Ku dhawaaqida Gooni isu taaga Somaliland

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Ku dhawaaqida Gooni isu taaga Somaliland
Signatures-Somaliland-independece-.png
Heshiisyada dhexmaray Salaadiinta Soomaaliyeed ee Somaliland Isaaq, Dhulbahante, Ciise, Gadabuursi, Warsangali iyo SNM
Created 5 May 1991
Ratified 18 May 1991
Author(s) Adan Ahmed Diiriye
Signatories 17 Salaadiin Soomaaliyeed oo ka soo jeeda Sool, Sanaag, Awdal, Woqooyi Galbeed and Togdheer signed the Declaration of Independence of Somaliland See Saxeexida Baaqa Madaxbanaanida Somaliland
Purpose Ku dhawaaq Jamhuuriyada Somaliland[1]

Baaqii Gooni isu Taaga Somaliland (oo si rasmi ah uso celisay Somaliland ) waxaa ku dhawaaqay 18-kii May 1991 Salaadiin Soomaaliyeed oo ka kala socday Isaaq, Dhulbahante, Ciise, Gadabursi, Warsangali iyo Dhaqdhaqaaqa Wadaniga Soomaaliyeed ee SNM . [2] [3] [4] [5] Gudoomiyihii SNM, dhawaana noqon doona Madaxweynihii ugu horeeyey ee Somaliland [6] kaas oo ka yimi xornimadii ay heshay 26 June 1960 Boqortooyada Ingiriiska iyo Waqooyiga Ireland . [7]


Gundhig[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Geeddi-socodka Nabadda Waqooyiga[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Garaad Abdiqani of the Dhulbahante who tabled the case for succession

Ka dib markii ay SNM awood u yeelatay inay maamusho Woqooyi-Galbeed Soomaaliya, ururku si dhakhso ah ayuu u doortay in la joojiyo dagaalka iyo dib-u-heshiisiinta beelaha aan Isaaqa ahayn. [8] Shir nabadeed ayaa ka dhacay magaalada Berbera intii u dhaxeysay 15kii ilaa 21kii Febraayo 1991kii kaasoo soo celiyey kalsoonidii iyo kalsoonidii ka dhaxaysay beelaha Waqooyiga halkaas oo hoggaankii SNM wadahadal kula yeeshay wakiilo ka socda beelaha Issa, Gadabursi, Dhulbahante iyo Warsangeli . [8] [9] [10] Tani waxay ahayd gaar ahaan tan iyo markii beelaha aan ahayn Isaaqa la sheegay inay inta badan ku xirnaayeen taliskii Siyaad Barre ayna ku dagaalameen dhinaca Isaaqa ee ka soo horjeeday. [8]

Shirkani wuxuu aasaas u ahaa "Shirweynihii weynaa ee Beelaha Waqooyiga" kaasoo ka dhacay magaalada Burco intii u dhaxaysay 27kii Abriil iyo 18kii May 1991kii kaasoo ujeedkiisu ahaa nabadaynta Waqooyiga Soomaaliya. Ka dib wadatashi ballaaran oo dhex maray wakiillada qabaa'ilka iyo hoggaankii SNM, waxaa la isku raacay in Waqooyiga Soomaaliya (oo ahaan jirtay Dawladdii Somaliland ) ay kala noqon doonto midowgeeda tabaruca ah Soomaaliya inteeda kale si ay u samayso " Jamhuuriyadda Somaliland " [11] In kasta oo ay rajo ka qabeen beelaha Waqooyiga dhexdooda in laga dhaxli doono horraantii 1961, SNM ma lahayn siyaasad cad oo arrintan ku saabsan bilowgii. [12] Si kastaba ha noqotee, ujeeddooyin kasta oo waddaniyeed oo ka mid ahaa xubnihii iyo taageerayaashii SNM si lama filaan ah ayaa loo beddelay iyadoo la tixgelinayo xasuuqii lagula kacay taliskii Barre. Sidaas darteed, in la xoojiyo dacwadda dhaxalka iyo dib ula soo noqoshada madax-bannaanida dhulka Jamhuuriyadda Somaliland . [12] Garaad Cabdiqani Garaad Jaamac oo hogaaminayey waftigii Dhulbahante ayaa markii ugu horaysay miiska saaray kiiska dhaxalka. [12]

