Dhadhan

Ka Wikipedia
U bood: gooshitaan, raadi
Kani waa maqaal ku saabsan dhadhanka guud ahaan.
Xubnaha iyo qaybaha dhadhanka ee dadka.

Dhadhan (Af-Ingiriis: Taste ama gustation; Af-Carabi: تذوق) waa dareenka uu sheego carabku markuu shay la falgalo. Neerfaha iyo xididada Dhadhanka oo uu la socdo xubnaha urta ayaa sheega nooca dhadhanka shey. Dhadhanku wuxuu ka mid yahay shanta laxaad ee dadka iyo xayawaanku leeyihiin. Dhadhanku waa dareen uu bixiyo carabku markuu taabto walax sida cunto oo kale isla markaana maskaxda u tebiyo sida waxaldaasi tahay, taasi oo iyadna soo sheegta nooca uu yahay dhadhankiisu.[1]

Sidoo kale, dhadhanka, urta iyo dareenku waxay u qaabilsan yihiin ineey soo tabiyaan dareenka guud ee jidhka sida xanuunka, heerkulka, laxanka, macaanida ama qadhaadhka cunto leedahay iyo wixii la halmaala.[2][3]

Carabka waxaa ku dahaadhan kumanaan unug oo yaryar kuwaasi oo markay iskuxidhmaan isha lagu arki karo. Shaqada unugyadani waxay tahay ineey sheegaan ama kala saaraan wax kasta oo afka soo gala, kuwaasi ooy si dhakhso ah ugu gudbiyaan unugyada dareenka ee u sii tebiya maskaxda.[4][5]

Shaqada ugu weyn ee carabku hayo waxa ka mid ah kala soocida dhadhanka, kuwaasi oo inta badan u kala soocan noocyo badan. Shanta nooc ee aasaaska u ah dhadhanka guud ahaan waa: macaanka, dhanaanka, milixnimo, qadhaadhka iyo dhegdhega.

Unugyada dhadhanku si fudud ayay u kala sooci karaan shantaas nooc ee dhadhanka ah, waxay isla markaaba jawaab degdeg ah u diraan urugyada maskaxda ee xasuusta iyo xafiditaanka. Sidoo kale, unugyada dhadhanka ee kala sooco noocyada dhadhanku waxay u kala saaraan shanta nooc qaab malakuyuul iyo atomyo-dabeeysan (ions). Macaanka, dhegdhega iyo qadhaadhka waxaa isla markaaba sheega malakuyuulo loo yaqaano "G-borotiin labo xafide" kuwaasi oo ku rakiban maqaarka sare ee unugyada dhadhanka. Intaas waxaa dheer, dhanaanka iyo milixnimada waxaa la ogaadaa marka atomyo-dabaysan oo ah birta Alkali ama haydarojiin ay taabtaan unugyada dhadhanka.[6]

Inkastoo faa'iidada ugu horeeysa ee dhadhanku yahay dareemida iyo macno u samaynta cuntada afka soo gasha, hadana shaqada dhadhanku intaas kuma koobna. Dhadhanku wuxu ka qeyb qaataa waxyaabo kale oo ka mid ah dareenka qofka, sida urta, taasi oo ay xaqiijiso sanku laakiin dhadhankuna kala qeyb qaato;[7] xarakeysiinta cuntada,[8] taasi ooy ka qeyb qaadato xubno kale iyo neerfisyo ku yaala afka dhexdiisa iyo agagaarkiisa;[9] heerkulka; iyo xadiga qaboow ah sida mentholsha oo kale, aalad afka dareensiisa in qaboow jiro.

Dareenka dhadhanku wuxuu leeyahay faa'iido badan iyo waxyeelo, waxaana guud ahaan loo kala saara labo qeybood oo kala noqonaya dhadhan dadban (aversive) iyo dhadhan hami (appetitive), kuwaasi oo saameyn ku leh dareenka ay u soo gudbiyaan jidhka.[10] Sida macruufka ah macaanku wuxuu u sheegaa jidhka cuntooyinka awooda badan leh, halka qadhaadhku u taagan yahay digniin in sun ama waxyeelo leeyahay sheeygaasi la dhadhamiyey.[11] Markasta oo jidhku dhadhamiyo wax qadhaadh si dhakhso ah ayuu u soo jawaabayaa, taasi waa sababta markaaba aan u soo tufno waxyaabaha qadhaadh ileen maskaxda ayaa amar ku bixisey in sheygaasi laga saaro jidhka maadaama uu halis ama sun noqon karo.

Guud ahaan dhadhanku wuxuu la socdaa koritaanka jidhka, marka qofku gaboobo isna wuu la gaboobaa oo hoos u dhac weyn ku yimaadaa. Sida dhowr cilmibaadhis oo kala duwan lagu ogaaday, dadku markeey gaadhaan da'da 20 jir waxay lumiyaan ugu yaraan kala-badh unugyada u qabilsan dhadhanka. Si taasi la mid ah in badan oo xayawaanka ah ayaa ayaguna lumiya in badan oo dhadhanka ah.[12]

Dhadhanka Aasaasiga[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Inkastoo aan aqoon fiican lo lahayn, hadana waxaa ilaa wakhtiyo hore la isku waafaqsanaa ineey jiraan aasaas tiro dhadhanka taasi oo qaabka ay u shaqeeyso iyo nidaamkeedu yahay mid aan si fiican loo kala saari karin. Noocyada kala duwan ee dhadhan ah ee carabka dadku kala sooci karo ayaa waxay saldhig u noqotey guud ahaan mid ka mid ah dareenada aasaasig ah ee nolosha aadamaha.[13] Horaantii qarnigii 20aad aqoonyahanada cilmiga dareenka dadku waxay aaminsanaayeen ineey jiraan kaliya afar nooc oo dhadhanka ah; kuwaasi oo kala ahaa: macaan, dhanaan, milixnimo (dhadhanka cusbada) iyo qadhaadh. Mudo ka dib waxaa la ogaaday dareenka dhadhanka ee dhegdhega oo laga dhigay midka shanaad ee aasaaska dareenada dhadhanka.[14][15]

Macaan[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Garaaf muujinaya macaanka.

