K-pop

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K-pop (케이팝; RR: keipap), gaaban muusikada caanka ah ee Kuuriya ("Korean popular music"), waa nooc muusig oo asal ahaan ka soo jeeda Kuuriyada Koonfureed oo qayb ka ah Dhaqanka Koonfur Kuuriya.[1] Waxaa saamayn ku leh qaababka iyo noocyada ka socda adduunka oo dhan dusha sare ee xididdadeeda muusigga Kuuriya.[2] qaab casri ah oo ka mid ah noocyada ayaa soo baxay markii la sameeyay mid ka mid ah kooxihii ugu horreeyey ee K-pop, kooxda wiilasha Seo Taiji and Boys, sannadkii 1992. Tijaabintooda qaabab kala duwan iyo noocyada muusigga iyo is-dhexgalka qaybaha muusiga ee shisheeye ayaa gacan ka geystay dib-u-qaabaynta iyo casriyeynta  Muuqaalka muusigga ee Kuuriyada Koonfureed.[3]

Dhaqanka casriga ah ee "idol" ee K-pop wuxuu bilaabmay 1990-maadkii, markii K-pop uu u koray dhaqan-hoosaad kaas oo urursaday taageerayaal aad u fara badan oo ah dhallinta iyo dhallinyarada waaweyn.[4][5] Ka dib markii ay hoos u dhacday horaantii K-pop, laga bilaabo 2003 TVXQ iyo BoA waxay bilaabeen jiil cusub oo sanamyo K-pop ah oo jebiyey nooca muusigga suuqa jaarka ee Jabaan ah waxayna sii wadaan inay caan ku noqdaan K-pop maanta.[6] Iyada oo ay soo ifbaxeen adeegyada isku-xirka bulshada ee internetka iyo bandhigyada TV-ga Koonfur Kuuriya, faafinta hadda ee K-pop iyo madadaalada Koonfur Kuuriya, oo loo yaqaan Mowjadda Kuuriya, laguma arko oo keliya Bariga Aasiya iyo Koonfur-bari Aasiya, laakiin sidoo kale Bakistaan, Bangladesh, Hindiya, Laatiin Ameerika, Waqooyiga Afrika, Koonfurta Afrika iyo Bariga Afrika, Bariga Dhexe iyo guud ahaan dunida Galbeedka, iyagoo helay dhagaystayaal caalami ah.

Ereyga "K-pop" wuxuu caan ku noqday 2000-meeyadii. Markii hore, muusigga pop -ka ee Koonfur Kuuriya ayaa la oran jiray gayo (가요).[7][8] In kasta oo "K-pop" uu yahay erey guud oo loogu talagalay muusigga caanka ah ee Kuuriyada Koonfureed, haddana waxaa badanaa loo adeegsadaa dareen cidhiidhi ku ah nooca halkan lagu sharraxay.  Sannadkii 2018, K-pop wuxuu la kulmay koboc aad u weyn wuxuuna noqday "cayaaryahan awood" taasoo calaamad u ah kororka dakhliga 17.9%. Laga soo bilaabo 2019, K-pop wuxuu ku jiraa lambarka lixaad ee tobanka suuq ee muusigga ugu sarreeya adduunka sida uu qabo Xiriirka Caalamiga ah ee Warshadaha Farshaxanka "Warbixinta Muusikada Caalamiga ah ee 2019", iyadoo BTS iyo Blackpink lagu tilmaamay inay yihiin fanaaniinta hoggaaminaya kobaca suuqa.[9] Sanadkii 2020, K-pop waxay la kulantay sanad rikoor jabis ah markii ay la kulantay koror dhan 44.8% waxayna isu taagtay suuqa ugu weyn ee ugu dhaqsiyaha badan sannadka.[10]

Cilmiga asalka ereyada[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Isticmaalkii ugu horreeyay ee la yaqaan ee erayga K-pop wuxuu ka dhacay Billboard bishii Oktoobar 9, daabacaaddii 1999 dhammaadkii maqaal cinwaan looga dhigay "Koonfur Kuuriya Si Loogu Ogolaado Qaar Ka Mid ah Jabaan" ee Cho Hyun-jin, ka dibna wariye Kuuriya u ah  magazine, kaas oo u adeegsaday erey ballaadhan muusigga pop-ka ee Koonfur Kuuriya. Cho laftiisu, si kastaba ha ahaatee, ma hubo inuu isagu ereygan curiyay, maadaama maqaallada qaarkood ay sheegeen in erayga 'K-pop' uu mar horeba adeegsan jiray gudaha warshadaha muusiga, inkasta oo uusan waligiis si shaqsi ah u maqal.[11]

Astaamaha[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Nuxurka[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

In kasta oo K-pop guud ahaan loola jeedo muusigga pop-ka ee Koonfur Kuuriya, qaar baa u arka inay tahay nooc dhan oo dhan oo soo bandhigaya noocyo badan oo muusik iyo muuqaal ah.[12] The Institut national de l'audiovisuel wuxuu K-pop ku qeexaa "isku-darka muusikada la isku daray, hababka qoob-ka-ciyaarka ee fiiqan iyo moodada, dharka midabada leh".[13]

Tababbarka nidaamsan ee fannaaniinta[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Wakaaladaha maamulka Kuuriyada Koonfureed waxay qandaraasyo adag siiyaan fannaaniinta iman kara, mararka qaarkood markay da 'yar yihiin.  Tababarayaashu waxay ku wada nool yihiin jawi nidaamsan waxayna saacado badan maalintii ku qaataan barashada sida loo heeso, dheesha, loogu hadlo luuqadaha ajnabiga, iyo inay sameeyaan xirfado kale si loogu diyaariyo kulankooda ugu horreeya. Nidaamkan tababarka ee "robotiga" ah ayaa inta badan waxaa dhaleeceeya warbaahinta reer galbeedka.[14] Sannadkii 2012 -kii, Wargeyska The Wall Street Journal waxa uu qoray in kharajka tababarka hal farshaxaniiste oo hoos yimaada SM Entertainment uu celcelis ahaan gaaray 3 million oo Dollar.[15]

Noocyada isku-dhafka ah iyo qiyamka caalamiga ah[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Raadi mugga K-pop muddada 2008–2012 marka loo eego Google Trends.

K-pop waa badeecad dhaqameed oo leh "qiyam, aqoonsi iyo macneyaal ka baxsan qiimahooda ganacsi ee adag."[16] Waxaa lagu gartaa isku darka dhawaaqyada casriga ah ee reer Galbeedka iyo saamaynta Afrikaan-Ameerika (oo ay ku jiraan dhawaaqyada Hip-hop, R&B, Jazz, pop pop, nafta, funk, farsamada, diskooga, guriga, iyo Afrobeats) oo leh dhinac Kuuriyada waxqabadka (oo ay ku jiraan dhaqdhaqaaqyada qoob-ka-ciyaarka ee la iswaafajiyay, isbeddellada samayska iyo waxa loogu yeero "barta dheesha" oo ka kooban jillaab iyo dhaqdhaqaaqyo muhiim ah oo soo noqnoqda).  Waxaa la xusay in ay jirto "aragti casriyeyn" ah oo ku jirta dhaqanka pop-ka Kuuriya.[17]

Isticmaalka weedho Ingiriis ah[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

A woman and a man holding microphones. The man is gesturing to one side.
Farshaxanka Hip-hop-ka Yoon Mi-rae iyo seygeeda Tiger JK ee Drunken Tiger, ayaa lagu tiriyaa inay caan ka noqdeen hip-hop-ka Mareykanka ee Kuuriya.[18]
Five men singing, wearing black and white suits.
g.o.d ee "I Am Korea" xaflad, 2015

