Marilyn Monroe

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Marilyn Monroe
Marilyn Monroe, The Prince and the Showgirl, 2 140x190.jpg
Ku dhashay Norma Jeane Mortenson
(1926-06-01)Juun 1, 1926
Los Angeles, California, U.S.
Dhimasho Agoosto 4, 1962(1962-08-04) (da'da 36jir)
Los Angeles, California, U.S.
Naanees Norma Jeane Baker
Shaqada
  • Jilaa
  • moodel
  • fanaan
Sanadaha Shaqada 1945–1962
Xaasaska
James Dougherty
(g. 1942; la furay 1946)

Joe DiMaggio
(g. 1954; la furay 1955)

Arthur Miller
(g. 1956; la furay 1961)
Saxiixa Marilyn Monroe Signature.svg
Website
marilynmonroe.com

Marilyn Monroe (/rɪlɪn mənˈr/; magaceeda dhalasho waa Norma Jeane Mortenson; waxy dhalatay Juun 1, 1926 – waxy dhimatay Agoosto 4, 1962) waa jilaa, moodel, iyo Fanaan Mareykan ah, waxay noqotay mid kamid ah astaamaha galmada ee ugu caansan sanadihii 1950-meeyadii iyo horaantii 1960-yadii waxayna astaan ​​u ahayd kacaankii galmada ee waagii hore. Waxay ahayd atariisho si aad ah loogayaabo 10 sano oo kaliya, laakiin filimadeeda waxay soo xareeyeen $ 200 milyan (una dhiganta $ 2 bilyan sanadka 2019) markay dhimatay 1962. Muddo dheer dhimashadeeda ka dib, waxay sii ahaanaysaa astaanta weyn ee dhaqanka pop-ka. Sanadkii 1999, Machadka Filimada Mareykanka ayaa Monroe kaalinta lixaad kaga jira liistada halyeeyada shaashadda dumarka ugu weyn laga soo bilaabo Da'da Dahabiga ah ee Hollywood.[1]

Shaqo[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

1926–1943: Caruurnimada iyo guurka koowaad[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Monroe as an infant, wearing a white dress and sitting on a sheepskin rug
Monroe ilmo ahaan , c. 1927

Monroe waxay ku dhalatay Norma Jeane Mortenson isbitaalka Los Angeles County Hospital ee Los Angeles, Kalifornia.[2]  Hooyadeed, Gladys Pearl Baker, waxay ka dhalatay qoys sabool ah oo u soo haajiray Kaliforniya bilowgii qarniga.[3]  Markay 15 jir ahayd, hooyadeed waxay guursatay John Newton Baker, oo ah nin xadgudub badan. Waxay lahaayeen laba caruur ah oo magacyadooda la kala yiraahdo Robert (1917–1933) and Berniece (d. 1919).[4] Waxay si guul leh ku xareysay furiin waxayna gacanta ku haysay 1923, laakiin Baker wuxuu afduubay caruurta wax yar kadib wuxuuna ula dhaqaaqay Kentucky.[5] Monroe looma sheegin inay walaalo leedahay ilaa ay ka gaadhay 12 jir, waxayna la kulantay Berniece markii ugu horaysay iyadoo weyn.[6] Furniinka kadib, Gladys wuxuu ka shaqeeyey Warshadaha Filimada Iskujira.[7] Sanadkii 1924, waxay guursatay Martin Edward Mortensen, laakiin waxay kala tageen bilo uun kadib waxayna kala tageen 1928.[7] Aqoonsiga aabbaha Monroe lama yaqaan, waxayna inta badan u isticmaashay Baker magaceeda.[8]

In kasta oo Gladys maskax ahaan iyo dhaqaale ahaanba aan u diyaarsaneyn ilmo, Monroe yaraantiisii ​​waxay ahayd mid deggan oo faraxsan.  Gladys waxay gabadheeda la gelisay waalidiinta korinta waalidkood ee diinta kiristaanka ah ee Albert iyo Ida Bolender eeHawthorne; iyaduna halkaas ayey ku nooleyd lixdii bilood ee ugu horreysay, ilaa ay ku qasabtay inay dib ugu soo laabato magaalada shaqo darteed. Kadib waxay bilawday inay booqato gabadheeda dhamaadka usbuuca.[9] Ka dib dhowr bilood oo uu ku sugnaa guri nasasho, Gladys waxaa loo ballanqaaday Isbitaalka Gobolka Metropolitan. Nolosheeda inta ka hartay waxay ku qaadatay gudaha iyo banaanka isbitaalada si dhif ahna ayey ula xiriiri jirtay Monroe

Monroe iyo ninkeeda koowaad, James Dougherty, c. 1943–44.  Waxay is guursadeen iyadoo 16 jir ah.

Afarta sano ee soo socota, xaaladda nololeed ee Monroe inta badan way is beddeshay.  16-kii bilood ee ugu horreeyay, waxay sii waday inay la noolaato Atkinsons, waxaana lagu xadgudbay galmo inta lagu jiro waqtigan. Had iyo jeer gabar xishood badan, hadda iyadu sidoo kale waxay sameysay turunturoon waxayna noqotay mid laga laabto.[10] Xagaagii 1935, waxay muddo kooban la joogtay Grace iyo ninkeeda Erwin "Doc" Goddard iyo laba qoys oo kale,[11]  iyo bishii Sebtember, Grace waxay ku meeleeysay Guriga Agoonta ee Los Angeles.  Xarunta agoonta waxay ahayd "xarun lagu daydo" waxaana si wanaagsan ugu qeexay asxaabteeda, laakiin Monroe waxay dareentay in laga tagay.[12]

