Waxaraxir

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U bood: gooshitaan, raadi
Waxaraxir The Venusian symbol, a circle with a small equal-armed cross beneath it
Venus in approximately true colour, a nearly uniform pale cream, although the image has been processed to bring out details.[1] The planet's disc is about three-quarters illuminated. Almost no variation or detail can be seen in the clouds.
Global radar view of the surface from Magellan radar imaging between 1990 and 1994
Calaamadayn
Ku Dhawaaqitaan Listeni/nəs/
Sifo Venusian or (rarely) Cytherean, Venerean
Sifooyin gaara[2][4]
Miisaan J2000
Wareegdhow
  • 108939000 km
  • 0.728213 AU
Wareegfog
  • 107477000 km
  • 0.718440 AU
Gobol Goobo
  • 108208000 km
  • 0.723327 AU
Iskuwareeg Yar 0.0067
Wareega Sanad
  • 224.701 d
  • 0.615198 yr
  • 1.92 Venus solar day
Wakhiga Wareega 583.92 days[2]
Iskucelceliska Xawaaraha Wareega 35.02 km/s
Iskucelceliska Wareega 50.115°
Janjeedhka
Loolasha u yaryihiin 76.678°
Wakhtidhan 55.186°
Dayaxyo None
Gacan
  • 6051.8±1.0 km[5]
  • 0.9499 Earths
Sariibadaha 0[5]
Bedka oogada
  • 4.60×108 km2
  • 0.902 Earths
Mug
  • 9.28×1011 km3
  • 0.866 Earths
Cuf
  • 4.8676×1024 kg
  • 0.815 Earths
Macnaha Cufnaanta 5.243 g/cm3
Equatorial surface gravity
  • 8.87 m/s2
  • 0.904 g
Escape velocity 10.36 km/s
Mudo wareeg −243.0185 d (Retrograde)
Xawaare wareeg 6.52 km/h (1.81 m/s)
Foorar 177.36°[2]
Cirifka woqoooyi right ascension
  • 18h 11m 2s
  • 272.76°[6]
Cirifka woqooyi declination 67.16°
Kulka oogada yeraan dhex-dhexaad badnaan
Kelvin 737 K[2]
Celsius 462 °C
Apparent magnitude
  • brightest −4.9[8][9] (crescent)
  • −3.8[10] (full)
Angular diameter 9.7″ to 66.0″[2]
Jawiga
Cadaadiska oogada 92 bar (9.2 MPa)
Qaab dhismeedka

Waxaraxir ( summad : ♀ ) waa meeraha labaad ee baho cadceedeed ka soo Sun iyo waa ku dhawaad ​​ka wayn yahay dhulka . Sida Venus guuro hareeraha dhidibka u gaar ah jihada ka soo horjeedda ee dhaqdhaqaaqa agagaarka qorraxda si aad u dhihi kartaa in gadaal u wareegto , taasoo Venus iyo Triton kaliya ma . Venus waa meeraha keliya ee baho cadceedeed kuwaas oo maalin ka dheer tahay sanadka sababtoo ah Venus wareegto mar agagaarka qorraxda ee 225 maalmood, waxayse u baahan tahay oo buuxda 243 maalmood isbedel ku wareeg ah oo keliya oo hareeraha dhidibka u gaar ah . Like kale tan iyo Qarniyadii hore ee meerayaasha West loo yaqaan ( kuwa soo baxay iyada oo Saatun ) ayaa loo magacaabay by ahaa Gariig , kaas oo magac hiir our ( Giriigtu waxay sidoo kale sheegaysaa in Venus iyo Triton la xiriira ) . Waxaa la magacaabay ka dib markii ay ilaahadda jacayl Aphrodite , iyo , sida la meerayaasha kale , nidaamka wuxuu u sarreeyey by Romans -ka kuwaas oo magacyadooda ka dibna dhaxlo . Jacaylkoodii ilaahadda magacaabay Venus . Meeraha ayaa waxaa lagu yaqaan ka hor Qarniyadii hore iyo lahaayeen magacyo kala duwan ee dhaqamada kala duwan . Maaddaama ay inta badan waxaa lagu arki karaa macnaha of qorrax iyo qorrax ka soo baxa , waxa la yidhaahdaa waa star fiidkii iyo xiddigta waaberi oo ku qoran afaf dhawr ah . Venus sidoo kale waa jirka oo u nacaan, oo waa muuqataa in Samada ka dib markii Qoraxda iyo Dayaxa .