Xuduudaha[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Sidoo kale eeg: Dhulka Biritishka ee Somaliland

Xuduudaha ay ku dhawaaqday Baaqa ayaa ah xuduudaha British Somaliland ee ay dhistay Ingriiska sanadkii 1884. In kasta oo maamul goboleed ka tirsan Soomaaliya uu sheegto xuduudaha bariga Somaliland ee Sool iyo Sanaag, Somaliland waxay maamushaa 80% Sool iyo Sanaag. [13]

Bayaanka Madaxbanaanida[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Sidoo kale eeg: Saxeexida Baaqa Madaxbanaanida Somaliland
The chairman of the Guurti announces the election results. Mohamed Ibrahim Egal is elected president by a substantial majority and Abdirahman Aw Ali Farah is declared vice-president.

Bishii May 1991, SNM waxay ku dhawaaqday gooni isu taagga " Somaliland " iyo sameynta maamul kumeel gaar ah oo Cabdiraxmaan Axmed Cali Tuur loogu doortay inuu xukumo muddo labo sano ah. [14] [15] Xubno badan oo hore uga tirsanaan jiray SNM ayaa fure u ahaa dhisida dowlada iyo dastuurka.

Bishii Meey 1993kii "Shirweynihii Boorama" ayaa dhacay si loo doorto madaxweyne iyo Madaxweyne-ku-xigeen cusub. [16] Shirka waxaa ka soo qayb galay 150 oday oo ka soo jeeda beelaha Isaaq (88), Gadabuursi (21), Dhulbahante (21), Warsengali (11) iyo Ciise (9) beel oo uu taageeray SNM. [16] Sidaas darteed, shirku wuxuu siiyay dawladda Somaliland sharciyeyn maxalli ah oo ka baxsan gobolladii Isaaq ugu badnaa SNM, gaar ahaan tan iyo markii magaalada Boorama ay ku badnaayeen Gadabuursi . [16]

Shirkan, wufuuddu waxay isku raaceen in la dhiso madaxweyne fulin ah iyo sharci dejin laba aqal ka kooban oo lagu doortay madaxweynihii labaad ee Somaliland Muxammad Xaaji Cigaal . Cigaal ayaa mar labaad dib loo dooran doonaa 1997. [17]


Saxeexida Baaqa Madaxbanaanida[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Sidoo kale eeg: Saxeexida Baaqa Madaxbanaanida Somaliland
Gurigii lagu dhawaaqay gooni isu taagga Somaliland 18 may 1991 ee magaalada Burco.

Saxiixa Baaqa Madax-bannaanida Somaliland wuxuu dhacay go'aankii 5-tii May ee shirkii weynaa Burco. Shirkii labaad ee qaran ee 18-kii May, Golaha Dhexe ee SNM, oo ay taageerayaan kulan ay yeesheen odayaasha matalayay beelaha waaweyn ee gobollada waqooyi, ayaa looga dhawaaqay dib-u-soo-celinta [Jamhuuriyadda Somaliland] ee dhulkii hore ee gaabnaa -waxaa madaxbanaan Gobolka Somaliland waxayna u sameysay dowlad dal iskiis u dhawaaqay. [18] [19] [20][21][22]

Liiska saxiixayaasha[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Toddoba iyo toban Soomaali ah Salaadiin oo ka kala yimid Sool, Sanaag, Awdal, Woqooyi Galbeed iyo Togdheer ayaa saxeexay Baaqa Madax-bannaanida Somaliland. [[Faylka: Gurigii lagu dhawaaqay gooni isu taagga Somaliland 18 may 1991 ee magaalada Burco.jpg | thumb | right | Gurigii lagu dhawaaqay madaxbannaanida Somaliland 18 may 1991 ee Burco.]]