Waxaa ku dhiirigaliyay shaqaalaha xarunta agoonta oo u maleeyay in Monroe ay ku faraxsanaan doonto la noolaanshaha qoys, Grace waxay noqotay ilaaliyeheeda sharciga sanadkii 1936, laakiin kama aysan saarin xarunta agoonta ilaa xagaagii 1937.   Joogitaanka labaad ee Monroe ee Goddards wuxuu socday dhowr bilood oo keliya maxaa yeelay Doc ayaa kufsatay iyada;[13]  ka dib waxay la noolayd muddo kooban ehelkeeda iyo Grace saaxiibbadeed iyo qaraabadeedii ku kala sugnaa Los Angeles iyo Compton.  Waxay ahayd waaya-aragnimadii carruurnimada ee markii ugu horreysay ku kaliftay iyada inay noqoto jilaa: "Ma jeclayn adduunka igu wareegsan maxaa yeelay wuxuu ahaa nooc Jinx ah [...] Markii aan maqlay in tani ay jileyso, waxaan iri waa waxa aan doonayo  in aan noqdo [...] Qaar ka mid ah qoysaskeyga koriya ayaa ii soo diri jiray si aan u daawado filimada si ay guriga iiga saaraan halkaasna waxaan fadhiisan jiray habeen iyo maalinba. Horta, waxaa jira shaashad weyn, ilmo yar oo keligiis ah, waana jeclaaday."[14]

Monroe waxay guri joogto ah ka heshay bishii Sebtember 1938, markay bilawday inay la noolaato eedadeed Grace, Ana Lower, oo ku taal Sawtelle.  Waxay ka diiwaangashanayd Dugsiga Sare ee Emerson Junior waxayna u tagtay toddobaadle adeegyada Christian Science oo ay la socoto Hoose.  Monroe haddii kale wuxuu ahaa arday dhexdhexaad ah, laakiin wuxuu ku fiicnaaday qoraalka wuxuuna wax ku darsaday wargeyska dugsiga.[15]  Dhibaatooyinka caafimaad ee waayeelka Hoose awgeed, Monroe wuxuu ku soo noqday inuu la noolaado Goddards-ka Van Nuys horraantii 1941.  Isla sanadkaas, waxay bilowday inay dhigato Dugsiga Sare ee Van Nuys.[16]  1942, shirkadii ka shaqeysay Doc Goddard ayaa u wareejisay West Virginia.  Sharciyada ilaalinta caruurta ee Kaalifoorniya ayaa ka hor istaagay Goddards inay ka qaadaan gobolka Monroe gobolka, waxayna la kulantay inay ku noqoto xarunta agoonta.[17] Xal ahaan, waxay guursatay wiilkooda deriska ah wiil 21 jir ah, James Dougherty, bishii Juun 19, 1942, wax yar uun ka dib dhalashadeedii 16aad.[18] Monroe markii dambe wuxuu ka baxay dugsiga sare wuxuuna noqday xaas guri-joog ah. Waxay is aragtay iyada iyo Dougherty oo aan is khaldin waxayna markii dambe sheegtay inay "dareemayso caajis" mudadaas.[19] Sannadkii 1943, Dougherty wuxuu iska qortay Maraakiibta Ganacsiga iyo Jasiiradda Santa Katalina wax saldhig u ahaa, Meeshii Monroe isaga la rartay.

1944–1948: doorarka filimka ugu horeeya[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Portrait of Monroe aged 20, taken at the Radioplane Munitions Factory
Sawir ahaan Conover of Monroe oo ka socda Shirkadda Radioplane bartamihii-1944

Bishii Abriil 1944, Dougherty waxaa loo diray Baasifigga, wuxuuna halkaas sii joogi doonaa inta badan labada sano ee soo socota.  Monroe wuu dhaqaaqay oo wuxuu shaqo ka bilaabay Radioplane Company, oo ah warshad wax qarisa oo ku taal Van Nuys. waxay ka tagtay ka shaqaynta warshada bishii Janaayo 1945 waxayna bilawday inay u shaqayso kor u qaadista Conover iyo asxaabtiisa.[20] Iyaga oo iska difaacaya ninkeeda la hawlgaliyay, kaligeed ayay dhaqaaqday waxayna heshiis la saxiixatay Blue Book Model Agency bishii Ogosto 1943.[21]

Hay'addu waxay u aragtay in quruxda Monroe ay ku habboon tahay joornaalada iyada oo inta badan lagu soo bandhigi jiray xayeysiinta iyo joornaalada ragga.[22] Si ay ugu badato shaqaalaynta, waxay toosisay timaheeda wayna midabaysay.[23] Sida laga soo xigtay Emmeline Snively, milkiilaha wakaaladda, Monroe waxay si dhakhso leh u noqotay mid ka mid ah moodooyinka ugu hami iyo dadaal badan;  horaantii 1946, waxay ka soo muuqatay 33 joornaal joornaal sida Pageant, Camera, Laff, iyo Peek.[24] Monroe waxay mararka qaar isticmaali jirtay magaca Jean Norman.

Iyada oo loo marayo Snively, Monroe wuxuu qandaraas la saxiixday hay'ad ku-meel-gaar ah Juun 1946.[25] Ka dib wareysi aan guuleysan oo ka socda Paramount Pictures, waxaa fursad siiyay Ben Lyon, oo ah fuliyaha 20th Century-Fox. Qandaraaska Monroe wuxuu bilaabmay bishii Ogast 1946, iyada iyo Lyon waxay xusheen magaca masraxa "Marilyn Monroe".[26] Magaca koowaad waxaa qaatay Lyon, oo xasuusisay atariishada Marilyn Miller;  magaca ugu dambeeya wuxuu ahaa Monroe hooyadiis magaca gabadha.[27] Bishii Sebtember 1946, waxay furtay Dougherty, oo ka soo horjeedday shaqadeeda atariisho.[28]

A smiling Monroe sitting on a beach and leaning back on her arms. She is wearing a bikini and wedge sandals.
Monroe c. 1945