Meeraha ayaa waxaa la molnbeklädd leh jawi inta badan ka kooban carbon dioxide , laakiin sidoo kale qaybo yar oo nitrogen , dioxide baaruud iyo uumiga biyaha way ku jiraan . Taas ayaa ka dhigaysa dunida korkeeda aad u kulul oo aad u waantoobaan in ay nolosha , ugu yaraan foomamka aan ognahay in laga soo Earth . Sida meeraha durba waa sida weyn sida dhulku ilaa ay mararka qaarkood loo gudbin doono sidii dhulka walaasheed meeraha .

Venus leh Mercury yihiin meerayaasha kaliya ee Nidaamka Solar in aadan haysan bilaha cusubu dhashaan .

Tusmada [ hide]

1 Venus Aayadaha

2 -dhismeedka Gudaha

3 Khaatumo

4 Area

5 Hore Waxyaabo

5.1 Studies wax wal oo

5.2 Studies leh AIDS-ka cusub ee indhaha

5.3 probes Space

6 Fiction

7 Seeds

7.1 Notes

7.2 Suugaanta

8 Sidoo kale eeg

9 links External

Venus Aayadaha [Wax ka bedel | edit isha ]


On 14 June 2004 , waxaa jiray maris Venus ah ; ku dhowaad 6 saacadood sida Venus maray hore ee saxan ee qoraxda . Qeybo badan oo koonfurta iyo bartamaha Sweden daruurta - daboolay subax taas oo macnaheedu yahay in badan oo seegay maris Venus . Transit A ee Venus sidoo kale 6 dhacay June 2012 . Qofka No nool ay arkeen markii ay dhacday sanadkii 2004 . Transit ee Venus ka hor taariikhda qaaday in 1882 oo ka mid ah la soo dhaafay u galay kuwaas oo si aad u aragto ka hor 2004 dalka Iswiidan waxay ahayd in 1769 . Marinada noocan oo kale ah ay ahaayeen muhiimada cilmiga xiddigaha , tusaale ahaan , in ay isku dayaan in ay dhererka fogaanta qorraxda . Next maris Venus dhacdaa 2117th Venus leeyahay dul qaado kaas oo xidhiidh ah ku dhowaad saxda ah si wareeg dhulka ee leh saamiga 13 / 8 . Sidaa darteed , Venus iyo dhulka ku dhow dhab ah meel ay isku qaraabo 8 sano ( 13 Venus Orbit ) ka dib . Tani waxay u ogolaaneysaa rakaab sida caadiga ah dhacdaa in lammaane oo laba ilaa sideed sano . Markaas , waxay qaadataa ugu yaraan boqol sano , ilaa dabada ee soo socda waxay dhacdaa .

Dhismaha Inner [Wax ka bedel | edit isha ]




Size Venus ee la xiriira dhulka ee ka

The gudaha ee Venus waa wax la mid ah Dhulka . Qaybta sare ee Venus ka kooban yahay muhiimad ahaan of lakabka adag oo ah dhagaxa weyn loo yaqaan qolof ah iyo qiyaastii 40 mayl u qoto dheer waa . Qolof ah waxaa ka buuxa oo qolalkii ah dhagaxa weyn la shubay loo yaqaan magma . Qolladihiisa magma Kuwaasi quudinta marno dushiisa . Under rafatay waa go'iisii ​​ka kaas oo qiyaas ahaan 3 000 km qoto dheer . Arrintani waa mid aad u kulul , halkaas oo dhagaxa weyn semi- la shubay wareegto sida dareere dhegdheg qaro weyn . Dhagax weyn ee go'iisii ​​gaadiid u kulaylka in ay dusha sare by Hiitarada , ku gedaaman meesha wax kulul u kacda iyo inuu dhaco ama qabow . The dushooda Hiitarada , halkaas oo arrinta kulul ugu dhaw ee dusha sare , waxaa lagu magacaabaa dhibco kulul . Hetpunkterna sababa qolladihiisa magma in la quudiyo marno iyo mararka qaarkood ay kor u qolof ah oo dhan iyo hesho dhulka si ay u bararsan yihiin . In xarunta Venus waa xudunta u ah , goobahaasi aheydna socdaal xoogan kulul ee biraha la shubay , inta badan nickel iyo birta . Heerkulka core waxaa la qabtaa ilaa sababtoo ah cadaadiska ay Venus layers sare . Qofna hubaal ah uma oga , haddii xudunta u ah waa dareere ama adag ama kaliya qayb ahaan go'an dhulka . Aragtiyaha Most of the gudaha ee Venus ka yimaadaa isbarbardhigga Earth . Waxaa loo maleynayaa in Venus iyo Earth sameeyay si la mid ah iyo in ay qayb ka mid ah habka tamarta qoraxda , sidaas arrinta in meerayaasha waxay ka kooban yihiin waa in saabsan isku .

