaantii ilbaxnimada Giriiga aqoon la mid ah tan Baabiloonta uma aanay lahayn meerayaasha iyo xidigaha. Laakiin qaringii 6aad ilaa qarnigii 5aad ciise hortiis ayaa qabiilada Pythagoras sameeysteen qaacidooyin cusub oo ay ku qeexeen qoraxda, dayaxa, dhulka iyo dhowr meere oo kale oo ku wareegaya dab badhtanka ka ololaya.

Pythagoreansku waxay ahaayeen dadkii ugu horeeyay ee sheegay in xidigta la arko qorax-dhaca (hesperos) iyo tan la arko qorax-soo-baxu (phosphoros) ineey yihiin xidig isku mid ah.[8] Si kastaba ha ahaatee, horaantii qarnigii 1aad ciise hortii, ayaa Giriigu horumariyeen xisaabinta meelaha iyo wakhtiyada la filaayo in la arko xidigaha. Taas oo u sahashay ineey ku kala ogaadaan xiliyada, wakhtiyada roobka la filaayo, iyo ineey u adeegsadaan socdaalada safarka.

Hindiya[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Qiyaastii sanadkii 499 ciise hortii ayaa xidigisyahan Aryabhata ee wadanka Hindiya[9] sheegay in dhulku ku wareego xariijintiisa, taasi oo uu ku qeexay in wareega dhulku ka yimaado dhanka galbeed. Sidoo kale wuxuu aaminsanaa ineey jiraan tiro kale oo meerayaal ah, dhamantoodna ay ku wareegaan shay ka wayn.

Si kastaba ha ahaatee, ardey baranayay Cilmi Fallaga sanadkii 1500 Nilakantha Somayaji ayaa sii horumariyey qaacidadii Aryabhata, asagoo ku daray in dhulku sameeyo wareeg dheer oo uu ku wareego udub dhexaad, iyo in meerayaasha kala ah Waxaraxir, Dusaa, Farraare, Cirjeex iyo Raage dhamaantood ku wareegaan qoraxda.[10]

Muslimiinta[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Horaantii qarnigii 11aad ayaa aqoonta iyo cilmiga dowladii Islaamiyiintu aad u horumarisey fahanka iyo adeegsiga Cilmi Fallaga. Waxaa jirey dugsiyo gaar u ah barashada cimiga xidigaha, kuwaas oo lagu baran jirey wakhtiyada iyo meelahay ay ka soo baxaan xidiguhu isla markaana safarleeydu u isticmaali jireen jiheeye ahaan.

Waxa la sheegaa in badhtamihii qarnigii 12aad xidigisyahan ibn Bajjah uu sheegay inuu uu arkay labo meere oo waji madoow aadna ugu dhow qoraxda, kuwaas oo uu horaantii qarnigii 13aad uu ku fasirey saynisyahan Qotb al-Din Shirazi ineey ahaayeen meerayaasha Waxaraxir iyo Dusaa.[11] Taasi waxay muujineysaa heerka aqoonta fiican eey Muslimiinta wakhtigaas u lahaayeen cilmiga xidigaha iyo sida ay u isticmaali jireen.

Yurubiyaanka[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

7da Meere ee Ptolemy
1
Dayax
☾
2
Waxaraxir
☿
3
Dusaa
♀
4
Qoraxda
☉
5
Farraare
♂
6
Cirjeex
♃
7
Raage
♄

Horaantii kacaankii sayniska ee qaarada Yurub waxaa la fahmey in meerayaashu yihiin duunyooyin dhisan lehna jidh la mid ah kan dhulka.[12] Aqoonyahanadii Cilmi Fallagu waxay isku keeneen cilmigii xidigaha ee dhamaan dunida ka jirey. Waxay ogaadeen in dayaxa iyo qoraxdu ka duwan yihiin meerayaasha kale, sidaas darteed waxay ku dareen liis ka duwan liiska meerayaasha.

Horaantii qarnigii 17aad waxay heleen in meereyaasha Cirjeex iyo Raage yihiin duni ka wayn dhulka.[13][14] Tan iyo intii laga gaadhayay qarnigii 19aad fahanka iyo aqoonta xidigaha iyo meerayaashu way isa soo tarayeen.

Qarnigii 19aad & 20aad[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Qarnigii 19aad dhexdiisa xidigisyahanadu waxay ogaadeen in duunyooyinka yaryar, sida Ceres, Pallas iyo Vesta, aanay ahayn meere laakiin ay yihiin duni yar sidaas darteed wax lagu magacaabay Asteroids. Sanadkii 1846dii waxaa la helay meeraha Docay (neptune) kaasi oo lagu daray liiska meerayaasha.

