Jaamacada Carabta

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Jaamcada carabta
>جامعة الدول العربية
Arab League
Calanka Arab League Midowga Carabta Astaannta Qaranka ee Arab League Midowga Carabta
[[Calanka Arab League
Midowga Carabta|Calan]]
[[Astaannta Qaranka ee Arab League
Midowga Carabta|Astaannta Qaranka]]
Astaanta Calanka
Arab League (orthographic projection).svg
Location of Arab League Midowga Carabta
Caasimada Qaahiro, Baqdaad, & Riyadh.
Luuqada(ha) Looga hadlo Carabi, Af-Turki,& Af-Kurdish.
 -  Gudoomiye Ali Al-Daqbaashi
 -  Gudoomiye kuxigeen
Ka xoroobey Gumeystihii:Boqortooyada Ingiriiska,Faransiiska, & Dawlada Cosmaniya.`~` 
Area
 -  Total 13,953,041`* km² 
5,382,910`* sq mi 
Cadadka Dadka
 -  2008 qiyaas 360,029,9363 
GDP (PPP) 2016/2019* estimate
 -  Total $58.484 trillion (4th
 -  Per capita $19,347 
GDP (nominal) 2019 estimate
 -  Total $13.126 trillion Green Arrow Up Darker.svg 
 -  Per capita $14,239 
Wakhtiga (UTC+0 to +4) 

Jaamacada Carabta ama Dowladda Jaamacadda Carabta waa urur kulmiya wadamada carabta.Waa urur kulmiya wadamo kuyaala Afrika iyo Aasiya xubnaha kujira waxaa looyaqaana dawldo caraba.waa dawlado wadaaga arimo dhaqaale iyo arimo siyaasadeed. waxaana ka dhexeeya xidhiidho aad iyo aad ubadan Wadamada xubnaha ka ah Jaamacadda Carabta waxay daboolayaan in ka badan 13,000,000 km2 (5,000,000 sq m) iyo waliba laba qaaradood oo kala duwan: Afrika iyo Aasiya. Goobtaasi waxay ka kooban tahay lamadegalka duurka, sida Sahara. Si kastaba ha ahaatee, waxaa sidoo kale ku jira dhulal badan oo aad u sarreeya sida Dooxada Nile, Dooxada Jubba iyo Dooxada Shebelle ee Geeska Afrika, Buuraleyda Atlas ee Maghreb, iyo Bariiska Fertile ee sii fidiya Mesopotamia iyo Levant. Aagga ayaa ka kooban kaymo qoto dheer oo ku yaal koonfurta Carabta iyo qaybo ka mid ah webiga ugu dheer dunida, Niil.

Qowmiyad-kala-duwan, diini ah, iyo luuqado badan. Diin-badan, Luuqado badan, & Qowmiyado kala duwan.Luuqadaha badan, Qowmiyadaha kala duwan, & Diimaha badan; oo macneheedu yahay Dhaqamada kala duwan ee wayn.