Khaatumo [Wax ka bedel | edit isha ]


Venus leeyahay jawi ka kooban intooda badan ee kaarboon iyo ku yar nitrogen . Waxay leedahay cadaadiska at dusha ku saabsan tahay 90 jeer ka weyn yahay cadaadiska on Earth ( cadaadiska siman on mile ah oo qoto dheer badda ah on Earth ) . The weyn oo CO2- hodanka ah gudbikaraa oo qaaradda wada jir ah ula natiijada ay aad u sarayso cadaadis atmosfeerta in saamayn xooggan lagu koriyo in kicisaa heerkulka dushiisa oo ku saabsan 400 ° C ka badan waxa ay leeyihiin haddii kale lahaa , si heerkulka dusha ka gaari karto 500 ° C. Taas ayaa ka dhigaysa Venus ' dusha gubniinka Mercury , inkastoo Venus waa ku dhowaanayaan labanlaab ka fog qorraxda .

Waxaa suurto gal ah in Venus mar lahaa biyaha dareere badan sida Earth . Afar bilyan oo sano ka hor inta qorraxda ka timaada kulaylka aan sida badan laakiin sida kulaylka u kacay biyo is afgarasho kaarboon si jawiga iyo dioxide kaarboon la sameeyo si kulaylka ee dusha meere ee sii kordhay ilaa dalaka lahaa gabi ahaanba is afgarasho . Marka laga xorreyn- bannaan ee Magellan sahamiyey dunida korkeeda , waxaa jiray rajada in la ogaado lahaa raad webiyaashaada oo qalalan ama calaamado kale oo uu biyo laakiin sida jirin ahaa marna helay . Haddii ay jirto ayaa biyaha in uu leeyahay raad sida la waayay tan iyo Venus weli waa volcanically firfircoon . [ 6 ] Sida uumiga biyaha , Alshaab ayaa ka soo dalaka ayaa sidoo kale si tartiib burburiyey uumi ee qorraxda ee shucaaca iyo hydrogen aasaasay iyo oksijiin . Hydrogen The shucaaca ionized iyo oksijiin ayaa la xidhxidhnaa halkii ay u macdanta ee ciidda in ogsijiin ugu horeysay oo kale dhulka . Sababo la Venus uu leeyahay xawaare aad u hooseeyo , kaayesi lafteeda agagaarka , taas oo tusaale ahaan waa dhulka xawaaraha Equatorial kaayesi ee 465,1 m / s halka Venus 1.81 kaliya m / s , ma ahaan ku beer magnetic taasoo hayn karo hydrogen ee ionized of jawiga laakiin waxaa jira post hore halkii meel dabaysha qoraxda . [ 7 ]

Area [Wax ka bedel | edit isha ]