Si kastaba ha ahaatee, horaantii qarnigii 20aad waxaa la helay dunida yar ee Buluuto (pluto) taasi oo wakhtigaas la aaminsanaa ineey ka xajmi weeyn tahay dhulka, waxaana si dhakhso ah loogu aqoonsaday meeraha 9aad.[15]

Qarniga 21aad[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Meerayaasha 1854–1930, 2006–wakhti xaadirkan
1
Dusaa
☿
2
Waxaraxir
♀
3
Dhulka
⊕
4
Farraare
♂
5
Cirjeex
♃
6
Raage
♄
7
Uraano
♅
8
Docay
♆


Qarniga 21aad wuxuu ku bilaabmay ayadoo aqoon fiican loo leeyahay meerayaasha, dayaxyada, qoraxda, dunida yar, asteroidska, iyo dhamaan walxaha ku dhex jira Bahda Midaysay Qoraxdu. Sidoo kale, waxaa muran adag ka aloosmay in Buluuto ay ka mid ahaato meerayaasha iyo in loo aqoonsado duni yar. Ugu dambayn sanadkii 2006da waxaa la isla af-gartey in buluuto loo yaqaano duni yar, taasi oo tirada meerayaasha bahda midaysay qoraxda ka dhigeeysa sideed meere (Waxaraxir, Dusaa, Dhulka, Farraare, Cirjeex, Raage, Uraano iyo Docey).[16]

Dhinaca kale, maadaama teknoolajiyada ilbaxnimada dadku horumartey waxaa la sameeyay teleskoobyo waawayn oo lagu fiirinayo baho qoraxyeedyo kale, galaagsiyo kale iyo dhaamaan xidigaha ku baahsan koonka. Sidoo kale, wakhtigan waxaa la dul tagay dayaxa, dayaxgacmeedyo iyo satelaatyo ayaa hawada loo direy, dayaxgacmeed isagu ismaamulaya ayaa Farraare lagu dejiyay, xidigo badan iyo galaagsiyo badana waa la magacaabay.[17]

Bahda Qoraxdu Midaysay[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Marka la tixraaco Midowga Caalamiga ee Cilmi Fallaga (International Astronomical Union) oo loo soo gaabiyo (IAU) waxa jira 8 meere iyo 5 duni yar oo la aqoonsan yahay ee Bahda Qoraxdu Midaysay.[13][14] Ayagoo ka sii fogaanaya dhanka Qoraxda meerayaashu waa:

  1. ☿ Dusaa
  2. ♀ Waxaraxir
  3. ⊕ Dhulka
  4. ♂ Farraare
  5. ♃ Cirjeex
  6. ♄ Raage
  7. ♅ Uraano
  8. ♆ Docay

Cirjeex waa kan ugu muga wayn leh, in u dhiganta 318 muga dhulka, halka Waxaraxir yahan kan ugu cufka yar, tiro u dhiganta 0.055 muga dhulka.[18]

Dhanka kale, meerayaasha Bahda Qoraxdu Midaysay waxaa loo qaybin karaa guutooyin ayadoo lagu saleeynayo walxaha ay ka kooban yihiin:

  • Meere Dhagaxley: waa meerayaasha la midka ah dhulka, kuwaas oo leh jidh ka samaysan dhagaxaan, waxayna kala yihiin: Waxaraxir, Dusaa, Dhulka iyo Farraare. Waxaraxir waa midka ugu muga iyo miisaanka yar isla markaana ugu jidhka yar dhamaan Bahda Qoraxdu Midaysay, halka dhulku yahay kan ugu wayn meerayaasha dhagaxleyda ah.[19]
  • Neefaha Waawayn: kuwani waa meerayasha inta ugu badan ka samaysan isku dhisyo neefo ah, sida caadiga ahna way ka wayn yihiin meerayaasha dhagaxleyda ah, waana: Cirjeex, Raage, Uraano iyo Docay. Meeraha Cirjeex waa kan ugu wayn dhamaan meerayaasha bahda qoraxdu midaysay.
    • Barafley Waawayn, inta u dhexaysa Uraano iyo Docay waxaa jira neefo waawayn oo ka duwan kuwa aan kor ku soo sheegnay sababtoo ah waxay leeyihiin miisaan iyo cuf aad uga hooseeya kuwa kale.[20]
  • Duni yar: kuwani waa meerayaal aad u yaryar oo sanadkii 2006da loo aqoonsaday in lagu magacaabo Dwarf Planets, waxaana ka mid ah Ceres, Bluto, Haumea, Makemake iyo Eris.[21]

Qoraxda[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Qoraxda marka la barbar dhigo xajmiga meerayaasha.

Qoraxdu (sun) waa xidigta iftiimisa, kulaylka gaadhiisa isla markaana cufisjiidad ku heeysa dhamaan meerayaasha Bahda Qoraxdu Midaysay. Miisaanka iyo cufka qoraxdu wuxuu la mid yahay 332,900 kan meeraha dhulka.[22] Sidoo kale, bu'da dhexe ee qoraxda waxaa ka yimaada heerkulka, falaadhaha radiationka, elektaromagnetik radiation, iyo 400 ilaa 700 nm oo falaadhaha ileyska muuqda ah.

Cadaymo la arkey waxay xaqiijiyeen in barta qoraxdu ku taalo suurto gelisay in dhulka ka jirto nololi.

wakhti dhan 14 bilyan sano oo muujinaya da'da Qoraxda. Hada Qoraxdu waxay jirtaa 4.6 bilyan sano, markeey gaadho 6 bilyan sano si tartiib ah ayay u casaani taas oo muujineeysa in awoodeedu soo yaraaneyso. Markey 10 bilyan sano gaadho weey cadaani dhamaanteed - markan qoraxdu weey dhimatey.