Jaartarka Jaamacadda Carabta, oo sidoo kale loo yaqaano Heshiiska Jaamacadda Carabta, ayaa ah heshiiskii aasaasay ee Jaamacadda Carabta. 1945-kii la aqbalay, waxa uu dhigayaa in "Ururka Jaamacadda Carabtu uu ka kooban yahay Dawladaha Carbeed ee madaxbannaan oo saxiixay Heshiiskan." [13] Markii hore, 1945, waxaa jiray lix xubnood oo keliya. Maanta, Jaamacadda Carabta waxay leedahay 22 xubnood, oo ay ka mid yihiin saddex dal oo Afrikaan ah oo ka kala yimi qaybaha ugu waaweyn (Sudan, Algeria iyo Liibiya) iyo waddanka ugu weyn ee Bariga Dhexe (Sacuudi Carabiya). Shan waddan waxay leeyihiin xaalad kormeeree oo xaq u siinaya inay muujiyaan ra'yigooda oo ay bixiyaan talo laakiin waxay diidaan xuquuqda codbixinta. Jaamacadda Carabtu waxay u qaybsantaa shan qaybood marka ay timaado gaadiidka, jasiiradda Carabta iyo Bariga dhow ayaa si buuxda ugu xiran hawada, badda, waddooyinka iyo tareenada. Qeyb kale oo ka mid ah League waa dooxada Niil, oo ka kooban Masar iyo Suudaan. Labadan dawladood waxay bilaabeen inay hagaajiyaan nidaamka Nile Nile ee habka safarka si loo wanaajiyo helitaanka iyo sida ganacsi loo korsado. Nidaamka tareenada cusub ayaa sidoo kale lagu wadaa inuu ku xiro magaalada koonfurta Masar ee Abu Simbel iyo waqooyiga Suudaan ee Wadi Halfa iyo ka dibna Khartoum iyo Port Sudan. Qaybta saddexaad ee horyaalka waa Maghreb, halkaas oo 3,000 km oo gawaarida gawaarida ah ay ka socdaan magaalooyinka koonfurta ee Morocco ilaa Tripoli oo ku yaala galbeedka Libya. Qaybta afaraad ee horyaalka waa Geeska Afrika, oo wadamada xubnaha ka ah ay ka mid yihiin Jabuuti iyo Soomaaliya. Labadan dawladood ee Carabta ayaa kala qaybiyay kaliya toban mayl u jirta jasiiradda Carabta ee Bab el Mandeb, taasina si dhakhso ah ayay isu bedeshaa, sida Tarik bin Laden, oo ah walaalkii Osama bin Laden, oo bilaabay dhisidda mashruuc ballaadhan ee mashruuca Horn Horns , kaas oo ugu dambeyntii ujeedkiisu yahay inuu ku xiro Geeska Afrika oo leh Jasiiradda Carabta adoo adeegsanaya buundo weyn. Mashruucan waxaa loogu talagalay in lagu fududeeyo oo la dedejiyo ganacsiga iyo ganacsiga qarniyadii hore ee u dhexeeyay labada gobol. Qaybta ugu dambeysa ee horyaalka waa jasiiradda go'doomin ee Comoros, taas oo aan ku xirnayn dawlad kale oo Carbeed ah, laakiin wali waxay la shaqaysaa xubnaha kale ee League. Jaamacadda Carabtu waxay hodan ku tahay khayraadka, sida saliid weyn iyo kheyraadka dabiiciga ah ee dalalka xubnaha ka ah. Warshad kale oo si joogta ah u sii kordhaysa ee Jaamacadda Carabtu waa isgaarsiin. Muddo ka yar 10 sano, shirkadaha maxaliga ah sida Orascom iyo Etisalat waxay ku guuleysteen inay tartan caalami ah sameeyaan. Horumarka dhaqaale ee ay bilowday Ururka Iskaashatada Wadamada xubnaha ka ah ayaa ka qosol badan kuwii ka soo baxay ururada yar yar ee Carabta sida Golaha Iskaashiga Khaliijka (GCC). [36] Waxaa ka mid ah Pipeline Arab Pipeline, kaas oo gaas Masar iyo Ciraaq geyn doona Jordan, Syria, Lubnaan, iyo Turkiga. Laga soo bilaabo 2013, isbeddel muuqda oo ka dhexeeya xaaladaha dhaqaale ayaa ka dhexeeya dalalka saliida ee saliida ee Algeria, Qatar, Kuwait iyo UAE, iyo dalalka soo koraya sida Comoros, Jabuuti, Mauritania, Soomaaliya, Sudan iyo Yemen. Ururka Jaamacadda Carabtu waa urur siyaasadeed oo isku daya in uu gacan ka geysto sidii loo xoojin lahaa xubnaheeda dhaqaale ahaan, iyo xallinta khilaafaadka ku lug leh dalalka xubnaha ka ah adoon weydiisan kaalmo shisheeye. Waxay leedahay lahjado xubin baarlamaan ah oo wakiil ka ah arrimaha arrimaha dibedda sida badan waxaa lagu maareyn doonaa kormeerka QM. Jaangooyada Jaamacadda Carabta [5] waxay taageertay mabda'a dhulkii Carabta iyada oo la ixtiraamayo xushmadnimada dawladaha xubnaha ka ah. Xeerarka gudaha ee Golaha Jaamacadda [20] iyo guddiyada [21] waxay ku heshiiyeen Oktoobar 1951. Xoghaynta Guud waxaa lagu heshiiyay May 1953. [22] Tan iyo markaas, maamulka Jaamacadda Carabtu waxay ku saleysnaayeen labadii hay'adood ee heer qaran iyo madax-bannaanida wadamada xubnaha ka ah. Ilaalinta dawladnimada shakhsi ahaaneed waxay ka heshay awoodeeda ka soo jeeda dabiiciga dabiiciga ah ee awooda xukunka ah si ay u ilaaliyaan awooddooda iyo madax-bannaanida go'aaminta. Intaa waxaa dheer, cabsida hodanka ah ee saboolka ah ee saboolka ah inuu la wadaagi karo hantidiisa magaca Ummadda Carabta, khilaafyada ka dhexeeya madaxda Carabta, iyo saamaynta awoodaha dibadda ee laga yaabo inay ka soo horjeedaan midnimada Carabta ayaa loo arki karaa caqabado dhinaca isdhexgalka qoto dheer ee horyaal .