Monroe waxay lixdii bilood ee ugu horreysay ku qaadatay Fox barashada jilitaanka, heesaha, iyo qoob ka ciyaarka, iyo u kuurgalida hannaanka filim sameynta.[29] Qandaraaskeeda waxaa dib loo cusbooneysiiyay Febraayo 1947, waxaana la siiyay doorkeedii ugu horreeyay ee filim Dangerous Years (1947) iyo Scudda Hoo! Scudda Hay! (1948).[30] Istuudiyaha ayaa sidoo kale ka diiwaangaliyay Tiyaatarka Sheybaarka Jilayaasha, oo ah iskuul jilitaan.[31] Macallimiinteedu waxay dareemeen inay xishood badan tahay isla markaana aysan kalsooni ku qabin inay mustaqbal ku yeelato jilitaanka, Fox-na ma aysan cusbooneysiinin qandaraaskeeda Ogosto 1947. Waxay ku laabatay qaabeynta iyadoo waliba shaqooyin aan caadi aheyn mararka qaar ka qaban jirtay istuudiyaha filimada, sida inay ka shaqeyso qoob ka ciyaarka gadaashiisa si ay hogaanka ugu hayso dhibcaha muusikada.[32]

Iyadu door yar bay ku lahayd riwaayaddii Glamour ee laga doorbiday Tiyaatarka Bliss-Hayden, laakiin waxay ku dhammaatay waxqabadyo yar ka dib.[33][34] Waxay noqotay saaxiib iyo marmar lammaane galmo ee madaxa Fox Joseph M. Schenck, oo u sheegay saaxiibkiis Harry Cohn, madaxa fulinta ee Columbia Pictures, inuu u saxiixo bishii Maarso 1948.[35]

Kolumbia, Monroe waxaa laga soo qaatay Rita Hayworth oo iyaduna leh timo midab leh.[36] Waxay bilowday inay la shaqeyso tababaraha istuudiyaha, Natasha Lytess, oo sii ahaan doonta la-taliyeheeda illaa 1955.[37] Filimkeeda kaliya ee istuudiyaha ahaa wuxuu ahaa miisaaniyad yar Ladies of the Chorus (1948), taas oo ay ku lahayd doorkeedii ugu horreeyay ee gabadh ah oo uu u hanqal taagayo nin maalqabeen ah.[38] Waxay sidoo kale lagu wadaa inay door hoggaamineed ka qaadato Born Yesterday (1950), laakiin qandaraaskeeda lama cusboonaysiin bishii Sebtember 1948.[39] Ladies of the Chorus waa la sii daayay bishii xigta oo aan lagu guuleysan.[40]

1949–1952: sanadaha guusha[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Monroe in The Asphalt Jungle. She is wearing a black dress and stands in a doorway, facing a man wearing a trench coat and a fedora
Monroe filimkaThe Asphalt Jungle (1950)

Markii ay dhammaatay qandaraaskeedii ay kula jirtay Kolumbia, Monroe waxay mar kale ku soo laabatay qaabeynta. Waxay u toogatay ganacsi loogu talagalay biirka Pabst waxayna u muuqatay qaawan kalandarka John Baumgarth (iyadoo isticmaaleysa magaca 'Mona Monroe').[41] Waxyar ka dib markay ka tagtay Columbia, waxay sidoo kale la kulantay oo noqotay sayidad Johnny Hyde, madaxweyne ku xigeenka Wakaaladda William Morris.[42] Hyde awgeed, Monroe door yar ayuu ku lahaa dhowr filim,[lower-alpha 1] oo ay ku jiraan laba filim oo si weyn loo amaanay: All About Eve (1950) iyo The Asphalt Jungle (1950).[43] In kasta oo ay shaashaddeeda daqiiqado kooban ku jirtay filimaanta, haddana waxa ay caan ku noqotay Photoplay oo sida uu sheegayo taariikh-yaqaankii hore ee Donald Spoto "si wax ku ool ah ayuu uga guuray moodelkii filimka oo wuxuu u wareegay atariisho halis ah".[44] Bishii Diseembar 1950, Hyde wuxuu kala xaajooday Monroe qandaraas toddobo sano ah qarnigii 20-aad-Fox.[45] Hyde wuxuu u dhintay wadno xanuun maalmo un kadib, taas oo xasuuqday Monroe.[46]

Sannadkii 1951, Monroe wuxuu ku lahaa doorar kaalmo seddex filim oo si dhexdhexaad ah ugu guuleystey Fox: As Young as You Feel, Love Nest, iyo Let's Make It Legal.[47] Caan ka noqoshada dhagaystayaasha ayaa sidoo kale sii kordheysay: waxay heshay dhowr kun oo waraaqo taageerayaal ah usbuucii, waxaana ku dhawaaqay "Miss Cheesecake ee 1951" by wargeyska ciidanka ee Stars and Stripes, taas oo ka tarjumeysa dookha askarta ee Dagaalkii Kuuriya. Bishii Febraayo 1952, Ururka Saxaafadda Dibadda ee Hollywood ayaa u magacaabay Monroe "shaqsiyadda ugu wanaagsan ee dhallinta".[48] Nolosheeda gaarka ah, Monroe waxay xiriir gaaban la yeelatay agaasime Elia Kazan sidoo kale waxay si kooban ula jirtay dhowr nin oo kale, oo ay ku jiraan agaasime Nicholas Ray iyo jilayaasha Yul Brynner iyo Peter Lawford.[49] Horaantii 1952, waxay bilawday jacayl si heer sare ah loo soo bandhigey oo ay la yeelatay xiddigga baseball-ka ee howlgabnimada ka noqday New York Yankees Joe DiMaggio, oo ka mid ah shaqsiyaadka ugu caansan isboortiga xilligan.