Jiritaanka meerayashu waxay ku xidhan tahay nolosha qoraxda. Haddii isbedel ku yimaado qoraxda nolosha dhulka iyo waxkasta weey doorsoomayaan. Sida la qiyaasayo, Hal bilyan[23] sano ka dib, midabka qoraxdu waa isbedeli iftiinkuna waa sii kordhi sababto ah Hiliyaamta bu'da qoraxda ayaa sii kordheeysa taas oo keeni doonta in 10% kordho iftiinka, heerkulka iyo falaadhaha khatarta ah ee ka soo baxa qoraxda; halka 3.5 bilyan sano ka dib ay badan doonto 40%.

Aqoonyahanada Cimiladu waxay sheegeen isbedelkaas qoraxda ku yimid wakhtigaas sare u qaadi ilayska halista ah ee "radiation" taas oo lumin doonto biyaha badaha dhulka. Wakhti yar gudaheed, waxaa kor u kici heerkulka oogada sare ee dhulka, sidoo kale isku-wareega Kaarboon Ogsaydh CO2 oo muhiim u ah nolosha dhirta ayaa jaha wareeri iskuna bedeli Kaarbon afar (C4) oo sun ah.[24]

Dhirtu haday ka dhamaato dunida waxaa dhici in la waayo hawada Ogsajiin midaas oo sababaysa dhimashada noolaha oo dhan.

Hal bilyan sano oo kale kadib, heerkulka maqaarka sare ee dhulka wuxuu gaadhi, ugu yaraan, 70 degree Salsiyas midan oo jaho-wareer ku keenaysa miisaanka iyo cufis-jiidadka dunida.

Midabka qoraxdu wuxu noqon casaan 5 bilyan sano ka dib, isla markaan gacanka qoraxdu wuxuu gaadhi meel ka badan 250 jeer meesha uu hada joogo. Wakhtigan lama hubo, sida dhulku noqon, laakiin waxa la og yahay in wareega dhulku isbedeli sababto ah aad ayuu uga fogaani qoraxda.

Mudo yar ka dib, bu'da qoraxdu waxay isku bedeli cadaan bilaa kul iyo ileys[25] ah, halkaas ayaana ugu dambeeysa isku xidhnaanta Bahda Qoraxdu Midaysay.

Qeeybaha Meerayaasha[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Sida Cilmi Fallagu sheegay Koonkan eeynu ku nool nahay waxa jira in ka badan bilyan meere, kuwaas oo ku baahsan geesaha Koonka.[26]

Bahda Midaysay Qoraxdu oo ah meereyaasha aan si fiican u naqaano waxay ka kooban yihiin 8 meere oo kala ah:

Afarta Meere ee ugu dhow Qoraxda: Dusaa, Waxaraxir, Dhulka iyo Farraare


  • Dhulka oo ah dunida aan ku nool nahay iyo
  • Farraare (Mars) oo ah meeraha kali ah ee u qaab-dhismeed dhow dunida aan ku nool nahay.

Waxa jira baaxad weeyn oo u dhexeeysa 4 meere een soo sheegnay iyo inta kale.

Xajmiga iyo miisaanka Meerayaasha ka tirsan Bahda Midaysay Qoraxdu.


Afarta meere ee ka dambeeya baaxada weeyn ee hawooyinka iyo neefaha iyo dhagaxaanta ah waa meerayaasha xajmiga waaweeyn[27] ee ka samaysan hawada iyo boodhka ee kala ah:

  • Cirjeex (Jupiter) waa meeraha oogu xajmi weeyn Bahda Midaysay Qoraxdu,
  • Raage (Saturn) waa meeraha labaad ee oogu xajmi weeyn Bahda Midaysay Qoraxdu, wuxuuna leeyahay dariimo wareeg ah oo ku wareegsan, waana meeraha oogu dayaxa badan asagoo leh 32 dayax

Sidoo kale waxaa jira aduunyooyin yar-yar oo dhamaantood baraf, hawo iyo xoogaa caro ah ka samaysan; waxaana ka mid ah:

Meerayaashu weey kala xajmi duwan yihiin oo kala cimilo duwan yihiin. Meerayaasha qaar, sida Dusaa (Mercury) aad ayuu u kulul yahay maadaama qoraxda aad ugu dhow yahay. Halka meereyaasha qaar leeyihiin dayaxyaal aad u faro badan, sida meeraha Raage ama Saturn wuxuu leeyahay 32 dayax oo ku wareega meerahaasi.[28]

Meeraha dhexe[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Meerayaasha dhexe. Ka soo biloow bidix ilaa midig:
Dhulka, Farraare, Dusaa iyo Waxaraxir.


Afarta Meere ee u dhow qoraxda, kuwaas oo loo yaqaano Meere Dhagaxley sababtoo ah waxay ka samaysan yihiin dhagaxaan iyo macdano[29] bir ah. Intooda u badan waxay leeyihiin tiro yar oo dayaxaan ah ama maba laha.

Qaabdhismeedka jidhkoodu wuxuu ka samaysan yahay oogo sare oo ka kooban macdanta silikates, iyo biro ay ka mid yihiin aayron iyo nikel kuwaas oo sameeya ubucda dhexe ee meerahaasi.