Image A 3D ah ee dusha ee Venus

Venus ' dusha Dadwaynaha bannaankii baaxad weyn . Waxa kale oo jira kolayba ah grooves oo ballaadhan , sida Atalanta Planitia Guinevere Planitia iyo Lavinia Planitia . Waxaa jira laba buuraleyda waaweyn ee , HTML Terra ee soo hijrootay dhulalka waqooyiga ( oo ku saabsan size of Australia ) iyo Aphrodite Terra weheliyaan dhulbaraha ( oo ku saabsan cabbirka South America ) . On HTML Terra waa oogada ah , Lakshmi Planum , kaas oo la hareereeyey oo buuraha ugu sareeya on Venus oo ay ku jiraan ballaarnaa Maxwell Montes by . Xogta uu ka soo radar image Magellan waxay muujinaysaa in inta badan dusha ee Venus waa la daboolay durdurro dhagax dab . Waxa jira dhowr marno ballaaran (oo la mid Hawaii ama Olympus , isaguse ) sida Sif , isaguse . Natiijooyinka Recently ku dhawaaqay ayaa tilmaamaya in Venus weli waa volcanically firfircoon , laakiin kaliya meelo yar oo . In ka badan boqol milyan oo sanadood ee ugu dambeeyey , waxa ay ahayd firfircoon . Ma jiraan wax craters yar yar on Venus : meteorites yar yar la burburiyey ee Venus ' jawi cufan ka hor ay garaaci kartaa hoos . Craters wuxuu u muuqdaa inuu yimaado in rucubood oo muujinaysa in meteoroids waaweyn marka laga reebo jebiyaan inta ay ka gaarayaan dusha sare . The terrains oldest on Venus u muuqda in ay 800 oo milyan oo sano jir . Kobenhagen Riiraaqey waqtiga la tirtiro inta badan dusha hore .

Early Waxyaabo [Wax ka bedel | edit isha ]


Marka Venus waa shayga ugu maskax wanaagsan oo samada ka dib markii Qoraxda iyo Dayaxa , waxa uu lahaa qiimo weyn tahay dad badan .

Venus ayaa loo yaqaan labada " The Star Morning " iyo " Evening Star " , magaca sheegaysa in planet markii hore loo arkay sidii laba shey oo kala duwan . Inkasta oo Aborigines , kuwaas oo haddii kale waxaa loo yaqaan for fiiro ah sumalka uguma ay , ku magacaaban Venus , magaca Barnujbir , iyo waxaa jira xafladaha qadiimiga ah oo la xidhiidha dunida korkeeda .



Ammisaduqas Venus rinjiyeynta , taariikhaysan, 1581 f.Kr muujinaysaa indha-indhaynta sameeyo xiddigiyayaashii oo Baabuloon laga . Venus waxa lagu sheegay sidii Nin - Dar- ah - na

The note ah sumalka uguma ugu horeeya on Venus yimaado Baabuloon ka yimid , oo hoos King Ammisaduqas oo boqornimadiisa (inta u dhaxaysa 1646 BC iyo 1626 f.Kr ) . Venus Leaderboard ka soo Ammisaduqa , taariikhaysan, 1581 BC muujinaysaa in Baabilooniyans oo garatay Star ay subaxda iyo fiidkaba Star ahaa shay la mid ah . On board ee loo yaqaan Venus Nin - Dar- ah - na , " boqoradda dhalaalaya oo samada oo " oo macnaheedu yahay . [ 8 ]

Giriigtu waxay arkeen Venus sidii laba xiddigood oo kala duwan , Phosphoros ( " sidayna iftiin" ) iyo Hesperos ilaa Baytagooris ee 600 BC [ 9 ]

Romans The arkay Venus Aroortii arooryadow , taas oo macnaheedu yahay " Light qofka sita ," iyo Venus fiidkii Vespers . Norsemen waxa loo yaqaan Friggjarstjærna ka dib markii Freja .

Kii u horreeyey ayaa caddeeyaa Venus Transit la sameeyey by Yeremyaah Horrocks December 4 , 1639 ( 24 November sida ay Julian in ay ahayd in la isticmaalo ) oo ay weheliso saaxiibkii William inooga [ 10 ]



Transit ee Venus ee 1769 .

Waxa kale oo jira cadaymo muujinaya in ku meel gaar ah ee Venus lahaa ayaa la arkay mar hore in 1032 by astronomer ee Persian Avicenna . Markaas ku soo gabagabeeyey by Venus ahaa dhaw Earth badan Sun . [ 11 ] In 1100s ah , astronomer Andulusianka Ibn Bajjah ayaa lagu arkay " laba meerayaasha dhibco madow on qorraxda , sida " taasi oo markii dambe la ogaaday inay noqon Mercury iyo Venus Aayadaha .

