Saldanadii Cadal

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Saldanada Cadal

900–1559
 

wadajirka sadex astaan calan uu isticmaaley Ahmad al-Ghazi[1]

Deegaanada ay ka talineysay wakhtigii Saldanada Adal ugu awooda badneyd qiyaastii 1500.
Xarunta Saylac (caasimada ugu horeeysay, iyo saldhiga ugu weynaa)[2]
Dakkar (caasimad cusub ee Saldanada)
Harar (magaalo-madaxdii ugu dambeysay)
Luqadaha

wax fah fahina kama hayo dalkayga hooyo waxan ka rajaynaya hadad arag to inaad wax kabadsho . maclumad dheriya ayan ubahanay

Somali, Carabi, Ge'ez, Canfar, Harari

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|- class="mergedtoprow" | Historical era || Waayihii hore |- class="mergedrow"

|- class="mergedrow" |  - Established wax fah fahina kama hayo dalkayga hooyo waxan ka rajaynaya hadad arag to inaad wax kabadsho . maclumad dheriya ayan ubahanay |} 900 |- class="mergedrow" |  - Dagaalkii Yeshaq I wax fah fahina kama hayo dalkayga hooyo waxan ka rajaynaya hadad arag to inaad wax kabadsho . maclumad dheriya ayan ubahanay |}900–1429 |- class="mergedrow" |  - Caasimada ka dhigtey Dakkar wax fah fahina kama hayo dalkayga hooyo waxan ka rajaynaya hadad arag to inaad wax kabadsho . maclumad dheriya ayan ubahanay |}1433 |- class="mergedrow" |  - Muran ka dhashay xilqabasho wax fah fahina kama hayo dalkayga hooyo waxan ka rajaynaya hadad arag to inaad wax kabadsho . maclumad dheriya ayan ubahanay |}1518–1526 |- class="mergedrow" |  - Caasimad ku wareegay Harar wax fah fahina kama hayo dalkayga hooyo waxan ka rajaynaya hadad arag to inaad wax kabadsho . maclumad dheriya ayan ubahanay |}1520 |- class="mergedbottomrow" |  - Disestablished wax fah fahina kama hayo dalkayga hooyo waxan ka rajaynaya hadad arag to inaad wax kabadsho . maclumad dheriya ayan ubahanay |} 1559 |- class="mergedbottomrow"

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|- | Hadda kamid noqdeen wax fah fahina kama hayo dalkayga hooyo waxan ka rajaynaya hadad arag to inaad wax kabadsho . maclumad dheriya ayan ubahanay |}  Djibouti
 Ethiopia
 Somalia |-

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Saldanada Cadal (Af-Carabi: عدل; Af-Ingiriis: Adal; micno ahaan "Cadaalad") (sidoo kale loo yaqaanay Boqortooyada Adal) waxay aheyd boqortooyo xukumi jirtay deegaano badan oo ka tirsan Gobolka Awdal ee waqooyiga Somalia, meelo ka mid ah dhulka Itoobiya iyo Jabuuti ilaa Eratareya. Boqortooyada Cadal waxey ka mid ahayd boqortooyada ugu taariikhda dheeraa uguna awooda weynaa gayiga iyo deegaanada ay dagaan dadka Soomaaiya iyo agagaarkooda. In kastoo boqortooyadu ka bilaabantey magaalada taariikhiga ah ee xuddunta u ahayd ee Saylac waxay saldhigyo waaweyn ku lahayd magaalada Harare iyo nawaaxigeeda. Magaalada Saylac ayay ka bilaabantey boqortooyadu ka dib ku fidey deegaanka geeska Afrika. Sanadihii 1415 ilaa 1577 ayay boqortooyada Cadal ugu awood badneyd goortaas ooy maamuleysay in ka badan shan kun oo kilomitir isku wareeg ah.

Boqortooyada Cadal sidoo kale loo yaqaano Adal waxa lagu xasuustaa dagaalo waaweyn oo ay inta badan la galeen Itoobiya.

Taariikhda Adal

Boqortooyada Adal (sidoo kale Awdal, Adl, ama Adel ) [3] waxay xuddun u ahayd Seila, oo ahayd caasimadeeda. [4] [5] [6] Waxaa aasaasay qabaa'illada maxalliga ah ee Soomaaliyeed bilowgii qarnigii 9aad. Zeila waxay soo jiidatay ganacsatada adduunka oo dhan, waxayna gacan ka geysteen hodanka magaalada. Zeila waa magaalo qadiim ah waxayna ka mid ahayd magaalooyinkii ugu horreeyay adduunka ee ay qaataan Islaamka . [7] [3] [8]


Dabayaaqadii qarnigii 9aad, Al-Yaqubi, oo ah aqoonyahan Muslim ah oo reer Armenian ah isla markaana safar ah, wuxuu qoray in Boqortooyada Adal ay tahay boqortooyo aad u yar isla markaana Zeila ay u shaqeysay xaruntii boqortooyada, oo taariikhdu ku beegneyd bilowgii qarnigii. [9] [10]