Dusaa[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Meeraha Dusaa (mercury) waa kan ugu dhow qoraxda (masaafo dhan 0.4 AU u jirta qoraxda),[30] iyo kan ugu yar dhamaan meerayaasha Bahda Qoraxdu Midaysay asagoo leh 0.55 muga dhulka.[31]
Meerahan Dusaa ma lahan wax dayax ah, waxaana lagu yaqaanaa in uu leeyahay oogo sare oo heerkulkeedu aad u sareeyo isla markaana qani ku ah curiyeyaasha birta sida aayron, nikel iyo salikaytis.[32][33][34]

Waxaraxir[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Meeraha Waxaraxir (Venus) waa dunida labaad ee ugu dhow qoraxda (masaafo dhan 0.7 AU u jirta qoraxda),[35] isla markaana waa mid aad ugu xajmi dhow dhulka ayadoo leh 0.815 muga dhulka.
Sidoo kale, si la mid ah dhulka, meeraha Waxaraxir wuxuu leeyahay oogo sare oo ka samaysan silikayte iyo ubuc dhexe oo ka kooban birta aayron iyo nikel; iyo waliba cir[36] sare oo hawooyin ku dahaaran tahay.
Meeraha Waxaraxir ma lahan wax dayax ah, aad ayuuna u qalalan yahay - taas macnaheedu waa biyo ma lahan. Intaas waxaa dheer, meerahan waa kan ugu kulul dhamaan meerayaasha Bahda Qoraxdu Midaysay ayadoo leh 400 °C (752°F).[37]

Dhulka[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Meeraha Dhulka (earth) waa kan sadexaad ee qoraxda u dhow (masaafo dhan 1 AU u jira qoraxda), kan ugu wayn ee ugu culus meerayaasha dhagaxleyda ah. Sidoo kale, waa meeraha kali ah ee leh dhaqdhaqaaq jiyooloji iyo dunida kali ah eey ka jirto nolol[38] inta la ogyahay. Intaas waxaa dheer, dhulku waa meeraha kali ah ee leh biyo dareere ah dhamaan meerayaasha dhexe.
Cirka sare ee dhulku waa mid ka duwan meerayaasha kale, waxaana ku dhex jira 21% ogsajiin[39] bilaash ah, taasi oo taageertay nolosha ka dhex jirta ee xayawaanka iyo dhirta leh.
Meeraha dhulku wuxuu leeyahay hal dayax oo dabiici ah.[40]

Farraare[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Meeraha Farraare (mars) waa kan afaraad ee qoraxda ugu dhow (masaafo dherer dhan 1.5 AU[41] u jira qoraxda), isla mar ahaantaana waa mid waxyar ka yar dhulka ayadoo leh 0.107 muga dhulka. Cirkeedu wuxuu inta u badan ka kooban yahay kaarbon labo ogsaydh iyo cadaadis dhan 6.1 millibars[42] taasi oo u dhiganta 0.6% cadaadiska dhulka.
Foolkaano aad u badan ayaa ka dhaca oogada sare ee Farraare, carada[43] meerahani waa mid cas sababtoo ah waxaa ku badan macdanta aayron ogsaydh aad u daxaleysatey.
Meeraha Farraare wuxuu leeyahay labo dayax oo dabiici ah, Deimos iyo Phobos.[44]

Meerayaasha Baxsan[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Kor ka soo biloow ilaa hoos:
Docay, Uraano, Raage iyo Cirjeex
.

Afarta meere ee banaanka u baxsan waa meereyaasha Neefaha Waawayn ee Bahda Qoraxdu Midaysay[45] kuwaas oo ah 99% walxaha ku wareega qoraxda. Cirjeex iyo Raage ayaa waxay yihiin tobanaan kun oo jeer miisaanka iyo muga dhulka, waxayna ka samaysan yihiin isku dhisyo haydarojiin iyo hiliyaam. Dhanka kale, Uraano iyo Docay waxay leeyihiin 20 jeer laab muga dhulka waxayna ka samaysan yihiin macdano dhalaali kara oo ka kooban baraf.[46][47]

Cirjeex[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Meeraha Cirjeex (Jupiter) waa meeraha shanaad ee qoraxda ugu dhow (masaafo dherer dhan 5.2 AU u jira qoraxda) iyo 318 jeer muga dhulka. Wuxuu ka samaysan yahay meerahani isku dhisyo u badan haydarojiin iyo hiliyaam.
Dhinaca kale, meeraha Cirjeex waa kan ugu leh tirada ugu badan ee dayax asagoo leh 67 dayax. Afarta ugu wayn lo, Ganymede, Callisto, iyo Europa waxay leeyihiin qaabdhismeed u dhow meerayaasha dhagaxleyda ah, sida foolkaanaha iyo gudo kulul.[48] Ganymede oo ah satelaytka ugu wayn Bahda Qoraxdu Midaysay, ayaa wuxuu ka wayn yahay meeraha Waxaraxir (mercury).