Studies wax wal oo [Wax ka bedel | edit isha ]

Galileo Galilei ahaa baranayay Venus isagoo xoqad iyo arkay in wejiyada ay corresponded in ay Dayaxa . Waxa uu noqday mid ka mid ah doodaha uu for sababta nooc ee Copernican baho cadceedeed ahayd ka khayr badan Ptolemy . Midkoodna ma Galilei iyo Christiaan Huygens sano kadib arki karin dhismayaasha qaarkood . Kii u horreeyey ayaa sheegtay in ay arkaan qaar ka mid ah dhismayaasha on Venus ahayd astronomer hiwaayadda Talyaani , Francesco Fontana , waxa uu arkay waxay ahayd keliya saamaynta indhaha ka xoqad . Inkastoo Giovanni Domenico Cassini isu tixgeliyaa arki qaababka iyo iyaga qiyaasay ilaa laga soo wareeg ah in 23 saacadood iyo 21 daqiiqo . Si kastaba ha ahaatee , waxaa shaki haddii wuxuu arkay wax kasta oo qaabab dhab ah . Taasi la mid ah ay u soo baxday markii la sameeyey ee qarniyadii soo socda , marka cover daruur meere ee qariyaa dusha meere ee . Astronomers badan oo isku dayay in uu cabiro wareeg meere ee , natiijooyin kala duwan , inta badan si ay of 24 saacadood .

Ka sokow uu arko dhismayaasha on meeraha wuxuu ku fikiray waxay Fontana iyo Cassini sidoo kale aragnay moon ah . Waxay ahaayeen soo raacay, in bartamihii 1700 - by dadka kale , laakiin by 1764 ma jirin indha-indhaynta cusub ee dayaxa ku jirin .

Iyada oo daraasadda ee Venus oo dhan qorraxda ee 1761 yimid cilmiga Ruush Mikhail Lomonosov soo gabagabeeyey in meeraha ku lahaa jawi in uu ahaa ugu yaraan sida ballaaran , sida dhulku . [ 12 ] Dhawr tobanaan sano kadib , Johann Hieronymus Schröter helitaanka marqaatiyo more of its jawi

Percival Lowell la daabacay 1897 barbaro by channels on Venus oo kaliya sidii uu arkay on Mars , ayay yeeleen heli dhaweynta a more qabow , u sabab dhibaatooyin si ay u arkaan qaababka on Venus , sababta oo ah jawi .

Studies leh AIDS-ka cusub ee indhaha [Wax ka bedel | edit isha ]

Baaritaanadii u spectroscopic marka hore ka tayo loo sameeyay iyadoo la astronomers American ee 1932 iyo muujisay in jawiga badanaa ku jira kaarboon . Meeraha ayaa ahaa bartay by radar markii ugu horeysay ee 1961 .

Isku day Failed to spectroscopically cabiro time wareeg ah by arkaya saamayn Doppler ka muujisay in muddo wareeg ah waa in ay ka dheer . By sawirayo in qayb ka mid ultraviolet of roobeed oo ka FE Ross arki karin daruuraha . Meesha cabbirka ka muujiyay in heerkulka ee layers daruur sare ahaa oo hooseeya ( qiyaastii -35 ° C) iyo jawiga uu ahaa sidaas qaro weyn in cadaadiska hawada on dusha meere ee waa in ay ahaataa oo ku saabsan 90 times in dunida oo .

Probes Space [Wax ka bedel | edit isha ]



: rn@revisorsnamnden.se 2

The probe meel bannaan marka hore in isku dayay in lagu gaaro Venus ahaa Venera 1 kaas oo ahaa shay gudaha February 1961 by Midowga Soofiyeeti . Astronomers , si kastaba ha ahaatee , ugu dhakhsaha badan laga badiyay xiriir la Farsamada gacanta . Inkasta oo probe Maraykanka : rn@revisorsnamnden.se 1 guuldareysatay inay gaaraan bartilmaameedka .

Dayaxgacmeedka ayaa marka hore si dhab gaarey Venus ahaa labaad : rn@revisorsnamnden.se Waxaa gudbay December Planet 14 , 1962 at masaafo qiyaastii 30.000 km . Meesha cabbirka laga in aaladaan dib u diray oo muujisay in heerkulka dusha ku saabsan tahay 430 ° C. Waxa kale oo ay muujiyeen in meeraha uu leeyahay maya field magnetic la cabbiri karo iyo rogista cajaladda waa mid aad u dheer , 243 maalmood Earth . Probe The ogaadeen in Venus ee jawi waa sun iyo ka kooban oo leh xubno ka sulfuric acid . Dushiisa , cadaadiska hawada yahay 100 jeer ka wayn on Earth . [ 13 ]

Kuwa soo socda isku dayo ay quutan u soo diri meel u yeelaysa ilaalo hubaysan si ay Venus , Venera 2 iyo Zond 1 , waxay ahaayeen kuwo aan lagu guuleysan . Mana Venera 3 maamula si ay u soo celiso xogta qaar ka mid ah , laakiin sida ay astronomers Ruush ayaa shil - degay dunida korkeeda , sidaas darteedna wuxuu noqday meel bannaan oo probe ugu horeysay in degay dunida korkeeda .

