Brotist

Ka Wikipedia
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Kani waa maqaal ku saabsan koox ka mid ah noolaha..
Brotist
Xaalad xilliyeed: Neoproterozoic – Recent
Abla-ablayn cilmi ah
Domain: Eukarya

Kooxo ka madax banaan

Supergroups[1] and typical phyla
  • Archaeplastida
    • Red alga
    • Glaucophyta
  • SAR supergroup
    • Stramenopiles
    • Alveolata
      • Apicomplexa
      • Ciliophora
      • Dinoflagellata
    • Rhizaria
      • Cercozoa
      • Foraminifera
      • Radiolaria
  • Excavate
    • Euglenozoa
    • Percolozoa
    • Metamonad
  • Amoebozoa
  • Opisthokonta
    • Choanozoa

Kuwo kale;
kala saarka waa lagu kala duwan yahay

Brotist (Af-Ingiriis: Protist; Af-Carabi: طلائعيات; loogu dhawaaqo: /tɨst/) (magaca Saynis paraphyletic) waa koox balaadhan oo noole ka tirsan silsilada boqortooyooyinka nolosha. Brotist waa noole yar (ili-maqabatay ah) leh hal unug, kaasi oon lahayn waslad (ama xubno is-heystaa ama iskuxidhan). Wakhtiyadii hore waxaa kooxdan lagu dari jiray dhinaca boqortooyada Brotistai, laakiin xadaarada iyo Sayniska cusub ee maanta waxaa loo aqoonsaday in Brotista ka tirsan tahay lafdhabar la'leyda (noolaha aan lahay lafdhabarka).[2][3][4] An equivalent term Protoctista is used for these organisms by various organisations and institutions.[5][6][7]

Qeybaha Boqortooyooyinka[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

In kastoo kala qeybinta kooxaha boqortooyada ee biyoloji lagu kala duwan yahay, wadanka Maraykanka iyo Kanada waxay qeybahaasi ka dhigaan ilaa lix kooxood (Xayawaan, Dhir, Fungi, Brotista, Arjaeya, Bakteriya); halka wadanada ay ka mid yihiin Ingiriiska, Hindiya, Australia, Latin Amerika, meelo badan oo Afrika ah iyo wadano kale waxay aqoonsadeen kaliya shan koox oo ka tirsan boqortooyada, kuwaasi oo kala ah: Xayawaanka, Dhirta, Fungiga, Brotistaha iyo Bakteriyada.[8]


Noole

Boqortooyo Dhir



Boqortooyo Xayawaan



Boqortooyo Brotist



Boqortooyo Bakteriya



Boqortooyo Fungi




Qoraalo Kale[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Tixraac[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

  1. Adl Sina M.; et al. (2012). "The revised classification of eukaryotes" (PDF). Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. 59 (5): 429–514. doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.2012.00644.x. 
  2. Gooday, A. J. (2003). "Benthic foraminifera (Protista) as tools in deep-water palaeoceanography: Environmental influences on faunal characteristics". Advances in marine biology. 46: 1–90. PMID 14601411. doi:10.1016/s0065-2881(03)46002-1. 
  3. Kirk, N. L.; Ritson-Williams, R.; Coffroth, M. A.; Miller, M. W.; Fogarty, N. D.; Santos, S. R. (2013). "Tracking Transmission of Apicomplexan Symbionts in Diverse Caribbean Corals". PLoS ONE. 8 (11): e80618. PMC 3833926free to read. PMID 24260438. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0080618. 
  4. Zhao, Y.; Gentekaki, E.; Yi, Z.; Lin, X. (2013). "Genetic Differentiation of the Mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase c Subunit I Gene in Genus Paramecium (Protista, Ciliophora)". PLoS ONE. 8 (10): e77044. PMC 3812207free to read. PMID 24204730. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0077044. 
  5. Miloslavich, P.; Díaz, J. M.; Klein, E.; Alvarado, J. J.; Díaz, C.; Gobin, J.; Escobar-Briones, E.; Cruz-Motta, J. J.; Weil, E.; Cortés, J.; Bastidas, A. C.; Robertson, R.; Zapata, F.; Martín, A.; Castillo, J.; Kazandjian, A.; Ortiz, M. (2010). "Marine Biodiversity in the Caribbean: Regional Estimates and Distribution Patterns". PLoS ONE. 5 (8): e11916. PMC 2914069free to read. PMID 20689856. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011916. 
  6. Martínez-Girón, R; Ribas-Barceló, A (2007). "Pitfall in sputum cytology: Protoctista resembling adenocarcinoma cells". Diagnostic Cytopathology. 35 (1): 32–3. PMID 17173305. doi:10.1002/dc.20584. 
  7. Osaka, T; Beika, A; Hattori, A; Kohno, Y; Kato, K. H.; Mizutani, T (2003). "The protozoa dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina contains selenoproteins and the relevant translation apparatus" (PDF). Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 300 (1): 236–40. PMID 12480549. doi:10.1016/S0006-291X(02)02806-1. 
  8. Huber M, Knottnerus JA, Green, L., van der Horst H, Jadad AR, Kromhout D, Smid H. BMJ 2011; 343 (d4163) http://savenhshomeopathy.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/Huber-Definition-Health-BMJ-21.pdf
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