Raage[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Meeraha Raage (saturn) waa meeraha lixaad ee qoraxda ugu dhow (masaafo dherer dhan 9.5 AU u jira qoraxda) iyo 95 jeer muga dhulka. Meerahan waxaa lagu yaqaanaa dariimada goobo ee ku wareegsan taasi oo ka samaysan xoogaa baraf iyo saxaro dhagaxaan ah, wuxuuna leeyahay 60% cufka Cirjeex, taasi oo ka dhigaysa meeraha ugu cufka yar dhamaan aduunyooyinka Bahda Qoraxdu Midaysay.[49]
Meerahan Raage wuxuu leeyahay tirada labaad ee ugu badan dayaxyada taasi oo ah 62 dayax. Labada dayax ee ugu wayn dayaxyada Raage, Titan iyo Enceladus waxay leeyihiin dhaqdhaqaaq jiyooloji inkastoo ay ka samaysan yihiin baraf iyo hawo.[50]

Titan oo ah satelite labaad ee ugu wayn wuxuu ka jidh wayn yahay meeraha Waxaraxir.

Uraano[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Meeraha Uraano waa kan todobaad ee qoraxda ugu dhow (asagoo u jira masaafo dhan 19.2 AU) iyo 14 jeer muga iyo miisaanka dhulka, kaasi oo ah kan ugu fudud dhamaan meerayaasha Bahda Qoraxdu Midaysay. Uraano wuxuu leeyahay ubuc dhexe oo ka qaboow badan oogada sare.[51]
Meeraha Uraano wuxuu leeyahay tirada sadexaad ee ugu badan taasi oo dhan 27 dayax, kuwa ugu waawayni waa Titania, Oberon, Umbriel, Ariel iyo Miranda.

Docay[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Meeraha Docay (neptune) waa meeraha sideedaad ee Bahda Qoraxdu Midaysay wuxuuna u jiraa qoraxda masaafo dherer dhan 30 AU, wuxuu leeyahay cuf iyo miisaan u dhigma 17 jeer laab cufka dhulka.[52]
Meeraha Docay wuxuu leeyahay 4 dayax oo kan ugu wayn yahay Triton oo leh dhaqdhaqaaq jiyooloji firfircoon.[53]

Duni Yar[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Waxa jira tiro dhowr ah oo meereyaal yaryar ah kuwaas oo loo yaqaano duniyar waxaana ka mid ah Bluto. Dunida yar ee bluto waxy u jirtaa qoraxda masaafo dherer oo dhan 39 AU waana tan ugu wayn dhowrka duniyar ee la yaqaano, waxaana la helay sanadkii 1930kii ayadoo wakhtigaas laga dhigay meeraha 9aad ee Bahda Qoraxda Midaysay. Ka dib, sanadkii 2006da ayaa laga saaray liiska meerayaasha ayadoo loo aqoonsaday in bluto tahay duniyar.

Qaab Dhismeedka[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Nooca Magaca Dhulbadhe
balaca[lower-alpha 2]
Cufka Meere[lower-alpha 2] Gacanka Wareega (AU) Wakhtiga Wareega
(sanado)[lower-alpha 2]
Meesha
kaga beegay yahay Qoraxda
(°)
Wareega
eccentricity
Wareega Xariijintiisa
(maalin)
Confirmed
Dayaxa DabiicigaTemplate:Refn
Goobo Meere Cirka
Meere Dhagaxley Waxaraxir 0.382 0.06 0.31–0.47 0.24 3.38 0.206 58.64 0 maya aad u yar
Dusaa 0.949 0.82 0.72 0.62 3.86 0.007 −243.02 0 maya CO2, N2
Dhulka[lower-alpha 3] 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 7.25 0.017 1.00 1 Maya N2, O2, Ar
Farraare 0.532 0.11 1.52 1.88 5.65 0.093 1.03 2 maya CO2, N2, Ar
Neefaha Waawayn Cirjeex 11.209 317.8 5.20 11.86 6.09 0.048 0.41 67 haa H2, He
Raage 9.449 95.2 9.54 29.46 5.51 0.054 0.43 62 yes H2, He
Uraano 4.007 14.6 19.22 84.01 6.48 0.047 −0.72 27 yes H2, He
Docay 3.883 17.2 30.06 164.8 6.43 0.009 0.67 14 haa H2, He
Duni yar Ceres 0.08 0.000 2 2.5–3.0 4.60 10.59 0.080 0.38 0 maya midna
Bluto 0.18 0.002 2 29.7–49.3 248.09 17.14 0.249 −6.39 5 maya ku meel gaadh
Haumea 0.15×0.12×0.08 0.000 7 35.2–51.5 282.76 28.19 0.189 0.16 2  ?  ?
Makemake ~0.12 0.000 7 38.5–53.1 309.88 28.96 0.159 0.32 0  ?  ?[lower-alpha 4]
Eris 0.19 0.002 5 37.8–97.6 ~557 44.19 0.442 ~0.3 1  ?  ?[lower-alpha 4]

Muuqaalka Guud[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Muuqaalka meere waa mid ku xidhan awooda [54] isla markaana keenta awood elektaromangantig isku haysa muuqaalka meere oo ka dhigtay mid goobo ah. Marka xadi go'an oo cuf ah uu ku xidhmo awooda cufisjiidadka oo u soo jiidta badhtanka walaxdaasi taasi ayaa keenta in sheygaasi yeesho qaab wareegsan.[55]

Dhamaan meerayaasha, xidigaha, dhagaxaanta waawayn, dunida yar iyo walxaha kale ee koonka dhex sabeeynaya waxay leeyihiin qaab dhismeed goobada u dhow, taasi ooy sabab u tahay isku soo jiidashada bu'da dhexe ee shegaas oo cufisjiidadku ku hayo badhtanka.