K-pop-ka casriga ah waxaa lagu calaamadeeyay adeegsiga weedho Ingiriis ah. Jin Dal Yong oo Popular Music and Society wuxuu qoray in adeegsiga ay saameyn ku yeelan karto "Kuuriyaan-Mareykan iyo/ama Kuuriyaan ah oo wax ku bartay Mareykanka [kuwaas oo] si buuxda uga faa'iideysta af-ingiriisiga iyo kheyraadka dhaqanka ee aan inta badan laga helin kuwa lagu soo koray oo wax ku bartay Kuuriya."[19] Muusigga pop-ka Kuuriya ee heesayaasha ama kooxaha Kuuriya-Ameerika sida Fly to the Sky, g.o.d, Rich, Yoo Seung-jun, iyo Drunken Tiger waxay leeyihiin qaab-dhismeed Mareykan ah iyo erayo Ingiriis ah labadaba.  Muusigyadan fannaaniinta ah ee Kuuriya-Ameerika waxay leeyihiin qaab ka duwan muusigga Kuuriya ee caadiga ah, kaasoo soo jiita xiisaha dhallinyarada.[19] Waxaa sii kordhaya, qorayaasha iyo soosaarayaasha heesaha shisheeye ayaa loo shaqaaleeyaa inay ka shaqeeyaan heesaha sanamyada K-pop, sida Will.i.am iyo Sean Garrett.[20] Fannaaniin shisheeye, oo ay ka mid yihiin Akon, Kanye West, Ludacris, iyo Snoop Dogg, ayaa sidoo kale lagu soo bandhigay heesaha K-pop.[21][22]

Shirkadaha madadaalada waxay gacan ka geystaan ​​fidinta K-pop meelo kale oo adduunka ah iyada oo loo marayo habab kala duwan. Fannaaniintu waxay u baahan yihiin inay adeegsadaan Ingiriisiga maadaama shirkaduhu rabaan inay qabsadaan suuqyada qaybaha kale ee Aasiya, taasoo u saamaxaysa inay aakhirka furaan suuqa Galbeedka.  Inta badan fannaaniinta K-pop waxay bartaan Ingiriisiga maxaa yeelay waa luqad caan ka ah adduunka muusigga, laakiin fannaaniinta qaarkood waxay kaloo bartaan afaf kale oo ajnabi ah sida Jabaan si ay ugu soo dhowaadaan suuqa Jabaan.[19] Sidoo kale, tirooyinka sii kordhaya ee kooxaha K-pop waxay adeegsadaan magacyada Ingiriiska halkii ay ka ahaan lahaayeen Kuuriya. Tani waxay u oggolaanaysaa heesaha iyo fannaaniinta in suuq loo geliyo dhagaystayaal ballaadhan oo adduunka ah.[19]Si kastaba ha ahaatee, adeegsiga Ingiriisiga ma damaanad qaadin sumcadda K-pop ee suuqa Waqooyiga Ameerika.  Faallooyinka qaarkood, sababta tan ayaa ah sababta oo ah nooca waxaa loo arki karaa inuu yahay nooc muusiko reer Galbeedka ah, taasoo ku adkeyneysa K-pop inuu ka helo oggolaanshaha suuqyadan.[19] Sida laga soo xigtay cilmibaarista Elaine W. Chun, in kasta oo isku-dhafka ayaa marar badan ka muuqda K-pop, mararka qaarkoodna xitaa waxay ka dhigi kartaa taageerayaasha inay aad u jeclaadaan xiddigaha K-pop maxaa yeelay waa cusub, cusub oo xiiso leh, way adag tahay in la beddelo kuwa rumaysta  oo ku habboon luuqad saafi ah. Taas macnaheedu waa in qaabkii asalka ahaa ee luuqaddu ay weli adag tahay in la beddelo.[23]

Magacyada fannaaniinta, magacyada heesaha, iyo heesaha ayaa muujiyey koboc weyn xagga adeegsiga ereyada Ingiriisiga  Ma jiro heesayaal ku jira kontonkii jaantus ee ugu sareeyay 1990 magacyadooda Ingiriisiga ku lahaa: dadka ka shaqeeyey warshadaha muusigga Kuuriya waxay u arkeen iyagoo adeegsanaya magacyada Kuuriya heer ahaan.  Sannadkii 1995, fannaaniintii ugu caansanaa sida Kim Gun-mo, Park Mi-kyung, Park Jin-young, Lee Seung-chul, iyo Byun Jin-sub ayaa wali adeegsan jiray magacyada Kuuriya, laakiin afar iyo toban ka mid ah fannaaniinta iyo kooxaha ku jira kontonka sare magacyada Ingiriiska, oo ay ku jiraan DJ DOC, 015B, Piano, iyo Solid. Dhibaatadii dhaqaale ee 1997 ka dib, dawladdu waxay joojisay faafreebka heesaha Ingiriisiga waxayna Kuuriya bilaabatay inay ku booddo Ingiriisiga. Tan iyo dabayaaqadii 1990 -meeyadii, adeegsiga Ingiriisiga ee magacyada fannaaniinta, magacyada heesaha, iyo heesaha ayaa si dhakhso leh u koray. Toddoba iyo toban fannaniin ah oo ku jira kontonka sare ee sare waxay adeegsadeen magacyo Ingiriis sannadkii 2000, soddon iyo kowna waxay sidaas sameeyeen sannadkii 2005. Sannadkii 2010, kow iyo afartan fannaaniin ayaa magacyada Ingiriisiga ka dhex adeegsan jiray kontonka heesood ee ugu sarreeya, laakiin sida caadiga ah, saddex ama afar fannaaniin iyo koox ayaa ka badan hal ama laba heesood oo ku yaal shaxda isku mar. Magacyada Kuuriya (sida Baek Ji-young, Seo In-young, iyo Huh Gak) ayaa si aad ah loo arkaa, heesayaal badan oo K-pop ah ayaa leh magacyo Ingiriis ah (sida IU, Sistar, T-ara, GD & TOP, Beast, and After School). Waxaa xusid mudan, ilaa horraantii 1990 -meeyadii, fannaaniinta leh magacyo Ingiriis ah ayaa ku turjumi doona hangul, laakiin hadda fannaaniintu waxay adeegsan doonaan magacyo Ingiriis ah oo lagu qoray xuruufta Roomaanka.[19]

Dhaleeceynta aqoonsiga isku-dhafan[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Waxaa jiray jawaabo xasaasi ah oo ku saabsan Kuuriyada Koonfureed oo ku saabsan aqoonsiga nooca tan iyo markii uu koray.  Qaar ka mid ah dhaleeceeyayaasha muusiga ee caanka ah ee gobolka ayaa ku dhaleeceeyay K-pop inay tahay "sumad warshadeed oo inta badan loogu talagalay inay kor u qaaddo sumadda qaranka ee suuqa adduunka bilowgii" waxayna ku doodeen inaysan "si iskeed ah u abuurin dhaqan pop qorshaha la soo abaabulay oo ay hoggaaminayso dowladda iyada oo tixgelin ganacsi la siinayo "in kasta oo xaqiiqda ah" noocyadu ficil ahaan xiriir kuma laha aqoonsiga Kuuriyada dhaqameed". Waxaa sidoo kale jira aragti ah in magaca hiddaha laga soo qaatay J-pop.[24][25]

K-pop ayaa mararka qaar la kulantay dhaleeceyn saxafiyiinta u aragta in muusikadu tahay qaaciido iyo mid aan asal ahayn.[26][27][28][29] Qaar ka mid ah kooxaha K-Pop ayaa lagu eedeeyay inay khiyaameeyeen falalka muusigga reer Galbeedka iyo sidoo kale falalka kale ee muusigga.[30] Intaa waxaa dheer, K-pop waxaa lagu dhaleeceeyay ku tiirsanaanta weedhaha Ingiriisiga, iyada oo dadka naqdiya ay ku tilmaamaan adeegsiga Ingiriisiga cinwaannada "macno darro".[31]