Nablu, Palestine
Ring of Ptolemy VI Philometor as Egyptian pharaoh. Louvre Museum, France,Europe.
View from the western side of the Hujra, Saudi Arabia.
Wall of the Burial of the Prophet Muhammed (PBHM),Saudi Arabia.

File:World Heritage Sites in the Arab World

value call reading source presentation previous versions Partially protected Incomplete-document-purple.svg This entry must be completed : this entry lacks essential content. You may find details on the conversation page . You are invited to complete the missing parts and remove this message. Consider creating titles for chapters that require completion, and transfer the template to them. editing Disambiguate RTL.svg The term "Arab" redirects here. For the entry dealing with the island in the Persian Gulf, see Arab (island) . Arab Arabs Al-Khansaa, Al-Khandi, Yohanan of Damascus, Philip the Arab, May Ziada, Asmahan, Gamal Abdel Nasser, Faisal the First Al-Khansaa , Al-Khandi , Yohanan of Damascus , Philip the Arab , May Ziada , Asmahan , Gamal Abdel Nasser , Faisal the First population 420 million Main population concentrations Arab countries some of the African countries see also: Israeli Arabs Languages Arabic religion Islam Christianity Druze religion related ethnic groups Celestial peoples Maltese , Jews , Samaritans and Assyrians

Distribution of the Arabic language :

 A single official language.
 official shared language with the majority of Arab natives.
 Official shared language due to significant minorities, history, or cultural reasons.

Arabs are a people of Semitic origin and an ethnic group from the Arabian Peninsula . After the emergence of Islam in the 7th century , the Arab population spread in the Middle East and North Africa in a series of waves of migration, conquest and cultural influence. Countries where the Arabs constitute a clear majority of the population are called " Arab countries ". Today, the name is used as a nickname for the natives of these countries, whose mother tongue is Arabic and the vast majority of them are Muslim (most of them Sunni ).

The most common definitions for the name Arabs in thought and literature, in academic research and in the media, are:

Politically : People who are citizens of countries that are members of the Arab League (or in a broader generalization, the Arab world), but not all Arab countries are members of the Arab League and these countries also have non-Arab citizens. This definition includes over 300 million people. The Arab League includes several African countries, such as Djibouti , Comoros and Somalia , whose Arabic is one of their official languages ​​but whose inhabitants are not Arabs at all. And there are Arabs who are not citizens of these countries (for example, in the United States , Israel and European countries). Linguistic: people whose mother tongue is Arabic , or who at least speak Arabic in their daily and personal lives, even if they did not grow up using it. This definition includes over 200 million people who speak different dialects of the Arabic language. Ethnic - Genealogical - Racial : Humans who live, or whose ancestors lived in the Arabian Peninsula and whose genetic and physical characteristics are originally characterized mainly by the original inhabitants of the Arabian Peninsula . Cultural: people who see themselves as Arabs (regardless of ethnic and genealogical origins), whose culture and way of life are Arabs and are recognized as Arabs by others. The majority of Arabs are Muslims (mostly Sunnis and a minority of Shias and members of other minority classes), and a minority of them are Christians , Druze and others.[1]

etymology The word "Arab" in this meaning is mentioned in the Bible several times. Thus, for example, the book of Nehemiah mentions the " Arab rain " that some scholars identify with King Kedar .[2]Also in the Book of Kings, "the kings of the evening" are mentioned[3]And it seems that this phrase refers to the rulers of the Arabian Peninsula, with whom King Solomon had trade relations.[4]The word "Arab" also appears in the Bible in the meaning of the inhabitant of the steppe .