Diinta islaamka ayaa lagu soo rogay gobolka Geeska hore horaantii gacanka carbeed, waxyar kadib hijriyada . Masaajidka al-Qiblatayn ee magaalada 'Meila' ee laba mhrab masaajidka waxay taariikhdu ahayd qiyaastii qarnigii 7-aad, waana Masjidka ugu da'da weyn Afrika . [11] Dabayaaqadii qarnigii 9aad, Al-Yaqubi wuxuu qoray in muslimiintu ku noolaayeen dhinaca badda woqooyi ee Soomaaliya. [12] [13] Sharciga ayaa waxaa xukumayey aasaaska somalida maxalliga ah ee ay asaasay Adelites. [14] Taariikhda Adal laga soo bilaabo xilligan aas-aaska waxaa lagu tilmaami karaa dagaallo is xigxigay oo lala galay Abtiyoland deris la ah. [13]


Yusuf bin Ahmad al-Kawneyn wuxuu ku dhashay Zeila muddadii boqortooyada Adal. Al-Kawneyn waa muwaadin Soomaaliyeed oo Muslim ah. [15] Waxaa la rumeysan yahay inuu yahay aasaasaha iyo abtirsiinta qoyska boqortooyada ee loo yaqaan ' Walashma Dynasty', kaasoo markii dambe xukumayay Ifat Sultanate iyo Adal Sultanate intii lagu jiray qarniyadii dhexe. [15] [16]




Suldaanada Boqortooyada

Luuqada

Dhaqaalaha

Sidoo kale Fiiri

Tixraac

  1. "the king of Zeila [Imam Ahmad] ascended a hill with several horse and some foot to examine us: he halted on the top with three hundred horse and three large banners, two white with red moons, and one red with a white moon, which always accompanied him, and [by] which he was recognized." Richard Stephen Whiteway, The Portuguese expedition to Abyssinia in 1541-1543 as Narrated by Castanhoso, Kraus Reprint, 1967, p. 41
  2. name="Lewispd"
  3. 3.0 3.1 Mohamed Haji Mukhtar, Historical Dictionary of Somalia, new edn, African Historical Dictionary Series, 87 (Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 2003), s.v. Awdal [p. 44];
  4. Lewis, I. M. (1999-01-01) (in en). A Pastoral Democracy: A Study of Pastoralism and Politics Among the Northern Somali of the Horn of Africa. James Currey Publishers. ISBN 9780852552803. https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=eK6SBJIckIsC&pg=PA17&dq=&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiH3ZHswuDTAhXsI8AKHbvCDaYQ6AEITzAI#v=onepage&q=%22Adal%20was%20based%20on%20the%20port%20of%20Zeila',%20%22&f=false. 
  5. Shinn, David H.; Ofcansky, Thomas P. (2013-04-11) (in en). Historical Dictionary of Ethiopia. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 9780810874572. https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=WU92d6sB8JAC&pg=PA20&dq=&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiH3ZHswuDTAhXsI8AKHbvCDaYQ6AEIKDAB#v=onepage&q=%22and%20the%20lowlands%20between%20shoa%20province%20and%20the%20port%20of%20zeila%20in%20present-day%20somaliland%22&f=false. 
  6. Pieter, Esterhuysen (2013-12-07) (in en). Africa A to Z: Continental and Country Profiles: Third Edition. Africa Institute of South Africa. ISBN 9780798303446. https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=f2R8AgAAQBAJ&pg=PA347&dq=&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwitmab6zeDTAhUMJ8AKHZidDq44ChDoAQgtMAI#v=snippet&q=%22area%20where%20the%20state%20of%20djibouti%22&f=false. 
  7. Empty citation (help) 
  8. M. H. Mukhtar, 'Adal Sultanate', in The Encyclopedia of Empire (Wiley, 2016), Template:DOI; .
  9. Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 25. Americana Corporation. 1965. pp. 255. https://books.google.ca/books?id=OP5LAAAAMAAJ. 
  10. Lewis, I.M. (1955). Peoples of the Horn of Africa: Somali, Afar and Saho. International African Institute. pp. 140. https://books.google.ca/books?id=Cd0mAQAAMAAJ. 
  11. Briggs, Phillip (2012). Somaliland. Bradt Travel Guides. p. 7. ISBN 1841623717. https://www.google.com/books?id=M6NI2FejIuwC. 
  12. Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 25. Americana Corporation. 1965. pp. 255. https://books.google.ca/books?id=OP5LAAAAMAAJ. 
  13. 13.0 13.1 Lewis, I.M. (1955). Peoples of the Horn of Africa: Somali, Afar and Saho. International African Institute. pp. 140. https://books.google.ca/books?id=Cd0mAQAAMAAJ. 
  14. Africanus, Leo (1526). The History and Description of Africa. Hakluyt Society. pp. 51–54. https://archive.org/stream/historyanddescr03porygoog#page/n180/mode/2up. 
  15. 15.0 15.1 "Saints and Somalis: Popular Islam in a Clan-based Society"; Lewis, I.M.; The Red Sea Press; (1998); retrieved 22 September 2015.
  16. Nehemia Levtzion; Randall Pouwels (Mar 31, 2000) (in English). The History of Islam in Africa. Ohio University Press. pp. 242.