Kooxaha K-pop-ka ayaa si joogto ah loogu eedeeyaa inay u qoondeeyeen dhaqammada sida dhaqanka Afrikaanka-Ameerika, gaar ahaan sababtuna tahay isticmaalka joogtada ah ee galleyda iyo baandooyinka ee kooxaha sanamyada qaab-dhismeedka masraxa.[32] Kooxaha K-Pop ayaa sidoo kale lagu eedeeyay inay u qoondeeyeen Dhaladka Mareykanka[33] iyo dhaqamada Hindida.[34] Si kastaba ha ahaatee, dooddu waxay ku saabsan tahay in amaahda qaybaha dhaqanka ee dhaqammada ka baxsan Kuuriya ay dhab ahaan ka dhigan tahay qoondayn dhaqameed, ama haddii qoondayntan dhaqanku ay taban tahay haba yaraatee. Aqoonyahan Crystal S. Anderson ayaa qoray "in loo qoondeeyo waxyaabaha dhaqanka iyada oo laga saarayo macnahoodii hore oo loo adeegsado si gebi ahaanba ka duwan si toos ah uma noqonayso qoondayn dhaqan oo taban".[35]

Suuqgeynta[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Hay'ado badan ayaa u soo bandhigay dhagaystayaal kooxo sanamyo cusub ah iyada oo loo marayo "shirkii ugu horreeyay", kaas oo ka kooban suuq -geynta onlaynka iyo dhiirrigelinta baahinta telefishanka ee ka soo horjeeda raadiyaha.[36] Kooxaha waxaa la siiyaa magac iyo "fikrad", oo ay la socoto jillaab suuq geyn.  Fikradahaasi waa nooca mawduuca muuqaalka iyo muusigga ee kooxaha sanamyadu adeegsadaan marka ugu horreysa ama soo noqoshada.[37] Fikradaha ayaa is beddeli kara inta u dhexeysa furitaannada iyo taageerayaasha inta badan waxay kala soocaan fikradaha kooxda wiilka iyo fikradaha kooxda gabdhaha.  Fikradaha ayaa sidoo kale loo qaybin karaa inta u dhexaysa fikradaha guud iyo fikradaha mawduucyada, sida quruxsan ama khiyaaliga ah.  Kooxaha sanamyada cusub ayaa badanaaba soo bixi doona iyaga oo wata fikrad si fiican suuqa looga yaqaan si ay u helaan guul guul leh.  Mararka qaarkood waaxyo-hoosaadyo ama kooxo-hoosaadyo ayaa laga dhex abuuraa xubnaha jira. Laba koox hoosaad oo tusaale ah waa Super Junior-K.R.Y., Oo ka kooban xubnaha Super Junior Kyuhyun, Ryeowook, iyo Yesung, iyo Super Junior-M, oo noqday mid ka mid ah kooxaha ugu badan ee iibiya K-pop ee Shiinaha.[38]

Suuqgeynta internetka waxaa ku jira fiidyowyo muusig oo lagu dhajiyay YouTube si loo gaaro dhagaystayaasha adduunka oo dhan.[36] Kahor fiidiyaha dhabta ah, kooxdu waxay sii deyneysaa sawirro teaser ah iyo isjiidka.  Wareegyada dhiirrigelinta ee kelida xigta ayaa la yiraahdaa Soo noqoshada xataa marka muusik -yahanka ama kooxda su'aashu aysan joogsan.[39]

Qoob ka ciyaarka[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Qoob-ka-ciyaarka "Gangsta", oo ah qoob-ka-cayaarka elektaroonigga ah ee Noir, waxaa ka mid ah barta dheesha.[40]

Qoob-ka-ciyaarka waa qayb muhiim u ah K-pop.  Marka la isku darayo fannaaniin badan, fannaaniintu waxay badiyaa beddelaan boosaskooda marka ay heesaan iyo dheesha iyagoo dhaq -dhaqaaqyo dhaqso leh ka samaynaya isku -dheelitirnaanta, istiraatiijiyad la yiraahdo "is -beddelidda qaab -dhismeedka" (자리바꿈, Jaribaggum).[41] Qoob-ka-ciyaarka K-pop (안무, Anmu) inta badan waxaa ka mid ah waxa loogu yeero "barta dheesha" (포인트 안무), isagoo tixraacaya qoob -ka -ciyaarka oo ka kooban jillaab iyo dhaqdhaqaaqyo soo noqnoqda oo dheesha dhexdeeda ah oo u dhigma astaamaha heesta.[42][43] Super Junior ee "Sorry Sorry" iyo Brown Eyed Girls ee "Abracadabra" waa tusaalayaal heesaha leh qoob ka ciyaarka "barta" dheesha.  Si aad qoob -ka -cayaar ugu samayso hees waxay u baahan tahay in qorayaashu ay tixgeliyaan waqtiga.[44] Sida laga soo xigtay Ellen Kim, oo ah qoob -ka -ciyaarka Los Angeles, awoodda taageere ee ah inuu sameeyo tillaabooyin isku mid ah waa in sidoo kale la tixgeliyaa. Sidaa awgeed, qoob-ka-ciyaarka K-pop waa inay fududeeyaan dhaqdhaqaaqa.[44]

Seven young men performing synchronised dance moves, wearing casual clothing. Some of them have dyed hair.
24K qoob -ka -ciyaarka istuudiyaha tababarka

Tababbarka iyo u diyaargarowga lagama maarmaanka u ah fannaaniinta K-pop si ay ugu guuleystaan ​​warshadaha iyo qoob-ka-ciyaarka si guul leh waa kuwo xooggan. Xarumaha tababarku waxay horumariyaan xirfadaha qoob -ka -ciyaarka ee dhalinyarada si loo siiyo fursad ay ku noqdaan heesaa.[45] Tababbarka jidhku waa midka ugu weyn ee xoogga la saaro dugsiga, maadaama inta badan jadwalka ardaygu ku salaysan yahay dheesha iyo jimicsiga.[45] Summadaha madadaalada ayaa aad loo xushay, sidaa darteed in yar baa caan ka dhigta.  Ardayda dugsigu waa inay naftooda u huraan qoob-ka-ciyaarka si ay ugu diyaargaroobaan jadwalka xoogga leh ee ay qabtaan kooxaha K-pop.  Tani, dabcan, waxay ka dhigan tahay in tababarku sii socdo haddii la saxiixo. Shirkaduhu waxay leeyihiin xarumo tababar oo aad u weyn kuwa la doortay. [45]

Moodo[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Soo bixitaankii Seo Taiji and Boys 1992-kii waxay dhabaha u xaaraysay horumarinta kooxaha K-pop ee casriga ah.[46] Kooxdu waxay wax ka beddeshay masraxa muusigga Kuuriya iyaga oo ku daray heesaha rap iyo heesaha hip-hop-ka Mareykanka muusikadooda.[47] Qaadashadan qaabka reer Galbeedka waxay ku fidday moodooyinkii ay xirnaayeen kooxda wiilka: xubnuhu waxay qaateen bilicsanaanta hip-hop.[48] Dharka Seo iyo koox-kooxeedyada wareegga xayeysiinta ee "Nan Arayo" (난 알아요, I Know) waxaa ku jiray dhar-waddo firfircoon sida funaanado waaweyn iyo funaanado dhidid ah, dabaylaha, guud-xidhashada hal suunka ah, jaakadaha duuban oo leh hal lug oo surwaal la duubay,  iyo funaanadaha kooxda isboortiga Mareykanka.[xigasho u-baahan]

Maadaama K-pop "uu ka dhashay isbeddellada Seo kadib,"[48] Muusikada caanka ah ee Kuuriyaanka oo isu beddelaysa warbaahinta ay dhallinyaradu ku badan tahay, kooxaha sanamyada dhallinta ee la soo saaray ayaa bilaabay dooddooda badhtamihii iyo dabayaaqadii 1990-meeyadii,[46] xirashada dharka isku -duwaha[49] taas oo ka tarjumaysay isbeddellada moodada caanka ah ee dhallinyarada xilligaas. Moodo Hip-hop, oo loo tixgeliyey qaabkii ugu caansanaa dabayaaqadii 90meeyadii.[50]

