Antarktika

Ka Wikipedia
(Waxaa laga soo toosiyay Antiarktis)
U bood: gooshitaan, raadi

Isuduwe: 90°S 0°E / 90°S 0°E / -90; 0

Kani waa maqaal ku saabsan qaarada Antarktika. Qoraalo kale fiiri Cidhifka Koonfureed
Antarktika
This map uses an orthographic projection, near-polar aspect. The South Pole is near the center, where longitudinal lines converge.
Baaxada 14,000,000 km2 (5,400,000 sq mi)[1]
Dadka cid joogto u degan ma lahan(2015)[2]
~ 5,000 temporary residents
Magaca Antarktikan, Antarktik
Wadanada Wadano ma lahan
Internet TLD .aq

Antarktika (Af-Ingiriis: Antarctica; Af-Carabi: القارة القطبية الجنوبية; loogu dhawaaqo: Listeni/æntˈɑrktɪkə/ iyo /æntˈɑrtɪkə/)[3][4] waa qaarada ugu xigta koonfurta Aduunka, taasi oo juquraafi ahaan noqoneysa Cidhifka Koonfureed ee dhulka. Qaarada Antarktika waxay ka mid tahay gobolka Antarktik ee waaxda koonfureed ee dhulka, taasi oo qeyb ka yihiin Iskuwareega Antarktik iyo Bada Koonfureed. Baaxada dhulka Antarktika waa mid aad u balaadhan, waxaana lagu qiyaasay 14.0 milyan kilomitir labo jibaaran (5.4 milyan mayl labo jibaaran), taasi oo ka dhigeysa qaarada shanaad ee ugu weyn aduunka - waxaa ka weyn Afrika, Aasiya, Waqooyiga Ameerika iyo Koonfur Ameerika.

Hadii Antarktika la barbardhigo qaarada Ustareliya weey ku labo laabmaysaa, taasi micnaheedu waa in Ustareliya le'egtahay kala badh Antarktika. Sida la ogyahay ilaa 98% qaarada Antarktika waxaa qariyahay baraf kaasi oo leh dhumuc dhan 1.9 kilomitir (1.2 mayl),[5] kuna fidsan dhamaan deegaanada qaarada marka laga reebo qeybta waqooyi oo kali ah.

Isku celcelis, qaarada Antarktika waa tan ugu qaboow, qalalsan, ee ugu dabaysha badan qaaradaha caalamka oo dhan. Sidoo kale waxay leedahay deegaano badan oo ugu dhaadheer jooga dhulka.[6] Juquraafi ahaan marka laga hadlayo deegaanada Antarktika waxaa lagu tiriyaa lamadegaan (saxare), sababtoo ah waxaa ka da'a roob aad u yar oo mararka qaar ka yar 200 mm (8 in) kaasi oo ku da'a deegaanada xeebaha oo kali ah.[7] Sidoo kale waxaa xusid mudan heerkulka Antarktika, wuxuu inta badan yahay −89 °C (−129 °F), in kastoo marka la iskucelceliyo guud ahaan noqonayso −63 °C (−81 °F).

Dhinaca kale, qaarada Antarktika ma lahan dad si joogto ah ugu dhaqan ama nool deegaanadaadi. Laakiin waxaa wakhtiyo badan oo sanadka ah jooga tiro Saynisyahano iyo cilmibaadhayaal ah oo u dhexeeya 1,000 ilaa 5,000 qof kuwaasi oo ku baahsan dhinacyada qaarada. Noolaha sida dabiiciga ah looga helo qaarada Antarktika waxaa ka mid ah algae, bakteeriya, fungi, xoogaa yar oo dhir ah, brotista, iyo noocyo kooban oo xayawaan ah, sida takfida, qooleeyda, sealska, iyo tardgrade. Dhirta ugu caansan ee laga helo deeganku waa tundra.

Guud ahaan, qaarada Antarktika waa meel aan la kala lahayn (de facto), laakiin waxaa maamula oo gacanta ku haya dowladaha saxeexay "Nidaamka Heshiiska Antarktika". Heshiiskaasi waxaa sanadkii 1959kii saxeexay labo iyo toban wadan, wakhtiyadii ka dambeeyayna waxaa saxeexa ku biiray ilaa 39 wadan kale. Heshiiskaasi wuxuu meesha ka saarayaa in qaarada Antarktika loo isticmaalo siyaabo milatari, in hubka lagu tijaabiyo, in wasakhda hubka lau aaso ama la keeno, in la taageero ajandaha cilmi-baadhista, in macdan laga qoto iyo in la ilaaliyo hawada nadiifta ah ee qaarada. Wadanadii ugu horeeyay waxaa ka mid ah Arjantiina, Ustareliya, Beljimka, Jili, Faransiiska, Jabaan, New Zealand, Norway, Koonfur Afrika, Ruushka, Ingiriiska iyo Maraykanka Cilmibaadhista ka socota qaarada waa mid caalami ah oo ilaa 4,000 aqoon yahay oo caalamka ka kala socda joogaan.