Monroe, wearing a transparent lace robe and diamond earrings, sitting at a dressing table and looking off-camera with a shocked expression
Monroe Don't Bother to Knock (1952)

Monroe waxay isku aragtay bartamaha fadeexad bishii Maarso 1952, markay si cad u shaacisay inay u muuqatay jadwal qaawan sanadkii 1949.[50] Istuudiyaha ayaa wax ka bartay sawirrada iyo in si guud loogu xanto inay tahay moodel toddobaadyo ka hor, iyadoo ay weheliso Monroe waxay go'aansadeen in si looga fogaado in waxyeello loo gaadho xirfaddeeda ay fiicnaan lahayd in loo oggolaado iyada oo la leeyahay iyada ayaaba liidata waqtigaas iyo  u baahday lacagta sawirada.[51] Taasi waxay ka dhigtay inay ka hesho naxariis dadweynaha iyo xiisaha kordhay ee filimadeeda, oo ay hadda ku heleyso mushaar sare. Kadib fadeexadii, Monroe waxaa lagu soo bandhigay daboolka Life sida "Hadalka Hollywood" iyo qoraaga xanta Hedda Hopper wuxuu ku dhawaaqay "boqoradda farmaajo" waxay u jeesatay "guulaha xafiiska."[52] Fox waxay sii deysay seddex filim oo Monroe ah -Clash by Night, Don't Bother to Knock iyo We're Not Married! - wax yar ka dib si ay uga faa'iidaysato danta dadweynaha.[53]

In kasta oo caannimadeeda cusubi ay u tahay astaan ​​jinsi, Monroe sidoo kale waxay rajeyneysay inay muujiso wax badan oo ka mid ah jilitaankeeda.  Waxay bilawday inay la qaadato casharo jilayaal ah Michael Chekhov iyo Lotte Goslar waxyar kadib markay bilowday qandaraaska Fox,[54] iyo Clash by Night iyo Don’t Brother to Knock waxay ku muujisay doorarro kala duwan.[55][56][57][58]

Keith Andes iyo Monroe ee Clash by Night (1952). Filimku wuxuu u oggolaaday Monroe inay soo bandhigto wax badan oo ka mid ah jilitaankeeda doorka cajiibka ah.

Monroe seddexdii filim ee kale ee 1952 waxay ku sii waday iyada doorka majaajillada oo diiradda saareysa racfaankeeda galmo.[59] Howard Hawks filimka Monkey Business, oo ay ku jileysay ka soo horjeedka Cary Grant, waxay ku matashay xogheyn "carrab la', caruur, aan waxba galabsan oo aan ka warqabin dhibaatada ay u leedahay galmo iyada ku xeeran".[60] Waxay ku laheys Full House O. Henry door yar shaqaale galmo.[60][61][62]

Muddadan, Monroe waxay ku heshay sumcad inay adag tahay in lala shaqeeyo, taas oo ka sii dari doonta inta ay shaqadeedu socoto.  Inta badan way soo daahday ama kamay soo xaadirin haba yaraatee, ma xasuusato khadadkeeda, waxayna dalban lahayd dhawr dib-u-qaadis ah ka hor intaysan ku qancin waxqabadkeeda.[63][64] Dhibaatooyinka Monroe waxaa loo aaneeyey isku-darnaanta kaamil ahaanta, isku kalsooni-darrada, iyo cabsida masraxa.[65] Waxay jeceshahay xakamayn la'aanta ku saabsan filimka mana waligeed la mid ah dhibaatooyin la mid ah intii lagu jiray sawirada sawirada, taas oo ay wax badan ka dhihi laheyd waxqabadkeeda waxayna noqon kartaa mid iskaa wax u qabso ah halkii aad raaci laheyd qoraalka.[66][67][68][69]

1953: Caannimada sii kordheysa[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Monroe in Niagara. A close-up of her face and shoulders; she is wearing gold hoop earrings and a shocking pink top
Niagara (1953), oo ku nooleyd rafcaan galmo
Monroe iyo Jane Russell

Monroe wuxuu jilay seddex filim oo la sii daayay 1953 wuxuuna u soo muuqday astaamo weyn oo jinsi ah iyo mid ka mid ah kuwa ugu bandhiga badan Hollywood.[70][71] Midka koowaad wuxuu ahaa Niagara, oo ay ku ciyaaraysa dumar qorsheyneysa inay ninkeeda disho, waxaana ciyaaray Joseph Cotten.[72][73] Sida laga soo xigtay Sarah Churchwell, Niagara wuxuu ahaa mid ka mid ah aflaanta galmada ugu cad cad ee xirfadda Monroe.[60] Muuqaallada qaarkood, jirka Monroe waxaa lagu daboolay oo keliya go'yaal ama tuwaal, oo loo arko inuu argagax ku yahay dhagaystayaasha casriga ah.[74]

Markii Niagara la sii daayay Janaayo 1953, naadiyada haweenku waxay uga mudaaharaadeen inay tahay anshax xumo, laakiin waxay caan ku noqotay dhagaystayaasha.[75] [76][77] Monroe waxay sii waday inay soo jiidato dareenka iyadoo xiraneysa dhar muujinaya, oo ugu caansanaa abaalmarinta Photoplay bishii Janaayo 1953, halkaasoo ay ku guuleysatay abaalmarinta "Xiddiga ugu dhaqsaha badan".

Intii Niagara ay Monroe ka dhigtay astaan ​​galmo oo ay dhistay "muuqaalkeeda", filimkeedii labaad ee 1953, majaajillada muusikada Gentlemen Prefer Blondes. Monroe waxay si dhakhso leh u qarinaysay iyada oo ah atariisho rafcaan u noqon karta dhagaystayaasha lab iyo dhedig labadaba.[78] [79][80]

Bishii Sebtember, Monroe waxay markii ugu horreysay ka sameysay telefishanka Jack Benny Show.[81] Waxay keentay filimkeedii saddexaad ee sanadka, How to Marry a Millionaire.