Two women dancing, wearing colourful, trendy clothing and with exposed midriffs
Xubno ka tirsan Baby Vox oo soo bandhigaya ee 2004

In kasta oo labiska kooxaha sanamyada labadoodaba lagu dhisay nidaamyo midab leh oo isku mid ah, marooyin, iyo qaabab, haddana dharkii uu xidhnaa xubin kasta ayaa wali sii wata shaqsiyaddii.[51] Dhinaca kale, kooxaha sanamyada dumarka ah ee '90meeyadii ayaa soo xirtay dhar isku mid ah, oo inta badan isku si loo qaabeeyo.[51] Dharka loogu talagalay sanamyada dheddig inta lagu guda jiro dallacsiinta hore waxay inta badan diiradda saaraan muujinta sawir aan dambi lahayn, dhallinyaranimo.[52] S.E.S. ee "I'm Your Girl" (1997), iyo Baby Vox "Ya Ya Ya" (1998) waxaa lagu soo bandhigay gabdho ku lebisan dhar cad, "To My Boyfriend" oo uu qoray Fin.K.L wuxuu muujinayaa sanamyo ku jira dharka iskuulka ee casaanka ah, iyo "One" iyo "End" ee Chakra ayaa soo bandhigay dharkii Hindiga iyo Afrikaanka.

Maadaama K-pop uu noqday isku-dhafka casriga ah ee dhaqamada reer Galbeedka iyo Aasiya laga soo bilaabo dabayaaqadii 2000-meeyadii,[53] moodada K-pop waxay muujisay kala duwanaansho iyo kala soocid sidoo kale.  Isbeddellada moodada laga soo bilaabo dabayaaqadii 2000 -meeyadii illaa horraantii 2010 -yadii ayaa inta badan lagu kala saari karaa kuwa soo socda:[54]

  • Wadada: wuxuu diiradda saarayaa shaqsiyadda;  waxay leedahay midabyo dhalaalaya, qaab-dhismeed isku-dhafan, daabacaad garaafyo, iyo magacyo isboorti sida Adidas iyo Reebok.
  • Retro: ujeeddadiisu tahay inay soo celiso "hore" laga soo bilaabo 1960 -kii illaa 1980 -yadii;  qoreysa dhibco daabacan iyo qaabab faahfaahsan. Alaabta dharka caadiga ah waxaa ka mid ah jaakadaha denim-ka, surwaalka kabaha lagu gooyay, surwaalka ballaaran, xargaha timaha, garbasaarrada, iyo muraayadaha qorraxda.
  • Galmada: waxay iftiiminaysaa dheddignimada iyo ragannimada; waxay soo bandhigtaa dhar muujinaya satin, xargo, dhogor, iyo maqaar.  Alaabta dharka caadiga ah waxaa ka mid ah goonnada yaryar, koorsooyinka, sharabaadadka saafiga ah, cidhibta dhaadheer, jaakadaha aan gacmaha lahayn, iyo funaanadaha la arko.
  • Madow & Caddaan: wuxuu xooga saaraa casriga iyo xiisaha leh, wuxuu astaan ​​u yahay xarrago iyo karti, inta badan lagu dabaqo xirashada rasmiga ah.
  • Futurism-ka: sida caadiga ah lagu xidho noocyada elektiroonigga ah iyo hip-hop;  wuxuu muujiyaa alaab midab leh, faahfaahin macdan ah iyo daabac;  wuxuu kor u qaadaa aragtida mustaqbalka.
Four women wearing colourful, mismatched casual clothing and trendy sneakers
2NE1 oo fulineysa I don't Care—tusaale qaabka wadada
Five women with beehive hairstyles wearing matching golden sheath dresses and elbow-length gloves
Wonder Girls oo fulineysa Nobody—tusaale qaabka retro
Six men wearing form-fitting black sleeveless shirts, leather pants, and combat boots. They have prominent eye makeup and each has a different gelled hairstyle.
2PM—tusaale qaabka galmada
Five men with bowl haircuts and eyeliner wearing close-fitting, shiny suits—some black with white embellishment, others white with black embellishment.
MBLAQ— tusaale qaabka madow & caddaan

K-pop wuxuu saameyn weyn ku leeyahay moodada Aasiya, halkaas oo isbeddellada ay sanamyada ka bilaabeen ay raacaan dhagaystayaasha dhallinta yar.[55] Sanamyada qaarkood waxay u dejiyeen xaalad sida astaamaha moodada, sida G-Dragon[56] iyo CL, oo si joogta ah ula soo shaqeeyay naqshadeeyaha moodada Jeremy Scott.[57][58]

Sida laga soo xigtay borofisar Ingyu Oh, "K-pop wuxuu xooga saaraa dhuuban, dhaadheer, iyo dheddig muuqaal ahaan qaangaarka ama mararka qaarkood aad u qurux badan wajiga, iyadoon loo eegayn inay yihiin fannaaniin lab ama dheddig ah."[59]

Warshadaha[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Wakaaladaha[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

K-pop waxay dhalisay warshado dhan oo ka kooban guryo wax soo saar muusig, shirkado maareyn dhacdooyin, qaybiyayaal muusig, iyo badeecado kale iyo adeeg bixiyayaal.  Saddexda shirkadood ee ugu waaweyn xagga iibka iyo dakhliga ayaa kala ah SM Entertainment, YG Entertainment iyo JYP Entertainment, oo inta badan loogu yeero 'Saddexda Weyn'.[60] Summadahan diiwaanka ayaa sidoo kale u shaqeeya wakaaladaha wakiillada fannaaniintooda.  Waxay mas'uul ka yihiin qorista, maalgelinta, tababarka, iyo suuq-geynta fannaaniinta cusub iyo sidoo kale maareynta dhaqdhaqaaqyadooda muusigga iyo xiriirka dadweynaha.  Hadda, wakaaladda ugu saamiga badan suuqa waa SM.[60] Sannadkii 2011, oo ay weheliyaan Star J Entertainment, AM Entertainment, iyo Key East, Shirkadaha Saddexda Weyn ayaa aasaasay shirkadda maareynta wadajirka ah United Asia Management.[61][62][63]

Dakhliga guud ee summadaha rikoodhada K-pop (oo ah malaayiin doolarka Mareykanka ah)
Sanadkii la aasaasay Calaamadda diiwaanka 2008 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 Source
1995 SM Entertainment 42.5 87.1 129 241 268 286.9 290 314 329 551 592 521 [64]
1996 YG Entertainment 16.5 51.8 70.3 96.9 116.6 156.3 170 286.4 321.5 242 228 229 [65]
1997 JYP Entertainment 3.1 9.1 17.8 13.5 21.4 48.5 50.56 69.5 94 111 139 129 [66]

Qiimaha iibka iyo suuqa[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Sannadkii 2009, DFSB Kollective wuxuu noqday qaybiyaha koowaad ee K-pop ee iTunes.[67]

Sanadkii 2011, 1,100 album ayaa laga sii daayay Koonfur Kuuriya. Nooca hip-hop wuxuu lahaa matalaadda ugu badan, saddex meelood laba meel wadarta albumyada.[68] Saddex-meelood meel albumsyadu waxay ka yimaadeen noocyo kala duwan.[68]

Sannadkii 2012, celceliska qiimaha helitaanka heesaha K-pop ee Koonfur Kuuriya ayaa gaadhay US $ 0.10 si loo soo dejiyo hal mar, ama $ 0.002 markii lagu baahiyay internetka.[69][70][71]

Dakhliga iibka ee warshadaha muusikada ee Kuuriyada Koonfureed laga soo bilaabo 2014 illaa 2018 (bilyan doolarka Mareykanka)
Sanad Lacagta
2014 4.1
2015 4.5
2016 4.75
2017 5.2
2018 5.5
Soo-koobidda Suuqa Suuqa (Muddo 5-sano ah) (Bilowga soo-koobidda sannadka) summadaha diiwaanka (ee Kuuriya Won (KRW)
Calaamadda diiwaanka 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 source
SM Entertainment 26,000 KRW 33,700 KRW 52,200 KRW 37,200 KRW 29,900 KRW [72]
JYP Entertainment 4,880 KRW 13,350 KRW 30,250 KRW 24,200 KRW 37,800 KRW [73]
YG Entertainment 28,400 KRW 27,600 KRW 48,900 KRW 28,400 KRW 45,100 KRW [74]