Samayska Gudaha[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Meere kasta wuxuu ku bilaabmay marxalad dareere ah; samayska marka hore, sheeyada miisaanka culus, ee qarada adag leh waxay iskugu tagaan bu'da ama badhtanka ayadoo inta fudud soo marto korka sare isla markaana ku qaboowdo ka dibna adke noqoto. Sidaas darteed, meere kasta waa kala duwan yahay xubnaha ku jira ubucda ama qeybta dhexe.[56]

Dhinaca kale, meerayaasha dhagaxleyda ahi way ka duwan yihiin meerayaasha neefaha waawayn. Kuwa dhagaxleyda ahi waxay leeyihiin qolof adag oo ku dahaadhan iyo ubuc ka samaysan curiyeyaal bir ah sida Aayron, Nikel iyo iskudhisyo Silikoon ah, halka neefaha waawayni ku daboolan tahay daruur hawo iyo adke jilicsan ah.[8]

Wareega Meere[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Wareega Sanadle[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Sida la isku waafaqay, dhamaan meerayaashu waxay ku wareegaan xidig, taasi oo loo yaqaano wareega sanadle (orbiting). Tusaale ahaan, meerayaasha Bahda Qoraxdu Midaysay dhamaantood waxay ku wareegaan qoraxda, jiho la mid ah tan qoraxdu u ged-gedoonto (waa qaab la mid ah habka saacadu u wareegto "clockwise"). Ugu yaraan, hal meere, WASP-17b, oo aad inooga fog ayaa la arkey inuu u wareego jiho ka duwan tan xidigtiisu u gedoonto.[57]

Wakhtiga ay meere ku qaadato inuu dhamaystiro hal wareeg oo uu ku soo duurayo qoraxda waxaa loo yaqaanaa sanad. Hadaba sanadada meerayaashu way kala duwan yihiin taasi oo ku xidhan kolba masaafada iyo fogaanta uu u jiro qoraxda. Meeraha ugu fog masaafada qoraxda ayaa ugu sanad dheer isla markaana ugu socod gaaban sababtoo ah aad ayuu uga dheer yahay cufisjiidadka qoraxdaasi.

Gedgedoonka Meere[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Meere kasta wuxuu ku gedgedoomaa (rotate) xariijin udub-dhexaadkiisa ah taasi oon la arki karin. Gedoonkaasi meere oo ka soo bilaabma bari ilaa galbeed ayaa waxay keentaa maalinta iyo habeenka, sababtoo ah iftiinka qoraxda ayaa kolba dhinac ka mid ah meerahaais u muuqda.[58]

Inta u badan meerayaasha bahda qoraxdu midaysay waxay u soo gedoomaan hab waafaqsan wareega saacada, marka laga reebo meeraha Uraano oo asaga lagu wado in uu u gedoomo jiho lid ku ah wareega saacada. Gedgedoonka meerayaashu way kala duwan tahay, meeraha Dusaa waxay ku qaadataa dhowr saacadood inuu dhamaystiro gedoon xidhan, taasi oo ah habeen iyo maalinta Dusaa; halka meerayaasha waawayn ee neefta ah ay ku qaadato maalmo badan iney sameeyaan hal gedoon oo dhamaystiran.[59]

Cufusjiidadka[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Cufka iyo Miisaanka[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Tirada Dayax ee Meeraha[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Dayax/Bil

Dayaxa meere waa duni yar oo ka samaysan dhagaxaan, neef iyo isku dhisyo kale taasi oo ku wareegta meere. Tusaale ahaan, dayaxa meeraha dhulka. Waxaa jira 173[60] dayax oo ku meeraysta meerayaasha Bahda Qoraxdu Midaysay, iyo sideed kale oo ku wareega dunida yaryar. Meereyaasha Waxaraxir iyo Dusaa ma lahan wax dayax ah, Dhulku wuxuu leeyahay hal dayax, meeraya afaraad Farraare wuxuu leeyahay labo dayax oo kala ah Fobos (Phobos) iyo Dheymos (Deimos).[61]

Neefaha Waawayn waxay leeyihiin tiro badan oo dayaxyo ah, kuwaas oo qaarkood le'eg yihiin xajmiga dayaxa dhulka. Meeraha Cirjeex[62] waa kan leh tirada ugu badan daxayada ee Bahda Qoraxdu Midaysay, wuxuuna leeyahay 67 dayax. Waxaa ku xiga meeraha Raage oo leh tirada labaad ee ugu badan dhamaan sideeda meere ee bahda qoraxdu midaysay kuwaas oo ah 62 dayax. Dhinaca kale, meeraha Uraano wuxuu leeyahay tirada sadexaad ee ugu badan bahda qoraxdu midaysay kuwaas oo dhan 27 dayax.[8] Meeraha Docay wuxuu leeyahay 14 dayax.