In Semitic languages, as a rule, the root A.R.B carries the meanings of: west, sunset (evening), desert (Arab), mix, trade, crow and clear. All or some of them can have a connection to the origin of the name. [ source needed ] It is also possible that the name can have consonants and the origin of the name is actually in the root A.B.R. in connection with their nomadic way of life. [ source required ]

In the Qur'an the word "Arab" does not appear as a noun but only as an adjective, for example, the Qur'an refers to itself as "Arab and clear" when the two attributes are related to each other.

history This chapter is lacking. Please contribute to Wikipedia and complete it . You may find details on the conversation page . BC

The soldiers of the Assyrian Empire defeat "Gindibu, King of Arabia" riding a camel and his soldiers The first mention of the Arabs in writing is from an Assyrian inscription from 853 BC ( the Necessary Monolith ), in which King Shalmenser III named " Gindibu , King of Arabia" among the rulers he defeated in the Battle of Karkar . Starting from the Assyrian period and following the domestication of the camel, Arab traders played a central role In the trade between the ancient Near East and the Horn of Africa and ancient Yemen .

There is evidence of trade relations of the peoples of the ancient Near East with the kingdoms of the inhabitants of the Arabian Peninsula, the main commercial relation between them was regarding myrrh and frankincense which were used in the perfume industry and were common in the Arabian Peninsula. An ancient Arabic inscription was found in a building from the days of the First Temple in the City of David , which indicates that a Jewish official who knew the language and had relations with one of the Arab kingdoms of the time lived there.

The Nabataeans migrated in a massive migration at the end of the Persian period from the north of the Arabian Peninsula towards the south of Jordan and the Negev , they conquered and assimilated the remains of the Moabites and the Ammonites and pushed the Adomites north to the south of Mount Hebron in the territories of Judea .

After counting As a general rule, the great empires of the ancient world did not conquer the Arabian Peninsula, unlike the rest of the Middle East, even the Sasanian Empire , which ruled the eastern and southern coasts of the peninsula, did not reach the interior of the country or the western coastal region where the cities of Mecca and Medina are located - apparently for lack of interest economic in this desert region that cannot sustain fertile agriculture .

Before Muhammad 's time , the inhabitants of the Arabian Peninsula were idolaters , Christians or Jews (descendants of Jewish exiles from the Land of Israel and also Arabs who converted under their influence, such as the Kingdom of Hamir ).

The period before Muhammad is called in Islamic literature: "The Age of Ignorance", or the Jahiliyyah . During this period the inhabitants of the Arabian Peninsula were divided into the northern tribes and the southern tribes. The tribal tradition claimed that the people of the north are the descendants of Adnan and Ishmael , while the people of the south are the descendants of a legendary figure named Qahtan .[5]When there are those who suggest that Kakhatan is Yakattan son of the biblical past.[6]In the Arabian Peninsula , nomadic tribes ( Bedouins ) and permanent tribes lived. The permanent tribes lived in cities or deserts and engaged in agriculture or trade . Unlike them, the nomadic tribes were engaged in escorting caravans that passed through the peninsula. Later there were also Arab groups who became Christians (see: Christian Arabs ).

After the rise of Islam and its consolidation in the Arab kingdoms, Muhammad and his army went north towards the territories of the Byzantine Empire and the Sasanian Empire , which were in a period of depression and enjoyed a lasting peace between them. Muhammad's ambition to conquer the world known until then was blocked in the territories of the Gulf of Eilat , and although he sent a letter to the Jews of Eilat (the Byzantine "doe") in which he ordered them to accept his new religion or prepare for their death, it was precisely Muhammad who met his death three years after declaring Islam as The "religion of truth" to control the other nations.

The Arab conquest of the Land of Israel brought the Arabs to the Land of Israel , but they could not defeat the Byzantine Empire and were helped by Jewish collaborators who were tired of life as an oppressed and persecuted religious and cultural minority in their country and fought alongside the Arabs against the continuation of Byzantine rule. The Arabs treated the Jews and Christians in the Land of Israel as dhimmis , while the Samaritans , whom Muhammad did not know and therefore did not mention in the Koran as monotheists , were forced to convert to Islam by the force of the sword or die, and when they refused, they almost led to their destruction.