Jaantusyada diiwaanka[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Jaantusyada rikoodhka Kuuriya waxaa ka mid ah Kuuriya K-Pop Hot 100 iyo Shaxda Heesaha Gaon.  Qaar ka mid ah diiwaannada K-pop ayaa ka muuqday Oricon Albamyada Shaxda ee Jabaan iyo Billboard Hot 100 ee Mareykanka.[75][76][77][78][79][80][81][82]

Nidaamka tababbarka[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Sida waafaqsan K-pop-ka casriga ah, tababarayaashu waxay maraan nidaam tababar oo adag waqti aan la cayimin kahor intaan la bilaabin.  Habkan waxaa caan ku ahaa Lee Soo-man, aasaasihii S.M,[83] oo qayb ka ah fikradda lagu tilmaamay "farsamada dhaqanka".[84] The Verge ayaa tan ku tilmaamay nidaam "xad-dhaaf ah" oo ah maareynta farshaxanka.[85][86]

Sababtoo ah muddada tababarka, oo socon karta sannado badan, iyo xaddiga badan ee hay'adaha maalgashiga ee la siinayo tababarayaashooda, warshaduhu aad bay u culus yihiin inay bilaabaan fannaaniin cusub. Tababarayaashu waxay geli karaan wakaalad iyagoo adeegsanaya baaritaanno ama la baari doono, oo marka la qoro la siiyo hoy iyo fasallo (caadiyan heesta, qoob ka ciyaarka, iyo luqadaha shisheeye sida Mandarin, Ingiriis iyo Jabbaan) inta ay isku diyaarinayaan kulankooda ugu horreeya. Dhalinyarada tababbarka ah ayaa mararka qaarkood iskuulka taga waqti isku mid ah  Ma jiro xadka da'da si aad u noqotid tababaraha mana jiro wax ku eg muddada uu qofku ku qaadan karo tababar.[87][88][89]

Telefishanka[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Kooxda gabdhaha ku-meel-gaarka ah ee ka kooban 11-ka xubnood ee I.O.I waxaa lagu soo ururiyey barnaamijka telefishanka Produce 101.[90]

Warshadaha muusigga Kuuriya waxay dhaleen bandhigyo TV oo badan oo la xiriira, oo ay ku jiraan bandhigyo hibo leh sida Superstar K, K-pop Star, Show Me the Money, Unpretty Rapstar, and many other shows, which commonly pit trainees against each other in order to form a new idol group. iyo bandhigyo kale oo badan, kuwaas oo inta badan iska hor keena ardayda si ay u sameeyaan koox sanam oo cusub. Tusaalooyinka bandhigyada badbaadada waxaa ka mid ah MyDOL-ka Jellyfish Entertainment, oo sameeyay kooxda wiilka VIXX.[91][92] YG Entertainment ee WIN: Who Is Next, oo sameeyay kooxda Winner; MIX&MATCH, oo sameeyay kooxda iKon; JYP Entertainment ee Sixteen, oo sameeyay kooxda Twice; Starship Entertainment's No.Mercy, oo sameeyay kooxda Monsta X; Cube Entertainment's Pentagon Maker, oo sameeyay kooxda Pentagon; Mnet ee Produce 101, oo sameeyay kooxda I.O.I, Iz*One, iyo Wanna One iyo X1;[93][94][95] Duble Kick Entertainment ee Finding Momo Land, oo sameeyay kooxda Momoland; Mnet ee Idol School, oo sameeyay kooxda Fromis 9; iyo kii ugu dambeeyay, Belift Lab ee I-Land, oo sameeyay Enhypen. Kordhinta bandhigyadan, oo inta badan ku lug leh hay'ado waaweyn oo qandaraas siiya tababarayaasha hay'adaha yar yar kooxaha mashruuca oo qaadanaya qayb weyn oo dakhliyada ah, ayaa horseeday dhaleeceyn ku aaddan ka-hor-tagga warshadaha.[96][97]

Dhaleeceynta dhaqamada warshadaha[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Musuqmaasuqa[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Sannadkii 2002, majaladda Time ayaa soo warisay in soo-saareyaasha telefishanka Kuuriya sida Hwang Yong-woo iyo Kim Jong-jin loo xiray inay "aqbaleen lacag-bixinno miiska hoostiisa ah oo dammaanad-ka-bixitaannada TV-ga u muujinaya fannaaniinta iyo fannaaniinta damacsan" si ay wax uga qabtaan "musuqmaasuqa nidaamsan"  ganacsiga muusikada ee Kuuriyada Koonfureed ". Shirkadaha la baaray waxaa ka mid ahaa SidusHQ iyo S.M.[98]

Ka faa'iidaysiga iyo duruufaha nololeed ee liita[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Shirkadaha maamulka K-pop ayaa sidoo kale lagu dhaleeceeyay ka faa'iidaysiga sanamyada iyada oo loo marayo shaqo-dhaaf iyo qandaraasyo xaddidan, oo lagu tilmaamay "qandaraasyada addoonta" warbixin BBC.[99] Sida laga soo xigtay The Hollywood Reporter, "Ganacsiga madadaalada ee Kuuriya ayaa caan ku ah wax-ka-beddel la'aan iyo sharci la'aan. Xiddigaha K-pop-ka loo baahan yahay-oo badankoodu yihiin 'sanamyo' dhallinyaro ah '-ayaa lagu yaqaannay inay ku celceliyaan oo ay hurdo la'aan seexdaan."[100]

Bishii Luulyo 2009, S.M. waxaa maxkamad geeyey TVXQ iyo xubin Super Junior ah, kuwaas oo ku andacooday in xaaladooda shaqo ay horseeday waxyeelo caafimaad darro.[101][102] Go’aanka maxkamadda ee dacwada TVXQ ayaa lagu go’aamiyay heshiiska ay la galeen S.M. madhan, oo ugu dambayntii Guddida Ganacsiga Caddaaladdu waxay sii daysay tusaalooyin qandaraas si ay u habayso xaaladaha warshadaha.[99]

Sannadkii 2014 -kii, Koonfur Kuuriya waxay meel -marisay sharci lagu hago warshadaha muusigga, iyadoo sanamyada ka yar 19 jir ka ilaalinaya dhaqamada foosha xun iyo bandhigyada galmada[103] iyo damaanad qaadka "xuquuqda aasaasiga ah ee wax-barashada, nasashada iyo hurdada".[100] Ku guul darreysiga u hoggaansanaanta xeerarkan waxay horseedi kartaa ganaax u dhigma US $ 10,000.[100]

Xirfadlayaasha warshadaha sida Kim Young-min ayaa difaacay nidaamka, iyagoo ku doodaya in shaqsiyaadka lagu dhex tababaray nidaamka “aysan ka duwanayn carruurta caadiga ah ee dugsiga dhexe ama sare, kuwaas oo aada barnaamijyada dugsiga kadib si ay ugu ciriiriyaan imtixaannada gelitaanka kulliyadda”.  Kim wuxuu kaloo ku dooday inay jirto baahi loo qabo in la tixgeliyo kharashaadka ay shirkaddu gashay muddadii uu tababarku socday, oo ay ku jiraan "tas -hiilaadka, qalabka, dharka, iyo ku dhawaad ​​wax kasta oo tababaruhu u baahan yahay".[104]