Si kastaba ha ahaatee, duunyooyinka yar qaar ka mid ah waxay leeyihiin dayaxyo yaryar oo ku wareega ayaga. Dunida yar ee Ceres[63] ma lahan wax dayax ah, laakiin dunida yar ee Bluto[64] waxay 5 dayax oo wareega. Sidoo kale, dunida yar ee Haumea waxay leedahay 2 dayax, waxaa iyadna hal dayax leh dunida yar ee Eris.

Waxaa la aaminsan yahay in dayaxyada qaar ay ka jirto nolol, sida dayaxa Titan ee Cirjeex iyo bisha Triton ee meeraha Docay, laakiin lama hubo ineey jirto midaasi.[14]

Dayaxa Dhulka[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Dayaxa meeraha Dhulka.

Dayaxa dhulku waa kan ugu weeyn[65] dhamaan dayaxyada meereyaasha Bahda Qoraxdu Midaysay kaas oo la odhan karo wuxuu ka wayn yahay meereyaasha yaryar qaarkood. Cufis-jiidadka u dhexeeya dhulka iyo dayaxa ayaa keena mowjadaha badaha, taas mi la mid ah ayaa keentay isku-xidhnaanshaha labadooda. Dayaxa oo ku socda xawaare dhan 1.022 kilomitir ilbiriqsigiiba, ayaa waxay ku qaadataa 27 maalmood, 7 saacadood iyo 43 daqiiqo in uu hal mar ku wareego dhulka.

Dhinaca kale, isku wareega dayaxu (circumference) waa 10, 921 km; cufkiisuna waa 2.1958 ×
1010 km3 halka mugiisu yahay 7.3477 ×
1022 kg. Maadaama dayaxa cirkiisu aad u khafiif yahay falaadhaha qoraxduna toos u soo taabtaan oogada dayaxa ayaa heerkulkiisu aad u sareeyaa ugu yaraan waa 100 Kalfin ugu badnaana wuxuu gaadhaa 390 K.

Jidhka dayaxu wuxuu ka samaysan yahay iskudhisyo kala duwan kuwaas oo u badan curiyeyaasha kala ah: Argon, Hiliyaam, Sodhiyaam, Botashiyaam, Haydarojiin iyo Raadon.

Markii ugu horeeysay taariikhda bani-aadamka, sanadkii 1959kii ayaa Dayax Gacmeed Ruushku leeyahay tagay dayaxa. Ka dib, 1968dii ayaa qofkii ugu horeeyay cagaha saaray dayaxa kaas oo ka socday Dawladda Maraykanka. Sanadkii 2004 wixii ka dambeeyay ayaa wadanada Jabaan, Hindiya, Shiinaha iyo Yurub saldhigyo ka sameeysteen dayaxa.

Inkasto dayaxu lahayn cir sare oo ka difaaca kulka qoraxda, cilmi baadhis la sameeyay waxay muujisay in dayaxu leeyahay biyo laga heli karo cidhifyada dayaxa iyo oogada sare dhexdeeda.[66]

Dayaxa Farraare[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Meereha Farraare (Mars) wuxuu leeyahay labo dayax oo kala ah Fobos (Phobos) iyo Dheymos (Deimos).

Dayaxa Cirjeex[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

dayaxa lo ee meeraha Cirjeex.

Meereha Cirjeex[67] waa kan leh tirada ugu badan daxayada ee Bahda Qoraxdu Midaysay, wuxuuna leeyahay 67 dayax.

Tirada dayaxyada ee meerahan Cirjeex aad ayay u badan tahay, dhamaantoodna aqoon fiican looma laha, laakiin kuwa ugu caansan waxaa ka mid ah:

Dayaxa Raage[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

dayaxa Titan ee meeraha Raage.

Meereha Raage[68] waa kan labaad ee leh tirada ugu badan daxayada ee Bahda Qoraxdu Midaysay, wuxuuna leeyahay 62 dayax.

Tirada dayaxyada ee meerahan Raage aad ayay u badan tahay, dhamaantoodna aqoon fiican looma laha, laakiin kuwa ugu caansan waxaa ka mid ah:

Dayaxa Uraano[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

dayaxa Titania ee meeraha Uraano.

Meereha Uraano[69] (Uranus) wuxuu leeyahay tirada sadexaad ee ugu badan bahda qoraxdu midaysay kuwaas oo dhan 27 dayax.

Meerahan Uraano wuxuu leeyahay tiro badan oo dayaxyo ah, kuwaas waxaa ugu caansan:

Dayaxa Docay[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

dayaxa Proteus ee meeraha Docay.

Meereha Docay[70] (Neptune) wuxuu leeyahay tirada afaraad ee ugu badan Bahda Qoraxdu Midaysay kuwaas oo dhan 14 dayax.

Meerahan Docay wuxuu leeyahay tiro badan oo dayaxyo ah, kuwaas waxaa ugu caansan:

Meerayaasha Koonka[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Afarta Meere ee ugu dhow Qoraxda: Dusaa, Waxaraxir, Dhulka iyo Farraare

Aqoonta Aadamaha ee Koonka[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Sawiraan ka kooban xubnaha Bahda Midaysay Qoraxdu iyo sharaxaada xajmiga Meereyaasha iyo dayaxyadooda.