Jagada Monroe oo ah astaan ​​galmo oo hogaamisa ayaa la xaqiijiyay bishii Diseembar 1953, markii Hugh Hefner ay ku soo bandhigtay iyada daboolka iyo sidii xarunta dhexe ee cadadkii ugu horeeyay ee Playboy;  Monroe ma oggolaan daabacaadda.[82][82]

1954–1955:[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Close-up of Monroe and DiMaggio kissing; she is wearing a dark suit with a white fur-collar and he a dark suit
Joe DiMaggio iyo Monroe ka dib markay ku aqal galeen San Francisco City Hall, Janawari 1954
Monroe standing on a podium wearing a tight dress and high-heeled sandals, greeting a crowd of US Marines
Monroe Febraayo 1954

Monroe waxay noqotay mid kamid ah jilayaasha ugu waa weyn qarnigii 20-aad-Fox, laakiin qandaraaskeedu isma badelin ilaa iyo sanadkii 1950, taasoo la micno ah in lasiiyay mushaar aad ugayar marka loo eego jilayaasha kale ee maqaamkeeda oo aan dooran karin mashaariicdeeda.[83] [84]

Markay ahayd Janaayo 14, iyada iyo Joe DiMaggio waxay ku aqal galeen Aqalka San Francisco.[85] Kadib waxay u safreen dalka Jabaan, iyagoo isku daraya bisha malab iyo safarkiisa ganacsi .[86] Laga soo bilaabo Tokyo, waxay keligeed u safartay Kuuriya, halkaas oo ay ka qayb gashay bandhigga Ururada Adeegga Midoobey, iyagoo heeso heeso ah ka qaadaya filimadooda in ka badan 60,000 US Marines muddo afar maalmood ah.[87] Markii ay ku soo laabatay Mareykanka, waxaa la siiyay abaalmarinta Photoplay "Jilaa Dumarka ugu Caansan".[88] Monroe waxay la degtay Fox bishii Maarso, iyadoo loo balanqaaday qandaraas cusub, gunno ah $ 100,000, iyo door oo filimka The Seven Year Itch.[89]

Bishii Abriil 1954, River of No Return, filimkii ugu dambeeyay ee Monroe duubay kahor xayiraadda, ayaa la sii daayay. [90]

Monroe is posing for photographers, wearing a white halterneck dress, which hem is blown up by air from a subway grate on which she is standing.
Monroe inta filim duubaya muuqaal loogu talagalay The Seven Year Itch

Bishii Sebtember 1954, Monroe wuxuu bilaabay duubista The Seven Year Itch, oo ay la jileyso Tom Ewell haweeney noqotey shayga dabeecadda galmada ee deriskeeda guursaday.[91] Goobta "Subway grate" ayaa noqotay mid ka mid ah kuwa ugu caansan Monroe iyo Toddoba Sano Cuncun ayaa noqotay mid ka mid ah guulaha ganacsi ee ugu weynaa sanadka ka dib markii la sii daayay bishii Juun 1955.[92]

Muuqaalka faafitaanka ayaa Monroe saaray bogagga hore ee caalamiga, waxayna sidoo kale calaamad u ahayd dhammaadkii guurkeedii DiMaggio, oo ay ka xanaaqday.[93] Labada lamaane ayaa dhib kala kulmay aktarada maseyrkiisa iyo dabeecadiisa xakameynta; sidoo kale wuxuu ahaa mid jidh dil badan.[94] Ka dib markii uu ka soo laabtay NYC kuna soo noqday Hollywood bishii Oktoobar 1954, Monroe wuxuu dalbaday furiin, ka dib sagaal bilood oo kaliya oo uu is qabay.

Monroe waxay sheegtay inay ka "daashay doorka isku jinsiga ah" waxayna cadeysay inaysan hada qandaraas kula jirin Fox, maadaama aysan gudan waajibaadkii loo igmaday, sida inay siisay gunadii loo balan qaaday.[95] Tani waxay bilaabatay dagaal sharciyeed socday muddo sanad ah oo u dhaxeeyay iyada iyo Fox bishii Janaayo 1955.[96][97]

Monroe, who is wearing a skirt, blouse and jacket, standing below a sign for the Actors Studio looking up towards it
Monroe

Kadib markii ay aasaastay shirkaddeeda MMP, Monroe waxay u guurtay Manhattan waxayna ku qaadatay 1955 barashada jilitaanka. Waxay la qaadatay fasalo Constance Collier waxayna ka qaybgashay aqoon isweydaarsiyo ku saabsan habka wax looga qabanayo Actors Studio, oo uu maamulo Lee Strasberg.[98] Waxay ku soo dhowaatay Strasberg iyo xaaskiisa Paula, iyagoo casharo gaar ah ku qaata gurigooda xishoodkeeda awgiis, waxayna isla markiiba noqotay xubin qoys.[99] Waxay ku bedeshay tababaraheedii kumeelgaarka ahaa, Natasha Lytess, Paula;  Strasbergs waxay ahaan jirtay saameyn muhiim ah inta ka hartay xirfadeeda.[100] [101]

Dhamaadka sanadka, Monroe iyo Fox waxay saxiixeen qandaraas cusub oo toddobo sano ah, maadaama MMP aysan awoodin inay kaligood maalgaliso filimada, istudiyaha-na wuxuu rabay inuu Monroe markale u shaqeeyo iyaga.[96] Fox ayaa siin doonta $ 400,000 si ay afar filim ugu sameyso, waxayna xaq u siisay inay doorato mashaariicdeeda, agaasimayaasha iyo sawir qaadayaasha.[102] Waxay sidoo kale xor u noqon laheyd inay sameyso hal filim oo MMP ah filim kasta oo dhameystiran oo loogu talagalay Fox.[102]

1956–1959: Mahadnaq halis ah iyo guurka Arthur Miller[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Monroe waxay ku bilaabatay 1956 iyadoo ku dhawaaqday guushii ay ka gaadhay 20th Century-Fox.[103] Saxaafadda ayaa hada sifiican wax uga qortay go'aankeeda ku aadan la dagaalanka istuudiyaha; Time wuxuu ugu yeeray "ganacsade xariif ah"[104][103][105]