After the Arab conquest of the Middle East , Arabs who migrated from the Arabian Peninsula spread to the occupied space: the Levant , Egypt and the Maghreb countries . Later in the course of history, on the one hand, the majority of the conquered peoples began to see themselves as "Arabs" as well, even if it was only a cultural issue due to the Islamization of their country and people without blood ties to the Arab conquerors, and on the other hand, the immigration of Muslim pilgrims of non-Arab origin began The lands that were conquered towards the Arabian Peninsula for religious reasons etc. were assimilated into the local Arab population. The Arab-Muslim conquest also expanded into Europe , with the conquest of Spain by the Moors .

see also Islam Judaism-Islam relations Israeli Arabs for further reading Bernard Lewis , The Arabs in History , Tel Aviv: Dvir Publishing , 1995. Albert Hourani , History of the Arab Nations , Tel Aviv: Dvir Publishing, 1996. Pierre Vidal-Naka (ed.), From the Arab Conquest to Imperial Islam, in: The History of the World from the Dawn of Mankind to the Present , Tel Aviv: Yediot Ahronoth Publishing , 1993, pp. 7-10. external links WikishareMedia and files about Arabs at Wikishare


Tirada Dalka Literacy rate
01. Flag of Kuwait.svg Kuwayt 94.4[1]
02. Flag of Qatar.svg Qatar 93.1[2]
03. Flag of Jordan.svg Urdun 92.2[1]
04. Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg Sacuudi Carabiya 85.5[1]
05. Flag of Bahrain.svg Baxrayn 90.8[2]
06. Flag of Lebanon.svg lubnaan 89.6[3]
07. Flag of Egypt.svg Masar 93.1[4]
08. Flag of Oman.svg Cumaan 86.7[3]
09. Flag of Mauritania (1959–2017).svgMauritania 66.8[4]
10. Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svgImaaraatka Carabta 89.4[2]
11. Flag of Syria.svg Suuriya 83.6[4]
12. Flag of Tunisia.svg Tunisiya 78[1]
13. Flag of Morocco.svg Marooko 76.4[4]
14. Flag of Iraq.svg Ciraaq 76.6[3]
15=. Flag of Libya.svg Libiya 76.6[1]
16=. Flag of Malta.svgMalta 76.6[1]
17. Flag of Yemen.svg Yemen 76.9[4]
18. Flag of Palestine.svg Falastiin 76.7[3]
19. Flag of Algeria.svg Aljeeriya 73.6[4]
20=. Flag of Sudan.svg Suudaan 72.3[1]
21=. Flag of Brunei.svg Barunay 67.5[2]
22=. Flag of the Comoros.svgKomoros 67.5[2]
23=. Flag of Djibouti.svg Jabuuti 67.1[2].
24=. Flag of Pakistan.svgBakistaan 72.2[1]
25=. Flag of Eritrea.svgEratareya 67.2[1]

[6]. [[7]]. [8] |- [[9]] |}

Bassborka Jaamacada Carabta

Manara

[[1]].!!`~`

Exterior view with I_P Guard
Alley in the Old City leading to and from the souk, 20018
Winged Bull excavated at Nebi Yunus by Iraqi/?\Irani (Persian) archaeologists

,`~`


From Britannica and Wikipedia and Libraries.!!`

Arabs are the people of an ethnic group who come from the Arabian Peninsula and speak the Arabic language .

According to Jewish and Arab tradition, they are the grandchildren of Ishmael , the son of Avraham Abino .


Content 1 The Arab world 2 Religion 2.1 Ancient times 3 The Arabic language 4 History and civilization 5 Arab events 6 Ottoman decline 7 The question of Palestine 8 Arab relations with Jews

The Arab world:

The Arab world covers most of the countries in the Middle East and North Africa except Iran , Turkey and Pakistan , and the Land of Israel . The Arab countries are: Algeria , Bahrain , Egypt , Iraq , Jordan ,Kuwait , Lebanon , Libya , Morocco , Oman , Qatar , Saudi Arabia , Sudan , Syria , Tunisia , the United Arab Emirates , and Yemen. Comoros, Mauritania and Somalian is also sometimes included.!!`

In addition, approximately two million Arabs also live in the occupied areas of the West Bank and Gaza in the State of Israel . Almost one million Arabs also live in Israel itself. Arabs also moved to many places in the world especially Europe and Americas.

Arabs are a diverse people, but there are some elements that unite them. The most important of them are the Islamic beliefs and the Arabic language, and the culture and history associated with them.

Religion !

The largest part of Arabs are Muslims . There are also many Christian Arabs, especially in Lebanon , Syria , Egypt , and the Palestinian territories .