Macaanka, oo sida caadiga ah loo yaqaano dareen raaxo, waxaa carabku soo saaraa marka ay jirto sonkor iyo waxyaabo la mid ah oo dhadhankoodu macaan yahay. Unugyada dhadhanka ee carabka ku yaala ee u qaabilsan sheegida macaanka waxaa loo yaqaanaa G borotiin kaasi oo la helo isaga isku xidhan.[16] Walxaha dhadhanka macaan ee carabku sheego waxay ka samaysan yihiin aalada sucrose oo ah jajabka hoose ee sonkorta iyo wixii la halmaala. Qof caadiga ah ee caafimaadka qaba wuxuu awood u leeyahay inuu carabkiisu sheego 10 millimoles oo sonkor ah halkii liter ee dareere ah.

Dhanaan[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Tilmaamta dhadhanka dhanaanka

Sida lagu ogaaday cilmibaadhis qoto dheer, dhadhanka dhanaanku wuxuu sheegaa asiidha ku jirta cuntada. Tirada uu dhanaan yahay walaxi waxay ka turjuntaa inta uu badhax ama jaamud yahay sheygaasi. Sidoo kale dhanaanku wuxuu ku xidhiidhaa badhxinta haydarokoloorik asiidha laga helo jidhka, taasi oo heerka dhanaankeedu gaadhsiisan yahay 1. Marka la barbardhigo asiidha ku jirta liinta oo heerkeedu yahay 0.46 iyo asiidha kaarboonta oo iyadna gaadhsan heerka ah 0.06, mid aad u hooseysa.

Dhanaanka waxaa sheega unugyo yaryar oo ku rakiban dhamaan dhinacyada carabka. Dhadhanka dhanaanka waxaa lagu sheegi karaa iyadoo la miisaamayo tirada borotiin PKD2L1 ee ku jirta cunto ama walaxda afka soo gashay.[17]

Noocyada ugu caansan ee dhanaanka ka buuxo cuntooyinka waa midhaha khudaarta, sida liin macaanta, liin dhanaanta, liin qarbooshta, liin beydariinta, liin bambeelmoda, canabka, tufaaxa iyo noocyo kale oo khudaar ah. Waxaa sidoo kale leh tiro kuusan oo dhanaan ah khamriga, caanaha dhanaan iyo wixii la mid ah.[18][19]

Milix[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Qadhaadh[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Tixraac[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

  1. Adjectival form: gustatory
  2. What Are Taste Buds? kidshealth.org
  3. Human biology (Page 201/464) Daniel D. Chiras. Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2005.
  4. Schacter, Daniel (2009). Psychology Second Edition. United States of America: Worth Publishers. p. 169. ISBN 978-1-4292-3719-2. 
  5. Boron, W.F., E.L. Boulpaep. 2003. Medical Physiology. 1st ed. Elsevier Science USA.
  6. Human Physiology: An integrated approach 5th Edition -Silverthorn, Chapter-10, Page-354
  7. Smell - The Nose Knows washington.edu, Eric H. Chudler.
  8. Food texture: measurement and perception (page 4/311) Andrew J. Rosenthal. Springer, 1999.
  9. Why do two great tastes sometimes not taste great together? scientificamerican.com. Dr. Tim Jacob, Cardiff University. 22 May 2009.
  10. Miller, Greg (2 September 2011). "Sweet here, salty there: Evidence of a taste map in the mammilian brain.". Science. 333 (6047): 1213. doi:10.1126/science.333.6047.1213. 
  11. Scully, Simone M. "The Animals That Taste Only Saltiness". Nautilus. Retrieved 8 August 2014. 
  12. Oaklander, Mandy (July 28, 2015). "A New Taste Has Been Added to the Human Palate". TIME. Retrieved August 4, 2015. 
  13. Ikeda, Kikunae (2002) [First published 1909]. "New Seasonings" (PDF). Chemical Senses. 27 (9): 847–849. doi:10.1093/chemse/27.9.847. PMID 12438213. Retrieved 30 December 2007. 
  14. Ayurvedic balancing: an integration of Western fitness with Eastern wellness (Pages 25-26/188) Joyce Bueker. Llewellyn Worldwide, 2002.
  15. Zhao, Grace Q.; Yifeng Zhang; Mark A. Hoon; Jayaram Chandrashekar; Isolde Erlenbach; Nicholas J.P. Ryba; Charles S. Zuker (October 2003). "The Receptors for Mammalian Sweet and Savory taste" (PDF). Cell. 115 (3): 255–266. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(03)00844-4. PMID 14636554. Retrieved 30 December 2007. 
  16. "Biologists Discover How We Detect Sour Taste". Sciencedaily.com. 24 August 2006. Retrieved 4 August 2012. 
  17. Djin Gie Liem and Julie A. Mennella (February 2003). "Heightened Sour Preferences During Childhood". Chem Senses. 28 (2): 173–180. doi:10.1093/chemse/28.2.173. PMC 2789429free to read. PMID 12588738. 
  18. [1]
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