Venera 4 guul ah in 1967 , ka duwan ka horreeyay ee lagu gaari Goolashii ugu badnaa ee ah in la dhigay . Waxaa la gaarey Venus iyo hoos u soo diray kaabsolka ah in degay ee Eistla marugada , iyada oo aan loo diro dib wixii xog ah ka dib markii degay . Isla sannadkaa gudbin 5 : rn@revisorsnamnden.se ee Venus of qiyaastii 4000 oo kiilomitir .

Venera 5 iyo Venera 6 ahayd isku day lagu guuleysan in ay dhul bannaan ee kaabsoosha on Venus , halka Venera 7 sano ee 1970 maamula dalka Navka Planitia iyo dib u soo celiso in 23 daqiiqo xogta . Laba sano ka dib degay Venera 8 hal goob ah iyo soo dirtay dib u xogta ah ee 50 daqiiqo . Waxaa ilaa qiyaasay xawaaraha dabaysha hooseeyo . : Rn@revisorsnamnden.se 10 gudbay Venus at ah oo ku saabsan 5768 kiilomitir on hab si Mercury .

Venera 9 iyo Venera 10 ahayd sida faah isku dayaan in ay dalka Dhulluxyadu on Venus . Waxay gaadheen Venus in October 1975 . Waxay ahaayeen guul iyo soo qaaday sawirro tayo sare leh ee dusha meeraha . Sawiradaasi waxay muujiyeen dusha Rocky iyadoo aanay jirin calaamado muuqda ee nabaadguurka , kaas oo ay sheegi kartaa joogitaanka dareere ah . Venera 9 qiyaasay heerkulka in ay 480 ° C iyo hal saac gudahood si qamaar loogu dhammaatay shaqeystaan ​​. Saddex maalmood ka dib degay Venera 10 iyo labada photos from probes kuwanuna waa images oo keliya in ay ka soo dusha Venus ee . [ 13 ] Venera 11 iyo Venera 12 ahaayeen more horumaray boos probes of type isku mid ah. Waxay gaadheen Venus 1978 iyo soo dirtay dib u xogta , laakiin ku guuldareystay , si kastaba ha ahaatee , si ay u soo celiso sawirada telefishanka dushiisa . USA u diray isla sanadkaas iska Pioneer 12 iyo Pioneer 13 , sidoo kale loo yaqaan Pioneer Venus 1 Pioneer Venus iyo labaad ee Pioneer 12 tegey oo wuxuu galay idiinna hareeraha dunida korkeeda ilaa 1992 . Pioneer ku jira afar Lander kaas oo degay ee Beta marugada , HTML marugada , Themis marugada iyo waqooyi ee Aino Planitia . Labada probes ahaayeen guul , iyo dib u diray oo u badan oo loo data , oo ay ku jiraan ka kooban of jawiga .



Magellan marka laga sii daayo dayax gacmeedka ee

Venera 13 iyo Venera 14 , kaas oo lagu gaarey Venus 1981 , ka koobnayd labada of dayax a idiinna , iyo Lander ah . Oo waxay ka sameeyeen baaritaanno ugu horreeya ee ciidda . Vega 1 iyo Vega 2 ahaa ee Soofiyeeti boos probes in gudbay Venus on hab si Algeeriya Halley iyo Venus maray in June 1985 . Waxay lahaa iyaga la Lander ah goobahaas , taasoo keenaysa in la keenay ay weheliyaan buufin goobahaas kuwaas oo ku noqday ku -kulka iyo dabayshu xogta xawaaraha .

Banaanka probe US Magellan tegey oo wuxuu galay idiinna agagaarka Venus u dhaxaysa August 1990 iyo Oktoobar 1994 . The xebaha oo meeraha ayaa ilaa xad ka weyn yahay sidii hore . Total xebaha oo 98 % ka mid ah oogada meere ee . In 1990 , gudbay by the planet Galileo iyo Cassini on hab si Jupiter iyo Saatun .