Bishii Maarso 7, 2017, Guddiga Ganacsiga Caddaaladda ee Koonfur Kuuriya (KFTC) ayaa meel mariyay xeerar cusub si looga ilaaliyo sanamyada tababbarka sharuudaha aan caddaaladda ahayn iyo xaaladaha shaqada. Xeerarkan ka hor, sanamyada tababbarka ee siddeed hay'adood oo sanamyada looma oggola inay qandaraas ka raadsadaan hay'ad kale intii ay tababarka ku jireen. Intaa waxaa dheer, hay'aduhu waxay awoodeen inay joojiyaan heshiiska tababaraha wakhti kasta sabab kasta ha ahaatee. Guddiga Cadaaladda wuxuu sheegayaa inay rumaysan yihiin in isbeddelladaani "ay ka dhalan doonaan dhaqan heshiis oo caddaalad ku dhisan oo ku dhex jira warshadaha madadaalada ee u dhexeeya tababaraha iyo hay'adda." Hadda, xeerarkani waxay khuseeyaan oo keliya siddeed wakaaladood oo sanamyo waaweyn laakiin Wasaaradda Dhaqanku waxay damacsan tahay inay xeerarkan ku dabaqdo dhammaan hay'adaha jira 2018 oo dhan.[105]

Galmada iyo ka faa'iidaysiga galmada[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Warshadaha ayaa lagu dhaleeceeyay galmo galinta labada fannaaniin lab iyo dheddig, iyadoo galmo ahaan loo geeyay carruurta aan qaangaarka ahayn.[106] Dhaleeceeyayaasha ayaa ku dooday gabdhaha gabdhaha ah ee heesaya inay si gaar ah ugu nugul yihiin cadaadiska inay xirtaan dhar qaawan ama qoob ka ciyaar.[106] Si kastaba ha ahaatee, marka la barbardhigo muusikada caanka ah ee reer galbeedka, K-pop wuxuu leeyahay galmo yar, daroogo, ama dabeecad dagaal badan wuxuuna leeyahay sumcad waalidnimo badan.[107]

Caafimaadka maskaxda[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Qaar ka mid ah fanaaniinta K-pop ayaa soo jeediyay in hubanti la’aanta iyo cadaadiska shaqooyinkooda ee madadaalada ay wax u dhimi karto caafimaadkooda maskaxeed.[108] Ismiidaaminta fannaaniinta caanka ah ee K-pop ayaa soo jiitay cadaadiska warshadaha.[109] Sannadkii 1996-kii, fannaanka Charles Park, oo sidoo kale loo yaqaan Seo Ji-won, ayaa ku dhintay ismiidaamin isagoo 19 jir ah, ka hor intii aan la sii dayn albumkiisii ​​labaad.[109][110] Kim Jonghyun, oo hore u furfurnaa taariikhdiisa niyad-jabka, ayaa sidoo kale ku dhintay is -dilid bishii Diseembar 2017.[109] Gugii 2018, tiro ka mid ah fannaaniinta caanka ah ee Kuuriya ayaa ka qaybgalay taxane riwaayad oo lacag la'aan ah si kor loogu qaado wacyiga ka-hortagga is-dilka.[108] Sanadkii 2019, geeridii Sulli ee is -dilida muuqata, waxaa xigay geeridii Goo Hara, oo labaduba loo geystey xoog sheegashada internetka, oo lagu daray baaqyada dib-u-habeynta.[111][112][113]

Tixraacyada[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

  1. Hartong, Jan Laurens. Semar Publishers. p. 15. ISBN 978-88-7778-090-4 https://archive.org/details/musicaltermsworl0000hart. Soo qaatay December 5, 2011. Since the 1990s, popular genres like rap, rock and techno house have been incorporated into Korean popular music, setting the trend for the present generation of K-pop, which often emulates American models.  Barameter aan la aqoon |url-access= ignored (caawin); Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)
  2. https://www.academia.edu/12328829
  3. http://www.koreaherald.com/view.php?ud=20120323001104
  4. https://www.billboard.com/articles/columns/k-town/5638224/the-root-of-k-pop-the-influences-of-todays-biggest-acts
  5. https://www.economist.com/asia/2010/01/25/hallyu-yeah
  6. https://books.google.com/books?id=j8lxCwAAQBAJ
  7. https://terms.naver.com/entry.nhn?cid=46662&docId=2458624&categoryId=46662
  8. Documentation[create]

    "Nuqul Archive". Waxaa laga kaydiyay the original 2017-06-02. Soo qaatay 2021-08-17.  Barameter aan la aqoon |ciwaan= ignored (caawin)

  9. https://www.forbes.com/sites/caitlinkelley/2019/04/03/kpop-global-bts-blackpink-grow/#7893c0e324e2
  10. Documentation[create]

    "Nuqul Archive" (PDF). Waxaa laga kaydiyay the original (PDF) 2021-03-25. Soo qaatay 2021-08-17.  Barameter aan la aqoon |ciwaan= ignored (caawin)

  11. "20 Years of K-Pop at Billboard". Billboard.
  12. http://seoulbeats.com/2011/10/k-pop-music-for-the-eyes-or-for-the-ears/
  13. https://web.archive.org/web/20131103182155/http://www.inaglobal.fr/en/music/article/k-pop-story-well-oiled-industry-standardized-catchy-tunes.
  14. http://english.chosun.com/site/data/html_dir/2011/10/27/2011102700691.html.
  15. https://blogs.wsj.com/speakeasy/2012/02/06/can-girls-generation-break-through-in-america/.
  16. Choi, JungBong and Roald Maliangkay. Routledge. ISBN 9781138775961 https://books.google.com/books?id=ggSNoAEACAAJ.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)
  17. Doboo Shim. National University of Singapore. 28: 25–44. doi:10.1177/0163443706059278.  Barameter aan la aqoon |s2cid= ignored (caawin); Barameter aan la aqoon |citeseerx= ignored (caawin); Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)
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  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 19.3 19.4 19.5 Jin, Dal Yong; Ryoo, Woongjae (December 13, 2012). Popular Music and Society. 37 (2): 113–131. ISSN 0300-7766. doi:10.1080/03007766.2012.731721.  Barameter aan la aqoon |s2cid= ignored (caawin); Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)
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    Si aad u soo xigato maqaal war oo leh qoraa lagu ammaanay
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    {{cite news
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    Si aad u tixraacdo uguna soo xigato maqaal war la gooyay oo la keydiyay oo ku saabsan adeegga isu -geynta macluumaadka ee u baahan rukumasho
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  21. Documentation[create]

    Xu, Tina. Fuse http://www.fuse.tv/2013/02/kpop-connections-infographic. Soo qaatay March 7, 2013.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)

  22. Documentation[create]

    Hampp, Andrew (March 16, 2012). https://www.billboard.com/biz/articles/news/global/1098373/secrets-behind-k-pops-global-success-explored-at-sxsw-panel. Soo qaatay March 28, 2013. The American hip-hop community's recent interest in K-pop has helped open a lot of doors for other artists and managers Stateside, too.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)

  23. Chun, Elaine W. (February 2017). Language in Society. 46 (1): 57–76. ISSN 0047-4045. doi:10.1017/S0047404516000828.  Barameter aan la aqoon |doi-access= ignored (caawin); Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)
  24. Documentation[create]

    h21.hani.co.kr http://h21.hani.co.kr/arti/culture/culture_general/29888.html.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)

  25. Shin, Hyun-joon. http://ch.yes24.com/Article/View/24536.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)
  26. Documentation[create]

    . April 12, 2011 https://www.koreatimes.co.kr/www/news/biz/2012/02/123_100092.html. Soo qaatay March 27, 2012.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)

  27. Documentation[create]
    To cite a news article with a credited author

    {{cite news |last= |first= |date= |title= |url= |work= |location= |access-date=}}

    Si aad u soo xigato maqaal war oo aan lahayn qoraa lagu ammaano

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    In la tixraaco oo la soo xigto maqaal war la kaydiyey oo la gooyay adeeg isku -darka macluumaadka oo u baahan rukumasho

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  28. Documentation[create]
    To cite a news article with a credited author

    {{cite news |last= |first= |date= |title= |url= |work= |location= |access-date=}}