Qoraxda in ka badan 10,000 oo jeer ayay ka weeyn tahay isla markaana 41 trillion ayay ka mug iyo cuf weeyn tahay dhamaantood.[12]


Solar System
TheSun.png
Jupiter by Cassini-Huygens.jpg
Saturn during Equinox.jpg
Uranus2.jpg
Neptune.jpg
The Earth seen from Apollo 17.jpg
Venus-real.jpg
Qorax
(Xidig)
Cirjeex
(meere)
Raage
(meere)
Uroono
(meere)
Docey
(meere)
Dhul
(meere)
Waxaraxir
(meere)
Mars Hubble.jpg
Ganymede g1 true 2.jpg
Two Halves of Titan.png
Mercury in color - Prockter07-edit1.jpg
Callisto.jpg
Io highest resolution true color.jpg
FullMoon2010.jpg
Farraare
(meere)
Ganymede
(dayaxa Cirjeex)
Titan
(dayaxa Raage)
Dusaa
(meere)
Callisto
(dayax Cirjeex)
Io
(dayaxa Cirjeex)
Dayax
(dayaxa Dhulka)
Europa-moon.jpg
Triton Voyager 2.jpg
Titania (dayax) color cropped.jpg
PIA07763 Rhea full globe5.jpg
Voyager 2 picture of Oberon.jpg
Iapetus as seen by the Cassini probe - 20071008.jpg
PIA00040 Umbrielx2.47.jpg
Europa
(dayaxa Cirjeex)
Triton
(dayaxa Docey)
Titania
(dayaxa Uraano)
Rhea
(dayaxa Raage)
Oberon
(dayaxa Uroone)
Iapetus
(dayaxa Raage)
Umbriel
(dayaxa Uroone)
Ariel-NASA.jpg
Dione (Mond) (30823363).jpg
Inset-sat tethys-large.jpg
Ceres optimized.jpg
Vesta full mosaic.jpg
Enceladus from Voyager.jpg
Miranda.jpg
Ariel
(dayaxa Uroone)
Dione
(dayaxa Raage)
Tethys
(dayaxa Raage)
Ceres
(meere yar)
Vesta
(asteroid)
Enceladus
(dayaxa Raage)
Miranda
(dayaxa Uroone)
Proteus Voyager 2 croped.jpg
Mimas moon.jpg
Hyperion in natural colours.jpg
Phoebe cassini.jpg
PIA12714 Janus crop.jpg
PIA09813 Epimetheus S. polar region.jpg
Prometheus 12-26-09a.jpg
Proteus
(dayaxa Docey)
Mimas
(dayaxa Raage)
Hyperion
(dayaxa Raage)
Phoebe
(dayaxa Raage)
Janus
(dayaxa Raage)
Epimetheus
(dayaxa Raage)
Prometheus
(dayaxa Raage)

Nolosha Ka Jirta Bahda Qoraxdu Midaysay[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Ilaa iyo hada inta la ogyahay meeraha kali ah ee nolol ka jirto waa meeraha dhulka. Nolosha meeraha dhulka oo guud ahaan loo yaqaano "biosphere", ayaa waxa la aaminsan yahay ineey bilaabantay (qiyaastii) 3.5 bilyan sanno ka hor.

Dhulku wuxuu hooy u yahay malaayiin nooc oo noole ah, kaas ooy ka mid yihiin Aadamuhu. Ilaha Macdanta iyo habka is-daba-wareega biyaha ayaa ah mid u gaar ah meerahan isla markaana suurto gal ka dhigey ineey taageerada noolaha degan dhulka.

Sahaminta Meera Farraare (Mars)[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Raadinta Nolol kale[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Xigasho[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

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  3. kale oo sida dhulka ah jiraan. Shan meere (qoraxda, dayaxa, dusaa, waxaraxir, farraare, cirjeex iyo raage) oo isha lagu arki karo ayaa aqoon yar loo lahaa tan iyo tobanaan qarni
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  40. xayawaanka iyo dhir
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  45. Neefaha Waawayn ee Bahda Qoraxdu Midaysay
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  47. "isku dhisyo haydarojiin iyo hiliyaam"
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  54. cufka iyo muga ee ku taxan awooda cufisjiidadka
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  60. 173 dayax oo ku meeraysta meerayaasha Bahda Qoraxdu Midaysay, iyo sideed kale oo ku wareega dunida yaryar
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  62. Cirjeex waa kan leh tirada ugu badan daxayada ee Bahda Qoraxdu Midaysay
  63. Ceres ma lahan wax dayax ah
  64. Bluto waxay 5 dayax oo wareega.
  65. weeyn dhamaan dayaxyada meereyaasha Bahda Qoraxdu Midaysay
  66. Ptolemy; Toomer, G. J. (1998). Ptolemy's Almagest. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-00260-6.
  67. Cirjeex waa kan leh tirada ugu badan daxayada ee Bahda Qoraxdu Midaysay, wuxuuna leeyahay 67 dayax
  68. Raage waa kan labaad ee leh tirada ugu badan daxayada ee Bahda Qoraxdu Midaysay
  69. Uraano (Uranus) wuxuu leeyahay tirada sadexaad ee ugu badan bahda qoraxdu midaysay
  70. Docay (Neptune) wuxuu leeyahay tirada afaraad ee ugu badan Bahda Qoraxdu Midaysay



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