Bishii Maarso, Monroe waxay bilowday duubista riwaayadda Bus Stop, filimkeedii ugu horreeyay ee qandaraaska cusub.[106] Waxay u garaacday Chérie, oo ah heesaa saloon ah oo riyadeeda xiddigta ay ku adkaatay wiil yar oo cowboy ah oo jacayl u qaba iyada.  Doorka, waxay baratay lahjad Ozark ah, waxay dooratay dharka iyo qurxinta oo aan lahayn soo jiidashada filimadeeda hore, waxayna si ula kac ah u siisay hees iyo qoob ka ciyaar.[107] Agaasime Joshua Logan ayaa ogolaaday inuu jiheeyo, inkasta oo uu markii hore ka shakiyay waxqabadkeeda jilitaanka isla markaana uu ogaa sumcadeeda inay ku adag tahay la shaqaynta.[108] Duubista filimku waxay ka dhacday Idaho and Arizona, iyada oo Monroe "farsamo ahaan mas'uulka ka ah" oo ah madaxa MMP, mararka qaarkoodna go'aan ka gaadho shaleemooyinka iyo iyada oo Logan la qabsanaysa daahitaankeeda joogtada ah iyo kaamil ahaanta.  Khibraddu waxay bedeshay fikradda Logan ee Monroe, markii dambena wuxuu la barbar dhigay iyada Charlie Chaplin awooddeeda isku-darka majaajilada iyo musiibada.[109]

Cropped photo of Monroe and Miller cutting the cake at their wedding. Her veil is lifted from her face and he is wearing a white shirt with a dark tie.
Monroe iyo Arthur Miller arooskoodii bishii Juun 1956

Bishii Juun 29, Monroe iyo Miller waxay ku aqal galeen Maxkamadda Westchester County ee White Plains, New York; laba maalmood ka dib waxay xaflad Yuhuud ah ku qabteen guriga Kay Brown, wakiilka suugaanta Miller, ee Waccabuc, New York.[110][111] Guurka gudihiisa, Monroe wuxuu isu beddelay diinta Yuhuudda, taas oo horseedday Masar inay mamnuucdo dhammaan filimadeeda.[112]

Bus Stop waxaa la sii daayay Ogosto 1956 wuxuuna noqday guul muhiim ah iyo ganacsi.[113][114] Waxay sidoo kale heshay abaalmarin dahab ah oo loogu talagalay magacaabista aktarada ugu fiican waxqabadkeeda.[48]

Close-up of smiling Monroe and Laurence Olivier, cheek-to-cheek. She is wearing long diamond earrings.
Laurence Olivier iyo Monroe intii lagu jiray shir jaraa'id oo ay ku dhawaaqayeen mashruucooda wadajirka ah, The Prince and the Showgirl (1957)

Bishii Ogosto, Monroe wuxuu sidoo kale bilaabay duubista wax soosaarkii ugu horreeyay ee madax-bannaan ee MMP, The Prince and the Showgirl, oo ka socda Pinewood Studios ee England.[115] Laurence Olivier, oo iyadu sidoo kale agaasime ka ahayd isla markaana matalay masraxa masraxa, ayaa ka xanaajisay hadalkii ay ku oraneyso ee ah "Waxa kaliya ee ay tahay inaad sameyso waa galmo", iyada oo dalabkiisa ay ku celcelinayso fasiraadda masraxa Vivien Leigh ee dabeecadd. sidoo kale necbahay joogitaanka joogtada ah ee Paula Strasberg, Monroe oo ah ku simaha tababaraha, oo la dhigay.[116] Aargudashada, Monroe wuxuu noqday wada shaqeyn la'aan wuxuuna bilaabay inuu si ula kac ah u soo daaho, isagoo gadaal ka sheegaya "hadaadan ixtiraamin fanaaniintaada, si fiican uma shaqeyn karaan."[117]

Monroe sidoo kale waxay la kulantay dhibaatooyin kale intii lagu jiray wax soo saarka.  Ku tiirsanaanta ay ku leedahay dawooyinka ayaa sii kordhay, sida laga soo xigtay Spoto, waxay lahayd dhicis.  Iyada iyo Greene ayaa sidoo kale ku murmay sida loo maamulo MMP. Inkasta oo ay jiraan dhibaatooyin, filimku wuxuu ku dhammaaday jadwalka dhammaadka 1956. The Prince and the Showgirl waxaa loo siidaayay dib-u-eegis isku dhafan bishii Juun 1957 waxayna muujiyeen in aysan jeclayn dhagaystayaasha Mareykanka.[118] Waxay sifiican uga heshay Yurub, halkaas oo lagu siiyay abaalmarinta David di Donatello oo Talyaani ah iyo abaalmarinta Crystal Star abaalmarinta waxaana loo magacaabay BAFTA.[119]

Ka dib markii uu ka soo laabtay England, Monroe wuxuu qaatay 18 bilood oo nasasho ah si uu xoogga u saaro nolosha qoyska.  Iyada iyo Miller waxay waqtigooda u kala qaybiyeen NYC, Connecticut iyo Long Island.[120] Waxay yeelatay uur-ku-jirta ectopic bartamihii-1957, iyo dhicis sanad kadib;[121][122] Monroe sidoo kale isbitaal muddo gaaban ah ayaa loo dhigay sababo la xiriira xad dhaaf xad dhaaf ah.[123] Maaddaama iyada iyo Greene ay xallin kari waayeen khilaafaadkooda ku saabsan MMP, Monroe wuxuu iibsaday qaybtiisa shirkadda.[124]

Monroe, Curtis and Lemmon playing instruments with other musicians in the orchestra
Iyada oo ay weheliyaan Tony Curtis iyo Jack Lemmon oo ka tirsan Billy Wilder filimka Some Like It Hot (1959), taas oo ay ugu guuleysatay Golden Globe

Monroe wuxuu ku laabtay Hollywood bishii Luulyo 1958 si uu ula jilo Jack Lemmon iyo Tony Curtis filimka majaajillada ah ee Billy Wilder, Some Like It Hot.[125] Waxay tixgelisay doorka Sugar Kane "door kale oo caadi ah" laakiin way aqbashay sababtoo ah dhiirigelinta Miller iyo bixinta boqolkiiba toban faa'iidooyinka filimka oo ka sarreeya mushaharkeeda caadiga ah.[126] Soo saarista adag ee filimka ayaa tan iyo markii ay noqotay "halyeey".[127]