Suldaanka 8aad ee guud ee Beelaha Somaliland iyo Beesha Isaaq, Suldaan Maxamed Suldaan Cabdiqaadir, wuxuu ka mid ahaa saxeexayaashii Baaqa Gooni isu taaga Somaliland.

Woqooyi Galbeed

1. Suldaan Maxamed Suldaan Faarax
2. Suldaan Cabdi SH. ahamed
3. Suldaan Maxamed Suldaan Cabdiqaadir
4. Suldaan Saxardiid Suldaan Diirye
5. Suldaan Ismaaciil Muuse

Togdheer

6. Suldaan Yuusuf Suldaan Xirsi

Sanaag

7. Suldaan Rashiid Suldaan Cali
8. Suldaan Ismaaciil Suldaan mahamed
9. Axmed Shiikh Saalah

Sool

10. Shiikh Daahir Xaaji Xasan
11. Axmed Xirsi Cawl
12. Garaad Cabdiqani Garaad Jaamac
13. Suldaan Cali Muuse

Awdal

14. Suldaan Mahamed Jama
15. Shiikha Muuse Jaamac
16. Hasan Cumar Samatar
17. Mahamed Warsame Shiil


Golihii Wasiiradda ee ugu horreeyay ee Somaliland (1991)[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

]


Markii ugu horreysay dawladda Somaliland waxa madax ka ahaa Cabdiraxmaan Axmed Cali Tuur oo ah [Madaxweynaha Somaliland] iyo Xasan Ciise Jaamac oo ah Madaxweyne-ku-xigeenka Somaliland. Golihii ugu horreeyay ee wasaaradaha ee ay ansaxiyaan Golaha Dhexe SNM wuxuu ahaa sida soo socota:

Wasaaradda Arimaha Gudaha iyo Dowladaha Hoose

1. Saleebaan Maxamed Aadan

Wasaaradda Arrimaha Dibadda

2. Sheekh Yuusuf Sh. Cali Sh. Madar

Wasaaradda Maaliyadda ]

3. Ismail Mohamoud Hurry

Wasaaradda dib u dhiska & dhaqan celinta

4. Hasan Adan Wadadiid

Wasaaradda Difaaca

5. Maxamed Kaahin Axmed

Wasaaradda Ganacsiga

6. Daahir Maxamed Yuusuf

Wasaaradda Caddaaladda

7. Axmed Ismaaciil Cabdi

Wasaaradda Caafimaadka

8. Abiib Diiriye Nuur

Wasaaradda Waxbarashada iyo Sayniska

9. Cabdiraxmaan Aw Faarax

Wasaaradda Xannaanada Xoolaha & Kalluumeysiga

10. Omer Eisa Awale

Wasaaradda Qorshaynta

11. Jaamac Rabile Good

Wasaaradda Tamarta & Macdanta

12. Maxamed Cali Caateeye

Wasaaradda Hawlaha Guud iyo Guryeynta

13. Mahdi Cabdi Amarre

Wasaaradda Ganacsiga

14. Cismaan Aadan Dool

Wasaaradda Xannaanada Xoolaha & Kalluumeysiga

15. Yaasiin Axmed Xaaji Nuur

Wasaaradda Isgaarsiinta iyo Teknolojiyada

16. Mohamoud Abdi Ali Bayr

Wasaaradda Deegaanka iyo Horumarinta Reer Miyiga

17. Saciid Maxamed Nuur

Wasaaradda Madaxtooyada

18. Yuusuf Maxamed Cali

Wasaaradda Arimaha Gudaha

19. Axmed Jaambiir Suldan

Ku-xigeenka Wasaaradda Difaaca

20. Daahir Sheekh Cabdillaahi

Ku-xigeenka Wasaaradda Maaliyadda

21. Aadan Jaamac Saxar

Ku-xigeenka Wasaaradda Cadaaladda

22. Sheekh Maxamed Jaamac Aadan

Madaxbanaanida Boqortooyada Ingiriiska ay ka heeshay Somaliland[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Sidoo kale eeg: Dawladii Somaliland (1960)
Shirweynihii dastuurka maxmiyadda Somaliland, London, May 1960 kaas oo lagu go'aamiyey in 26 Juun ay noqoto maalinta Xorriyadda, sidaasna lagu saxeexay 12 May 1960. Weftiga Somaliland: Maxamed Xaaji Ibraahim Cigaal, Axmed Xaaji Ducaale, Cali Garaad Jaamac & Xaaji Ibraahim Nuur . Laga soo bilaabo Xafiiska Gumeysiga: Ian Macleod, D. B. Hall, H. C. F. Wilks (Xoghayaha)