    Si aad u soo xigato maqaal war oo aan lahayn qoraa lagu ammaano

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  29. Documentation[create]
    To cite a news article with a credited author

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    Si aad u soo xigato maqaal war oo aan lahayn qoraa lagu ammaano

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  30. Documentation[create]

    Herald, The Korea (2018-01-19). www.koreaherald.com http://www.koreaherald.com/view.php?ud=20180119000830. Soo qaatay 2021-04-25.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)

  31. Documentation[create]
    To cite a news article with a credited author

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    Si aad u soo xigato maqaal war oo aan lahayn qoraa lagu ammaano

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    Si aad u soo xigato maqaal warar online ah oo la keydiyay

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    {{cite news |last= |first= |date= |title= |trans-title= |url= |language= |work= |location= |access-date=}}

    In la tixraaco oo la soo xigto maqaal war la kaydiyey oo la gooyay adeeg isku -darka macluumaadka oo u baahan rukumasho

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  32. Documentation[create]
    To cite a news article with a credited author

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  33. Documentation[create]
    To cite a news article with a credited author

    {{cite news |last= |first= |date= |title= |url= |work= |location= |access-date=}}

    Si aad u soo xigato maqaal war oo aan lahayn qoraa lagu ammaano

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    In la tixraaco oo la soo xigto maqaal war la kaydiyey oo la gooyay adeeg isku -darka macluumaadka oo u baahan rukumasho

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    Si aad u tixraacdo uguna soo xigato maqaal war la gooyay oo la keydiyay oo ku saabsan adeegga isu -geynta macluumaadka ee u baahan rukumasho
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  34. Documentation[create]
    To cite a news article with a credited author

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    Si aad u soo xigato maqaal war oo aan lahayn qoraa lagu ammaano

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    In la tixraaco oo la soo xigto maqaal war la kaydiyey oo la gooyay adeeg isku -darka macluumaadka oo u baahan rukumasho

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    | last         = 
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  35. Documentation[create]

    Anderson, Crystal (January 12, 2013). High Yellow https://highyellow.me/2013/01/12/of-misconceptions-about-cultural-appropriation-in-k-pop/. Soo qaatay April 10, 2018.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)

  36. 36.0 36.1
    Documentation[create]

    Chace, Zoe (October 12, 2012). NPR https://www.npr.org/sections/money/2012/10/12/162740623/gangnam-style-three-reasons-k-pop-is-taking-over-the-world. Soo qaatay December 26, 2012.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)

  37. Documentation[create]
    To cite a news article with a credited author

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    Si aad u soo xigato maqaal war oo aan lahayn qoraa lagu ammaano

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    Si aad u soo xigato maqaal warar online ah oo la keydiyay

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  38. Kallen, Stuart A. Twenty-First Century Books. p. 37–38. ISBN 9781467720427 https://archive.org/details/kpopkoreasmusica0000kall.  Barameter aan la aqoon |url-access= ignored (caawin); Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)
  39. Documentation[create]
    To cite a news article with a credited author

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  40. Documentation[create]
    To cite a news article with a credited author

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    Si aad u tixraacdo uguna soo xigato maqaal war la gooyay oo la keydiyay oo ku saabsan adeegga isu -geynta macluumaadka ee u baahan rukumasho
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  41. Documentation[create]

    https://web.archive.org/web/20171228000717/https://kpopalltime.wordpress.com/tag/%EA%B7%B8%EB%A3%A8%EB%B8%8C%EB%84%A4%EC%9D%B4%EC%85%98/. Waxaa laga kaydiyay the original December 28, 2017. Soo qaatay December 27, 2017.  Barameter aan la aqoon |url-status= ignored (caawin); Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)

  42. Documentation[create]

    http://www.asiaone.com/News/Latest%2BNews/Asia/Story/A1Story20110822-295555.html. Soo qaatay December 27, 2017.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)

  43. Documentation[create]

    http://english.donga.com/srv/service.php3?biid=2013041629988. Soo qaatay December 27, 2017.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)

  44. 44.0 44.1
    Documentation[create]

    The Verge. October 18, 2012 https://www.theverge.com/2012/10/18/3516562/k-pop-invades-america-south-korea-pop-music-factory. Soo qaatay December 27, 2017.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)

  45. 45.0 45.1 45.2
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    Si aad u soo xigato maqaal war oo leh qoraa lagu ammaanay
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    Si aad u tixraacdo uguna soo xigato maqaal war la gooyay oo la keydiyay oo ku saabsan adeegga isu -geynta macluumaadka ee u baahan rukumasho
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  46. 46.0 46.1 Jin, Dal Yong (April 20, 2017). 1. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 9780252098147. doi:10.5406/illinois/9780252039973.003.0006 http://illinois.universitypressscholarship.com/view/10.5406/illinois/9780252039973.001.0001/upso-9780252039973-chapter-006.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)
  47. Lie, John (2012). Korea Observer. 43: 339–63.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)
  48. 48.0 48.1 John, Lie (November 24, 2014). ISBN 9780520958944. OCLC 893686334.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)
  49. Documentation[create]
    To cite a news article with a credited author

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    Si aad u tixraacdo uguna soo xigato maqaal war la gooyay oo la keydiyay oo ku saabsan adeegga isu -geynta macluumaadka ee u baahan rukumasho
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  50. Documentation[create]

    www.retrowaste.com https://www.retrowaste.com/1990s/fashion-in-the-1990s/. Soo qaatay 2018-05-07.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)

  51. 51.0 51.1 KWAK, NOJIN; RYU, YOUNGJU (2015). Lee, Sangjoon; Nornes, Abé Mark, eds. University of Michigan Press. ISBN 9780472072521. JSTOR 10.3998/mpub.7651262. doi:10.3998/mpub.7651262 https://books.google.com/books?id=z0r8rQEACAAJ.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)
  52. Shim, Doobo (2006). Media, Culture & Society. 28: 29. doi:10.1177/0163443706059278.  Barameter aan la aqoon |s2cid= ignored (caawin); Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)
  53. Jin, DAL Yong (2016). "Critical Discourse of K-pop within Globalization". In JIN, DAL YONG. Transnational Cultural Power in the Age of Social Media. University of Illinois Press. pp. 111–130. ISBN 9780252039973. JSTOR 10.5406/j.ctt18j8wkv.9. doi:10.5406/illinois/9780252039973.001.0001 https://books.google.com/books?id=_IWjjgEACAAJ.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)
  54. Kim, Yun (Spring 2012). Journal of the Korean Society of Fashion Design (PDF). 12 (2): 17–37 http://www.ksfd.co.kr/neowiz/board/up_files/files_1/2012_vol12no2_02_ky.pdf.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)
  55. Documentation[create]

    . Inquirer. September 21, 2011 http://lifestyle.inquirer.net/14895/k-pops-slick-productions-win-fans-across-asia. Soo qaatay April 2, 2012.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)

  56. Documentation[create]

    . December 25, 2012 http://english.chosun.com/site/data/html_dir/2012/12/25/2012122500365.html. Soo qaatay March 2, 2017.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)

  57. Documentation[create]

    PAPERMAG (August 26, 2015). PAPERMAG http://www.papermag.com/jeremy-scott-and-cl-on-moschino-pop-culture-and-the-power-of-girls-1427634656.html. Soo qaatay April 12, 2016.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)

  58. Documentation[create]

    MTV News http://www.mtv.com/news/2253244/jeremy-scott-cl-paper-mag/. Soo qaatay April 12, 2016.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)

  59. Oh, Ingyu. : 402 https://www.academia.edu/4732546. Soo qaatay January 15, 2020.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)
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    . The Dong-A Ilbo. July 26, 2011 http://english.donga.com/srv/service.php3?biid=2011072657978. Soo qaatay February 5, 2012.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)

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    . Allkpop. September 8, 2011 http://www.allkpop.com/2011/09/united-asia-management-to-hold-a-talent-meeting-at-the-16th-busan-international-film-festival. Soo qaatay March 1, 2012.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)