Islam was found in the Arabian Peninsula in the 6th century. It spread quickly over a large part of Asia and Africa , and that is why today there are many Muslims who are not in the Arab world.

Islam, Arab and non-Arab, has two parts: Sunni and Shua . Sunni Islam is the greater part, and most Arabs are Sunni, but in some countries the majority are Shua, mainly Iraq and Bahrain .

Ancient times.?!

Until Islam came, most Arabs were polytheists . Some tribes of Arabs under the Hamid kingdom converted to Judaism, or accepted the Christian religion.

The Arabic language.!?

Postscript-viewer-shaded.png See the main article - Arabic Arabic belongs to the family of Semitic languages, together with the holy language / Hebrew , and Aramaic . The Arabic language has 28 letters, and they are written from right to left.

Arabic developed among the Bedouins in the deserts of Arabia . Its growth was aided by the tradition of poetry which was very advanced in its oral form before it was written down. With the advent of Islam , the Koran became the model of the Arabic language.

History and Civilization.?!

The name Arab to refer to the nomads and camel leaders of northern Arabia is already found in writings from almost three thousand years ago. Later, the term was used for all the inhabitants of the Arabian Peninsula and Surrounding Arae .

Arabs were then a society of tribes. They were grouped according to their family and genealogy, and referred to a single lineage. The Arab society, however, was fragmented thanks to the very difficult conditions of living in the deserts, and therefore there were often fights between tribes and families. It did not appear any Arab country until the arrival of Islam.

Arabic performances.!?

Islamic civilization, Arab and non-Arab, flourished during the era of the Abbasid caliphs, who ruled over the entire Islamic world from their capital in Baghdad in the years 750 to 1258. The rise of Islamic civilization includes Advances in literature , philosophy , and medicine . Greek philosophy such as the works of Plato and Aristotle were translated into Arabic. Islamic medical writings were used in Europe until the 1600s.

Arab sages also made great advances in mathematics. The numbers we use today are called "Arabic numbers" because they were developed by the Arabs and Muslims. Also the division of mathematics "algebra" is an Arab invention, and comes from the Arabic word "Al-Dzabr".

Ottoman "Turks" decline and "Arab League" rise.!!?

At its peak, the Arab world was the most advanced civilization in the world. They possessed incredible wealth, and they led the entire trade between Asia and Europe. Its later rulers became the Ottoman Turks and with the decline of the Ottoman Empire in the 1800s, the flourishing of Arab and Islamic culture began to decline with them.

Many Arab countries then came under the rule of European powers. At the end of the First World War , the Ottoman Empire collapsed, and Most of the Arab countries were under European rule.

The question of Palestin.!?

Throughout the First World War , the British promised Arab leaders that Palestine would be included in the territories that would go to the Arabs for independence. The British then promised Palestine to the leaders of the Zionist movement. The history of the Arab-Israeli conflict lies in the mutual promises, as well as the Arab opposition to a Jewish state in the region.

Arab relations with Jews.?!

After the mid-1940s, the situation changed drastically, almost all Arab countries were literally emptied of Jews one after the other, the Polish Arabs have a bitter hatred towards the Jews, almost no Jews are seen before their eyes. The Neturi Karta say that this is a direct result of the movement of Zionism, and later the creation of the Jewish land.

Categories :

Islamic nations.!?

At its peak, the Arab world was the most advanced civilization in the world. They possessed incredible wealth, and they led the entire trade between Asia and Europe. Its later rulers became the Ottoman Turks and with the decline of the Ottoman Empire in the 1900s, the flourishing of Arab and Islamic culture began to decline with them.

Many Arab countries then came under the rule of European powers. At the end of the First World War , the Ottoman Empire collapsed, and all Arab countries were under European.!!`


[10].

Warka

Sido kale fiiri

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 p. 193
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 p. 192
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 p. 195
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 p. 194
  5. https://www.visualcapitalist.com/visualizing-corruption-around-the-world/
  6. "Nuqul Archive". Waxaa laga kaydiyay the original 2020-05-04. Soo qaatay 2011-06-28.  Barameter aan la aqoon |ciwaan= ignored (caawin)
  7. https://www.numbeo.com/crime/rankings_by_country.jsp
  8. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-48703377
  9. https://www.visualcapitalist.com/mapped-corruption-in-countries-around-the-world/
  10. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emirati_passport
  11. https://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Afro-Araplar