Muuqaalka Antarktika (NASA).

Badweynta Koonfureed[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Badweynta Koonfured (Badweynta Antarktika) waa mid ka mid ah shanta badweyn ee aduunka taasi oo dhacda meesha ugu xigta koonfurta dhulka. Badweynta Koonfured waxay ku taalaa koonfuta dhigta 60° K taasi oo ku wareegsan gobolka Qaarada Antarktika.[8]

Marka laga hadlayo baaxada iyo waynida, badweyntani waa bada afaraad ee ugu weyn badweynta aduunka, waxaa ka wayn Badweynta Baasifik, Badweynta Atlaantik, iyo Badweynta Hindiya; waxaysa ka weyn tahay Badweynta Arktik.[9] Biyaha badani waxay dhacaan soonaha biyaha qaboow iyo diiran ku kulmaan.

Markii ugu horeeysay taariikhda waxaa sanadkii 1770kii la ogaaday badweyntani markii sahamiye kabtan James Kook u gooshay biyaha koonfureed ee aduunka. Intaas wixii ka dambeeyay waxaa cilmiyahanada juquraafigu aad ugu qulqulayeen gobolka ay badweyntani ka mid tahay. Sidoo kale waxaa in mudo ah muran iyo is-afgaranwaa ka taagna xadka Badweynta Koonfureed, taasi oo meelo badan lagaga qasayey xadka ay la wadaagto Badweynta Baasifik, Badweynta Atlantik iyo Badweynta Hindiya.

Sanadkii 2000 wixii ka dambeeyay bulshada caalamku waxay isku raacday in Badweynta Koonfureed ka bilaabanto (ama lagu daro) dhigta lixdanaad koonfur.[10]


Cidhifka Koonfureed[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Koonfur pole

Cidhifka Koonfured (South Pole) waa geeska ugu shisheeya ama ugu fog ee koonfurta meeraha dhulka. Dunida aan ku nool nahay ee dhulka waxay leedahay labo cidhif oo kala ah Cidhifka Waqooyi iyo Cidhifka Koonfur ee dhulka.

Cirifka Koonfur ee aduunka waxee ku taalaa koonfurta ugu hooseeso aduunka. Cirifka Koonfur iyo Cirifka waqooyi waa meelaha 6 bilood maalin ah, 6 bilood habeen ah.labadaan meelood waa meesha oo aduunka ka wareegto.Meeshani waa meesha aduunka ugu nolosha adag amaba ugu daran,qofkii ugu horeeyay ee tagaa waxa uu ahaa Roald Amundsen waxay ahayd sanadii 1911.

Muuqaalka[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]


Qoraalo Kale[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Tixraac[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

  1. United States Central Intelligence Agency (2011). "Antarctica". The World Factbook. Government of the United States. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ay.html. Retrieved 22 October 2011.
  2. "The World Factbook: Population". CIA. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2119.html.
  3. Crystal, David (2006). The Fight for English. Oxford University Press. p. 172. ISBN 978-0-19-920764-0.
  4. Harper, Douglas. "Antarctic". Online Etymology Dictionary. http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=antarctic&allowed_in_frame=0. Retrieved 16 November 2011.
  5. British Antarctic Survey. "Bedmap2: improved ice bed, surface and thickness datasets for Antarctica" (PDF). The Cryosphere journal: 390. Retrieved 6 January 2014. 
  6. National Satellite, Data, and Information Service. "National Geophysical Data Center". Government of the United States. Archived from the original on 13 June 2006. http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/image/2minrelief.html. Retrieved 9 June 2006.
  7. Joyce, C. Alan (18 January 2007). "The World at a Glance: Surprising Facts". The World Almanac. Archived from the original on 4 March 2009. http://www.worldalmanac.com/blog/2007/01/the_world_at_a_glance_surprisi.html. Retrieved 7 February 2009.
  8. "Geography - Southern Ocean". CIA Factbook. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/oo.html. Retrieved 16 July 2012. "... the Southern Ocean has the unique distinction of being a large circumpolar body of water totally encircling the continent of Antarctica; this ring of water lies between 60 degrees south latitude and the coast of Antarctica and encompasses 360 degrees of longitude."
  9. "Introduction - Southern Ocean". CIA Factbook. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/oo.html. Retrieved 16 July 2012. "...As such, the Southern Ocean is now the fourth largest of the world's five oceans (after the Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, and Indian Ocean, but larger than the Arctic Ocean)."
  10. Pyne, Stephen J.; The Ice: A Journey to Antarctica. University of Washington Press, 1986. (A study of Antarctica's exploration, earth-sciences, icescape, esthetics, literature, and geopolitics)
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