Probe The Venus Express tegey oo wuxuu galay idiinna agagaarka Venus 11 April 2006 . Waxaa iska leh ee ESA , Agency Space Yurub , iyo ayaa la bilaabay ka soo Kazakhstan on 9 November 2005 .

Fiction [Wax ka bedel | edit isha ]


Venus waa more of goobaha tababarka aayad ee koonkan Star November khayaalka iyo Venus ku xusan Arthur C. Clarke ee 3001 - safar ugu danbeysay . Waxaa kale oo halkan in lagu kaydiyo si ay buugaag Frederik Pohl ee Stargate qaadataa meel .

In labada buugaag , World iyo Zero - A iyo Players iyo Zero - A by AE van Yaasiin Nuur waa Venus uu kula dardaarmayo oo kaliya Zero - A qaranka : Zero - A -sooraan oo dunida mythic van Yaasiin ee .

[ Edit | edit isha ]


Notes [Wax ka bedel | edit isha ]

^ [ A d e b c ] Williams , Dr David R. ( April 15 , 2005 ) . " Xaashida Xaqiiqada ee Venus " . NASA . Keenay on 12 October 2007 .

^ [ B A ] Seidelmann , P. Kenneth (2007) . " Warbixinta oo ka mid ah IAU / IAGWorking Group on coordinate cartographic iyo xubno ka kaayesi : 2006 " . Makaanikada Murashax oo u badantahay in Dynamical 90 : ss . 155-180 . doi : 10.1007/s10569-007-9072-y . Keenay 28 August 2007 .

^ " Warbixin ku saabsan Working Group IAU / IAG ku on coordinate cartographic iyo xubno ka kaayesi of the meerayaasha iyo satalayt " . International sumalka Midowga . , 2000 . Keenay on 12 April 2007 .

^ " Venus : Facts & Figures " . NASA . Keenay on 12 April 2007 .

^ " Topics Space : Is barbardhig meerayaasha : Mercury , Venus , Earth , dayaxa, iyo Mars . " Planetary Society . Keenay on 12 April 2007 .

^ Shostak ( 1998) , pp 20-21

^ National Geographic : Venus , dhulka mataan shar ( 2009 )

^ Waerden , Bartel ( 1974 ) . Baraaruga Science II : dhalashada cilmiga xiddigaha . Springer . sin . 56 . ISBN 90-01-93103-0

^ Pliny the Elder (1991) . History Dabiiciga II :36 - 37 . Harmondsworth , Middlesex , UK : Mary Harper oo

^ Koller Strom , Nicholas ( 2004 ) . " William inooga muuqda ee Venus daawashada transit . " Proceedings IAU Libiya Maya . 196 , 2004 . International sumalka Midowga . Keenay on 10 May 2012 .

^ Goldstein , Bernard R. (1972) . "Aragtida iyo daawashada cireeyada Kilaas Jaamac " . Isis 63 ( 1 ) : p . 39-47 .

^ Marov , Mikhail Ya . ( 2004 ) . Mikhail Lomonosov iyo daahfurka ee jawiga of Venus Inta lagu jiro arrimihii ay 1761 . Cambridge University Press . sin . 209-219

^ [ B A ] Shostak ( 1998) , p.20

Suugaanta [Wax ka bedel | edit isha ]

Patrick Moore (2003) . Venus . Hong Kong : Cassell Illustrated . ISBN 1-84403-404-6

Seth Shostak ( 1998) . Wadaagista & TV . Aragtida on Extraterrestrial Life .. Berkeley : Berkeley Hill Books . ISBN 0-9653774-3-1

[ Edit | edit isha ]


Gumeysiga ee Venus

Cycle Venus

Venus ( sugantahay )

jawi Venus

List of buuraha on Venus

List of craters on Venus

External links [Wax ka bedel | edit isha ]


Commons - Maldiif Wikimedia Commons leedahay warbaahinta oo la xiriira Venus .

Warqada xaqiiqda ee Venus - NASA

Ruush Venus probes

Transit NASA Venus by abdisamad ibrahim

  1. Lakdawalla, Emily (21 September 2009), Venus Looks More Boring than You Think It Does, Planetary Society Blog (retrieved 4 December 2011)
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