Kani waa nuqul ka mid ah warqadda ay Xoghayaha Arrimaha Dibadda Mareykanka Christian Herter ay dirtay

 ::June 26, 1960

Their Excellencies,
Council of Ministers of Somaliland, Hargeisa.
Your Excellencies: I extend my best wishes and congratulations on the achievement of your independence. This is a noteworthy milestone in your history, and it is with pleasure that I send
my warmest regards on this happy occasion.
Christian a. Herter
Secretary of State, United States of America .[23]


Waana tan waraaqda ay Elizabeth II u dirto dadka reer Somaliland maalinta madax-bannaanida.


Waxaa sidoo kale jiray cabsi laga qabay isku dhacyo lala yeesho dadka ku nool Itoobiya. [24]


Bishii Juun 26, 1960, Maxmiyaddii hore ee British Somaliland waxay muddo kooban qaadatay madax-bannaanida iyada oo ah Dawladdii Somaliland, iyada oo Territori-ka Somaliland ay raaceen shan maalmood ka dib. [25] [26] Maalintii xigtay, bishii Juun 27, 1960, Golaha Sharci-dejinta ee dhawaan la shiray ee Somaliland waxay ansixiyeen sharci si rasmi ah ugu oggolaanaya midowga Qaranka Somaliland iyo Gobollada Amaanada ee Somaliland 1dii Luulyo 1960. [27]

Muxammad Xaaji Ibraahim Cigaal, oo hore xubin aan rasmi ahayn uga soo noqday Golihii Fulinta ee maxmiyaddii hore ee British Somaliland iyo Hoggaamiyaha Ganacsiga Dowladda ee Golaha Sharci dejinta, wuxuu noqday Ra'iisul Wasaaraha Dawladda Somaliland intii lagu guda jiray qorshihiisii kala guurka ee ay ula midoobi lahayd Amaanada Territori of Somaliland oo hoos timaaday maamulkii Talyaaniga, Talyaanigii hore ee Somaliland . [28]

Intii ay jirtay, Dawladda Somaliland waxay aqoonsi caalami ah ka heshay 35 dal, [29] oo ay ka mid ahaayeen Shiinaha, Masar, Itoobiya, Faransiiska, Gaana, Israel, Liibiya, Midowgii Soofiyeeti . The States United Secretary of State Christian Herter diray fariin hambalyo, [29] [23] [30] iyo Kingdom United u saxiixay heshiis dhowr dal Somaliland ee Hargeysa on June 26, 1960. [29] [31]

Aftida dastuurka Somaliland[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Sidoo kale eeg: 2001 Afti u qaadista dastuurka Somaliland
Digreetada Madaxweynaha ee lagu ansixiyay dastuurka Somaliland ee uu Muhammad Haji Ibrahim Cigaal

31-kii May, 2001 afti loo qaaday qabyo-qoraalka dastuurka oo xaqiijinaya madax-bannaanida Somaliland ee ka [Soomaaliya]] Laakiin aftida waxaa ka horyimid dawladda Soomaaliya umana horseedin wax aqoonsi caalami ah.