Ugu dambeyntiina, Wilder wuxuu ku faraxsanaa waxqabadka Monroe wuxuuna yiri: "Qof walba wuu xusuusan karaa khadadka, laakiin waxay u baahan tahay farshaxan dhab ah inuu la yimaado shaxda oo uusan aqoon khadkeeda isla markaana uu siiyo waxqabadka ay sameysay!".[128]

1960–1962: Hoos u dhaca shaqada iyo dhibaatooyinka shaqsiyadeed[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Monroe and Montand standing next to a piano in a studio-type setting and looking at sheet music.
Yves Montand iyo Monroe oo ku jira majaajillada miyuusigga ah ee Let’s Make Love (1960), oo ay ku oggolaatay inay sameyso oo keliya inay fuliso qandaraaskeeda Fox

Monroe waxay qaadatay nasasho kale ilaa dabayaaqadii 1959, markii ay ku jileysay majaajillada miyuusigga ah ee Let’s Make Love.[129] Waxay u dooratay George Cukor inuu jiheeyo Miller-na wuxuu dib u qoray qayb ka mid ah qoraalka, oo ay u aragtay daciif; waxay aqbashay qaybta kaliya maxaa yeelay waxay ka dambeysay qandaraaskeedii Fox.[130] Intii lagu gudajiray duubista, Monroe wuxuu xiriir gogol dhaaf ah la yeeshay Yves Montand, kaasoo saxaafada si weyn u tabisay una isticmaalay ololaha xayeysiinta filimka.[131] filimku ma guuleysan markii la sii daayay Sebtember 1960.[132]

Filimkii ugu dambeeyay ee Monroe dhameeyay wuxuu ahaa The Misfits.[133] Waxay ciyaaray haweeney dhawaan la furay oo saaxiibo la noqotay seddex gabdhood oo gaboobay, oo ay ciyaareen Clark Gable, Eli Wallach iyo Montgomery Clift.  Duubista filimka lamadegaanka Nevada intii u dhaxeysay Luulyo iyo Nofember 1960 ayaa mar kale adkaatay.[134] Guurka Monroe iyo Miller sifiican ayuu udhamaaday, wuxuuna bilaabay xiriir cusub Inge Morath.[133]

Monroe iyo Miller ayaa kala tagay filim duubis kadib, waxayna heshay furiin reer Meksiko bishii Janaayo 1961.[135]

Monroe ayaa ku xigay xidigta taxanaha telefishanka laakiin mashruuca ayaa burburay maaddaama shabakadu aysan rabin inay shaqaaleyso xulashadeeda agaasimaha, Lee Strasberg.[136] Halkii ay ka shaqeyn lahayd, waxay ku qaadatay lixdii bilood ee ugu horreysay 1961 mashquul caafimaad.  Waxay gashay qalliin loo yaqaan 'cholecystectomy' iyo qalliin loogu talagalay endometriosis, waxayna qaadatay afar toddobaad isbitaal la dhigey niyad-jabka.[137]

Monroe wearing a form-fitting white dress with flowers and an open back. She is standing and smiling over her shoulder at the camera.
Monroe on set ah Something’ Got to Give. Waxay ku maqneyd inta badan wax soo saarka jirro darteed waxaana shaqada ka ceyriyay Fox bishii Juun 1962, laba bilood ka hor dhimashadeeda

Monroe waxay ku soo noqotay indhaha dadweynaha gugii 1962;  waxay heshay "Abaalmarinta Filimka Adduunka" Abaalmarinta Dahabka ah ee Dahabiga ah waxayna bilawday inay u duubto filim Fox, Something’ Got to Give, dib u habeynta My Favorite Wife (1940).[138] Monroe waxay ku xigtay filim muuqaal ah Waxyaabaha La Siinayo taas oo ay ku dhex dabbaashay barkad dabaal ah.[139][140] Bishii Juun 7, Fox waxay shaqada ka ceyrisay Monroe waxayna ku dacweysay $ 750,000 oo magdhow ah.[141] Waxaa lagu badalay Lee Remick, laakiin ka dib markii Martin uu diiday inuu filimka la sameeyo qof kale oo aan aheyn Monroe, Fox ayaa sidoo kale dacweysay isagana waxay xirtay wax soo saarkii.[142] Istuudiyaha ayaa ku eedeeyay Monroe masiibada filimka wuxuuna bilaabay inuu faafiyo dacaayad xun oo iyada ku saabsan, xitaa isagoo ku andacoonaya inay maskaxiyan qasnayd.[141]

Waxay kale qorsheyneysay inay jileyso taariikh nololeedka Jean Harlow. Si ay u hagaajiso muuqaalkeeda guud, Monroe waxay ku hawlanayd dhowr shirkadood oo caan ah, oo ay ku jiraan wareysiyo loogu talagalay Life iyo Cosmopolitan iyo sawirkeedii ugu horreeyay ee loogu talagalay Vogue.  Vogue, iyada iyo sawir qaade Bert Stern waxay iska kaashadeen laba sawir oo taxane ah, midkoodna tifaftirka moodada caadiga ah iyo mid kale oo iyada oo qaawan ah, oo lagu daabacay si heer sare ah cinwaankeedu yahay The Last Sitting.[143]

Filimada[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Xiriirinta dibedda[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Tixraacyo[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