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    . Hancinema. May 6, 2011 http://www.hancinema.net/global-star-agency-united-asia-management-29846.html. Soo qaatay March 1, 2012.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)

  63. Documentation[create]

    uam.asia https://web.archive.org/web/20160313204038/http://uam.asia/. Waxaa laga kaydiyay the original March 13, 2016. Soo qaatay April 12, 2016.  Barameter aan la aqoon |url-status= ignored (caawin); Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)

  64. Template:Cite magazine
  65. Template:Cite magazine
  66. Template:Cite magazine
  67. Documentation[create]
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  68. 68.0 68.1
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  69. Documentation[create]
    To cite a news article with a credited author

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  70. Documentation[create]
    To cite a news article with a credited author

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  71. Documentation[create]

    Kwak, Donnie. https://www.billboard.com/articles/columns/k-town/474456/psys-gangnam-style-the-billboard-cover-story?page=0%2C1. Soo qaatay November 2, 2012. The Korean music industry grossed nearly $3.4 billion in the first half of 2012, according to Billboard estimates, a 27.8% increase from the same period last year.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)

  72. {{cite google|title=S.M. Entertainment (041510:KOSDAQ): Financial Statements|url=https://www.google.com/finance/quote/041510:KOSDAQ?sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjV14CRvKzwAhXTN30KHaxrByQQ_AUoAXoECAEQAw&window=5Y
  73. {{cite google|title=JYP Entertainment (041510:KOSDAQ): Financial Statements|https://www.google.com/finance/quote/035900:KOSDAQ?sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiOz5uwvKzwAhVTHzQIHaNZBr4Q_AUoAXoECAEQAw&window=5Y
  74. {{cite google|title=YG Entertainment (041510:KOSDAQ): Financial Statements|url=https://www.google.com/finance/quote/122870:KOSDAQ?sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiN8_GhiKXwAhXZJTQIHfWZCc0Q_AUoAXoECAEQAw&window=5Y
  75. https://www.billboard.com/articles/columns/k-town/6084721/exo-k-overdose-ep-enters-billboard-200
  76. http://www.officialcharts.com/chart-news/bts-make-history-as-they-become-the-first-korean-band-to-enter-the-official-albums-chart-with-wings__16676/
  77. https://www.billboard.com/articles/columns/k-town/7542131/bts-wings-highest-charting-best-selling-kpop-album-billboard-200
  78. http://headlineplanet.com/home/2017/02/12/bts-spring-day-not-today-reach-top-20-us-itunes-sales-chart-you-never-walk-alone-also-rising/
  79. http://www.officialcharts.com/chart-news/foo-fighters-secure-their-fourth-number-1-on-the-official-albums-chart-with-concrete-and-gold__20501/
  80. Thomas, C. (2018). BTS: The K-Pop Group That Finally Won America Over. Forbes.Com, 5.
  81. https://web.archive.org/web/20200901173118/https://www.billboard.com/articles/business/chart-beat/9442836/bts-dynamite-tops-hot-100-chart
  82. https://www.billboard.com/articles/columns/chart-beat/8462635/blackpink-k-pop-history-hot-100-billboard-200
  83. Documentation[create]

    Stanford Graduate School of Business https://www.gsb.stanford.edu/insights/lee-soo-man-taking-korean-pop-culture-global. Soo qaatay April 12, 2016.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)

  84. Documentation[create]
    To cite a news article with a credited author

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  85. Documentation[create]

    Flatley, Joseph (October 18, 2012). The Verge https://www.theverge.com/2012/10/18/3516562/k-pop-invades-america-south-korea-pop-music-factory. Soo qaatay October 19, 2012.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)

  86. K-Pop: A New Force in Pop Music, p. 39
  87. Documentation[create]
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  88. Documentation[create]
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  89. Documentation[create]

    . Kpopstarz.com. February 7, 2012 http://www.kpopstarz.com/articles/4143/20120207/yg-jyp-sm.htm. Soo qaatay March 1, 2012.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)

  90. Documentation[create]
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  91. Documentation[create]

    http://www.allkpop.com/article/2012/03/sung-si-kyung-to-feature-debut-process-of-idol-stars-through-mydol#axzz2r72X3ocq. Soo qaatay March 28, 2012.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)

  92. Documentation[create]

    . CJ E&M enewsWorld https://web.archive.org/web/20160329114621/http://mwave.interest.me/enewsworld/en/article/5428/my-dols-ten-potential-members-revealed-ahead-of-show-premiere. Waxaa laga kaydiyay the original March 29, 2016. Soo qaatay March 19, 2016.  Barameter aan la aqoon |url-status= ignored (caawin); Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)

  93. Documentation[create]

    Sung, So-young. http://koreajoongangdaily.joins.com/news/article/article.aspx?aid=3014227. Soo qaatay January 25, 2016.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)

  94. Documentation[create]

    Kim, Ji-young. Kpop Herald http://kpopherald.koreaherald.com/view.php?ud=201604011905149913238_2. Soo qaatay April 2, 2016.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)

  95. Documentation[create]

    Ko, Dong-hwan (April 4, 2016). Korea Times. The Korea Times http://www.koreatimes.co.kr/www/news/culture/2016/04/201_201874.html. Soo qaatay April 7, 2016.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)

  96. Documentation[create]
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  100. 100.0 100.1 100.2
    Documentation[create]

    https://www.hollywoodreporter.com/news/south-korean-law-protect-young-717098. Soo qaatay April 13, 2016.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)

  101. Documentation[create]

    . October 28, 2009 http://world.kbs.co.kr/english/entertainment/enter_chart_detail.htm?No=10722. Soo qaatay October 28, 2009.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)[dead link]

  102. http://star.mt.co.kr/view/stview.php?no=2009122215270135930&type=1&outlink=1
  103. South Korea Passes Law Regulating K-Pop Industry Archived Agoosto 4, 2014 // Wayback Machine Template:Webarchive WonderingSound.com (July 8, 2014). Retrieved on August 3, 2014.
  104. Park, Gil-Sung (2013). "Nuqul Archive" (PDF). Korea Journal. 53 (4): 14–33. doi:10.25024/kj.2013.53.4.14. Waxaa laga kaydiyay the original (PDF) 2018-04-12. Soo qaatay 2021-08-20.  Barameter aan la aqoon |ciwaan= ignored (caawin); Barameter aan la aqoon |doi-access= ignored (caawin)
  105. Documentation[create]

    . March 9, 2017 https://www.koreaboo.com/longform/new-contractual-changes-cause-concern-within-music-industry.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)

  106. 106.0 106.1
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  107. Documentation[create]
    To cite a news article with a credited author

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  108. 108.0 108.1
    Documentation[create]

    Herman, Tamar (April 23, 2018). https://www.billboard.com/articles/columns/k-town/8369832/k-pop-stars-talk-mental-health. Soo qaatay December 5, 2019.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)

  109. 109.0 109.1 109.2
    Documentation[create]
    To cite a news article with a credited author

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  110. Documentation[create]

    seoulbeats. January 10, 2016 http://seoulbeats.com/2016/01/history-of-k-pop-1992-1995-the-beginning/. Soo qaatay January 27, 2019.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)

  111. Documentation[create]

    Park, Ju-won (November 28, 2019). https://web.archive.org/web/20191128225033/https://time.com/5741058/dark-side-of-kpop-pressure-death/. Waxaa laga kaydiyay the original November 28, 2019. Soo qaatay December 5, 2019.  Barameter aan la aqoon |url-status= ignored (caawin); Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)

  112. Documentation[create]

    Kwon, Jake (December 2, 2019). https://edition.cnn.com/2019/11/30/entertainment/kpop-pressures-goo-hara-sulli-intl-hnk-scli/index.html. Soo qaatay December 5, 2019.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)

  113. Documentation[create]

    South China Morning Post. 2019-12-18 https://www.scmp.com/magazines/style/celebrity/article/3042466/are-jonghyun-sulli-and-goo-hara-victims-k-pop-industry. Soo qaatay 2021-02-24.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)