Sidoo kale eeg[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Tixraacyo[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

  1. Ku dhawaaqida madaxbanaanida Ka dib Dawladdii Somaliland ee State of Somaliland.
  2. Xigasho ebar ah (caawin) 
  3. https://oxfamilibrary.openrepository.com/bitstream/handle/10546/122751/bk-somali-conflict-part5-010194-en.pdf?sequence=5&isAllowed=y
  4. http://www.culturaldiplomacy.org/academy/content/pdf/participant-papers/2012-12-aaccd/Becoming_Somaliland_-_Janine_Graf.pdf
  5. http://www.somalilandlaw.com/Burao_Conference_Elders_Signed_Resolution_050591.pdf
  6. Xigasho ebar ah (caawin) 
  7. Somalia - British Somaliland and Somaliland
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 Xigasho ebar ah (caawin) 
  9. Xigasho ebar ah (caawin) 
  10. Xigasho ebar ah (caawin) 
  11. Xigasho ebar ah (caawin) 
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 Ingiriis, Mohamed Haji (2016-04-01). UPA. ISBN 978-0-7618-6720-3 https://books.google.com/books?id=Vzi6CwAAQBAJ.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)
  13. http: //www.somalilandlaw.com/somaliland_boundaries.html
  14. Xigasho ebar ah (caawin) 
  15. Xigasho ebar ah (caawin) 
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 Lyons, Terrence; Samatar, Ahmed I. (2010-12-01). Brookings Institution Press. ISBN 978-0-8157-2025-6 https://books.google.com/books?id=Z-8MR42dZ9YC&q=Somalia+:+state+collapse,+multilateral+intervention,+and+strategies+for+political+reconstruction+%E2%86%90+Back+to+item+details.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)
  17. Xigasho ebar ah (caawin) 
  18. Mohamud Omar Ali, Koss Mohammed, Michael Walls. (PDF) [http: //apd-somaliland.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/Interpeace_APD_Statebuilding_EN.pdf http: //apd-somaliland.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/Interpeace_APD_Statebuilding_EN.pdf] Hubi |url= value (caawin).  Barameter aan la aqoon |bogga= ignored (caawin); Barameter aan la aqoon |Publisher= ignored (|publisher= suggested) (caawin); Barameter aan la aqoon |xigasho= ignored (caawin); Barameter aan la aqoon |marin u helka= ignored (caawin); Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)
  19. https://oxfamilibrary.openrepository.com/bitstream/handle/10546/122751/bk-somali-conflict-part5-010194-en.pdf ? taxane = 5 & isAllowed = y
  20. http://www.culturaldiplomacy.org/academy/content/pdf/participant-papers/2012-12-aaccd/Becoming_Somaliland_-_Janine_Graf.pdf
  21. http://www.somalilandlaw.com/Burao_Conference_Elders_Signed_Resolution_050591.pdf
  22. Bradbury, Mark; Abokor, Adan Yusuf; Yusuf, Haroon Ahmed. JSTOR 4006988. doi:10.1080 / 03056244.2003.9659778 Check |doi= value (caawin) [https: //www.jstor.org/stable/4006988 https: //www.jstor.org/stable/4006988] Hubi |url= value (caawin).  Barameter aan la aqoon |bogagga= ignored (caawin); Barameter aan la aqoon |sanad= ignored (caawin); Barameter aan la aqoon |s2cid= ignored (caawin); Barameter aan la aqoon |joornaalka= ignored (caawin); Barameter aan la aqoon |mug= ignored (caawin); Barameter aan la aqoon |arrin= ignored (caawin); Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)
  23. 23.0 23.1 http://www.ebooksread.com/authors-eng/united-states-dept-of-state-office-of-public-co/department-of-state-bulletin-volume-v-43-jul--sep1960-tin/page-25-department-of-state-bulletin-volume-v-43-jul--sep1960-tin.shtml
  24. Xigasho ebar ah (caawin) 
  25. Somalia
  26. Encyclopædia Britannica, The New Encyclopædia Britannica, (Encyclopædia Britannica: 2002), p.835
  27. Xigasho ebar ah (caawin) 
  28. Paolo Contini, The Somali Republic: an experiment in legal integration, (Routledge, 1969), p.6.
  29. 29.0 29.1 29.2 http://csis.org/files/media/csis/pubs/anotes_0211.pdf
  30. https://history.state.gov/historicaldocuments/frus1958-60v14/d62
  31. THE BRENTHURST FOUNDATION Strengthening Africa’s economic performance AFRICAN GAme ChANGeR? The Consequences of Somaliland’s International (Non) Recognition Template:Pull quote