  1. "Marilyn Monroe Dies; Pills Blamed"
  2. Spoto 2001, pp. 3, 13–14; Banner 2012, p. 13.
  3. Spoto 2001, pp. 9–10; Rollyson 2014, pp. 26–29.
  4. Spoto 2001, pp. 7–9; Banner 2012, p. 19.
  5. Spoto 2001, p. 9; Banner 2012, p. 20; Leaming 1998, pp. 52–53.
  6. Spoto 2001, p. 88, ; Banner 2012, p. 72,
  7. 7.0 7.1 Churchwell 2004, p. 150,; Banner 2012, pp. 24–25.
  8. Spoto 2001, pp. 17, 57.
  9. Churchwell 2004, pp. 155–156.
  10. Banner 2012, pp. 27, 54–73.
  11. Banner 2012, pp. 47–48.
  12. Banner 2012, pp. 60–63.
  13. Banner 2012, pp. 62–64.
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  15. Banner 2012, pp. 73–76.
  16. Spoto 2001, pp. 67–69.
  17. Banner 2012, pp. 86–90.
  18. Spoto 2001, pp. 70–75.
  19. Spoto 2001, p. 70–78.
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  23. Spoto 2001, pp. 93–95; Banner 2012, pp. 105–108
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  25. Spoto 2001, pp. 110–111.
  26. Spoto 2001, pp. 112–114.
  27. Spoto 2001, p. 114.
  28. Spoto 2001, p. 109.
  29. Spoto 2001, pp. 118–120; Banner 2012, pp. 130–131.
  30. Spoto 2001, pp. 120–121.
  31. Spoto 2001, pp. 122–126.
  32. Spoto 2001, pp. 120–121, 126; Banner 2012, p. 133.
  33. Spoto 2001, pp. 122–129; Banner 2012, p. 133.
  34. Spoto 2001, pp. 130–133; Banner 2012, pp. 133–144.
  35. Churchwell 2004, pp. 204–216, Banner 2012, pp. 141–144; Spoto 2001, pp. 133–134.
  36. Banner 2012, p. 139; Spoto 2001, pp. 133–134.
  37. Spoto 2001, pp. 133–134.
  38. Churchwell 2004, p. 59.
  39. Banner 2012, p. 148.
  40. Summers 1985, p. 43.
  41. Spoto 2001, pp. 151–153.
  42. Spoto 2001, pp. 145–146; Banner 2012, pp. 149, 157.
  43. Churchwell 2004, pp. 59–60.
  44. Spoto 2001, pp. 159–162.
  45. Riese & Hitchens 1988, p. 228; Spoto 2001, p. 182.
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  54. Spoto 2001, pp. 188–189; Banner 2012, pp. 170–171, 178
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  73. Churchwell 2004, pp. 25, 62.
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  82. 82.0 82.1 Churchwell 2004, p. 217.
  83. Churchwell 2004, p. 68.
  84. Banner 2012, p. 217.
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  89. Spoto 2001, p. 271.
  90. Churchwell 2004, pp. 66–67.
  91. Spoto 2001, pp. 283–284.
  92. Spoto 2001, p. 331.
  93. Spoto 2001, pp. 284–285; Banner 2012, pp. 8–9.
  94. Spoto 2001, pp. 208, 222–223, 262–267, 292; Churchwell 2004, pp. 243–245; Banner 2012, pp. 204, 219–221.
  95. Spoto 2001, pp. 302–303.
  96. 96.0 96.1 Spoto 2001, pp. 301–302.
  97. Spoto 2001, p. 338.
  98. Spoto 2001, p. 302.
  99. Spoto 2001, p. 327.
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  101. Spoto 2001, pp. 310–313.
  102. 102.0 102.1 Spoto 2001, pp. 339–340.
  103. 103.0 103.1 Banner 2012, pp. 296–297.
  104. Spoto 2001, p. 341.
  105. Spoto 2001, pp. 343–345.
  106. Spoto 2001, p. 345.
  107. Spoto 2001, pp. 352–357.
  108. Spoto 2001, pp. 352–354.
  109. Banner 2012, p. 254.
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  111. Schreck, Tom (November 2014). https://web.archive.org/web/20190517063630/http://www.westchestermagazine.com//Westchester-Magazine/November-2014/Marilyn-Monroes-Westchester-Wedding-Plus-More-County-Questions-And-Answers. Waxaa laga kaydiyay the original May 17, 2019. Soo qaatay May 17, 2019.  Barameter aan la aqoon |url-status= ignored (caawin); Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)
  112. Meyers 2010, pp. 156–157.
  113. Spoto 2001, pp. 358–359; Churchwell 2004, p. 69.
  114. Spoto 2001, p. 358.
  115. Spoto 2001, p. 372.
  116. Spoto 2001, pp. 370–379.
  117. Churchwell 2004, pp. 258–261.
  118. Churchwell 2004, p. 69.
  119. Banner 2012, p. 346.
  120. Spoto 2001, pp. 381–382.
  121. Spoto 2001, pp. 392–393, 406–407.
  122. Churchwell 2004, pp. 274–277.
  123. Banner 2012, p. 321.
  124. Spoto 2001, pp. 389–391.
  125. Banner 2012, p. 325 on it being a comedy on gender.
  126. Banner 2012, p. 325.
  127. Churchwell 2004, p. 626.
  128. Spoto 2001, p. 406.
  129. Churchwell 2004, p. 71.
  130. Spoto 2001, pp. 410–415.
  131. Churchwell 2004, p. 72.
  132. Banner 2012, p. 335.
  133. 133.0 133.1 Churchwell 2004, p. 266.
  134. Spoto 2001, pp. 429–430.
  135. Spoto 2001, pp. 450–455.
  136. Spoto 2001, pp. 453–454.
  137. Spoto 2001, pp. 453, for a new role, 466–467 for operations, 456–464 for psychiatric hospital stays.
  138. Churchwell 2004, p. 258, for the involvement of MMP.
  139. Spoto 2001, p. 523.
  140. Churchwell 2004, p. 74.
  141. 141.0 141.1 Churchwell 2004, p. 75.
  142. Spoto 2001, pp. 535–536.
  143. Banner 2012, p. 401.


Cite error: <ref> tags exist for a group named "lower-alpha", but no corresponding <references group="lower-alpha"/> tag was found