Gadabuursi

Ka Wikipedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Gadabuursi
The Tomb of Sheikh Samaroon.jpg
Meelaha ay ku badan yihiin
 Itoobiya
 Somaliland
 Jabuuti
Luqada

Af-Soomaali iyo af Carabi

Diinta

Sunni Islam, Suufi, Salafiya, Jama'atul Muslimin

Dadka ay dhalyo wadagaan

Ciise, beelaha kale Dir iyo Beelaha Soomaalida kale

Gobolka Awdal waxaa dega beesha Gadabuursi.
Deegaanada ay ka talineeysay boqortooyadii Adal ee beesha Gadabuursi.

Gadabuursi (, "Gadabuursi"; ) (sidoo kale loo yaqaano Samaroon) waa qabiil ka tirsan Beelaha Dir, ee Dadka Soomaalida.[1] Beesha Gadabuursi waxay si rasmi ah u dagaan oo aad ugu badan yihiin isla markaana iska leeyihiin Gobolka Awdal ee dhacda waqooyiga dhulka Soomaalidu degto.[2] Waxaanay deegaan ahaan ku dhaqan yihiin degmooyinka Boorama, Baki, Lughaya iyo Saylac. Dhinaca wadanka Itoobiya, beeshu waxay deegaan rasmi ah ku leedahay Degmada Awbare ee Gobolka Faafan, Degmada Dembel ee Gobolka Sitti iyo Dooxada Harawo.[3][4][5]

Hordhac

Beesha Gadabuursi waxay ka mid tahay beelaha ka tirsan beel-weynta Dir ee shacan weynaha Soomaaliyeed. Dir ahaan, beesha Gadabuursi waxay tol yihiin beesha Ciise ee deegaanka ku ah wadanka Jabuuti,[6] beesha Biyomaal ee laga helo koonfuta Soomaaliya, beesha Surre (Cabdale iyo Qubays) ee ku dhaqan badhtamaha Soomaaliya, Gaadsan iyo Gurgura.[7]

Dhinaca kale, Samaroonku waxa ay ka tafiirmeen Sheekh Samaroon oo magaciisa saxda ahi uu ahaa Maxamuud.[8] Beesha Samaroon waxa ay ka soo jeedaan asal ahaan dadkii loogu yimiday Waqooyiga Soomaaliya.

Dhaqan ahaan, dadka Gadabuursiga ahi waxay tan iyo wakhti hore ahaayeen kuwo beeroleey ah, ayagoo beeran jiray midho iyo khudaar badan oo ilaa maanta laga helo deegaanadaasi.[9] Degaanka ku wareegsan magaalada Baki, deegaanada Camuud ee dhow magaalada Borama, magaalada Dilla iyo kuwo kale oo badan ayaa tusaale fiican u ah horumarka xaga wax-beerashada ee beesha Gadabuursi.[10]

Dhinaca kale, waxa iyadna jirta tiro badan oo ka mid ah shacabka Samaroon, kuwaasi oo ah reer guuraa dhaqda xoolaha ay ka midka yihiin geela, lo'da, adhiga, fardaha, dameeraha IWM. Dadka reer guuraaga ahi waxay si joogto ah u daba socdaan roobka ayagoo kolba u guura meesha roob fiican, biyo iyo daaqsiimo wanaagsan u leh xoolaha.[11] Dadkani reer guuraaga ahi ma lahan wax xad ah, waxaanay ayaga iyo xoolohoodu iskaga talaabaan xuduudaha wadanka Soomaaliya, Itoobiya, Jabuuti iyo Somaliland.[12]

Magaalada Borama xarunta kowaad ee beesha Gadabuursi.

Si kastaba ha ahaatee, beesha Samaroon waxay tan iyo qarniyo badan ahaayeen dad aad u horumarsan oo leh ilbaxnimo ka sareeysan bulshooyinkii ay isku wakhtiga ahaayeen. Waxaanay lahaayeen maamulo boqortooyo, saldanad iyo dowlado kala. Kuwaasi waxaa ka mid ah Boqortooyadii Adal, sidoo kale loo yaqaano Saldanadii Cadal, Boqortooyadii Camuud iyo kuwo kaleba.[13]

Magaalada Saylac.

Guud ahaan dadka Samaroonku waa bulshooyin xadaarad horey u soo lahaa, isla markaana shacabka Soomaaliyeed dhexdooda looga yaqaano Dadka Nabada iyo Hooyga Aqoonta. Beeshu waxay aad ugu wanaagsan tahay waxbarashada, aqoonta maadiga iyo cilmiga diiniga ah.[14] Magaalada Borama waxaa ku yaala tiro badan oo jaamacado ah, [dugsi]]yo iyo goobo waxbarasho, kuwasi waxaa ka mid ah jaamacadii kowaad ee laga furo cariga Soomaaliyeed ka dib dagaaladii sokeeye, waa Jaamacada Camuud iyo Jaamacada Eelo American; tiro ka badan 20 Dugsi Sare; iyo boqolaal dugsiyo hoose iyo dhexe iskugu jira.[15]

Isku soo duuboo, reeraha beesha Gadabuursi waxaaa loo kala saaraa, guud ahaan, sadex waaxood[16] kuwaasi oo kala ah:

  • Beesha Makaahiil: beesha Makaahiil waa waax ka mid ah sadexda rukun ee Samaroonka, waxayna guud ahaan u kala baxaan 15 qabiil ama reerood.

Wadanka Eritrea waxaa jira qowm la dhaho Saaho. Qowmkaas waxaa hoostimaada beel la dhaho Gadafur. Beeshaas asal ahaan waxay ka soo jeedaan Beelwaynta Gadabuursi, sidaas ayaa aqoonyahan Eritrean ah ku qoray buugiisa la dhaho "'The Saho of Eritrea"[17]

Dir

Dir, magaca saxda ah: Abukar waa beelweyn ka tirsan qabiilada Soomaalida taasi oo juquraafi ahaan degta afar wadan oo ku yaala Geeska Afrika. Beesha Dir waxaa laga helaa dhamaan deegaanada Shanta Soomaaliyeed kuwaasi oo kala ah: Djibouti(ahaan jirtey: French Somaliland(1)), Soomaaliya(ahaan jirtey: British Somaliland(2) iyo Italian Somaliland(3)), wadanka Kenya, Gobolka Waqooyi Bari(4) iyo dalka Itoobiya, deegaanka Soomaali Galbeed, iyo sidoo kale Deegaanada Herer, Diridhaba, Oromia iyo Canfarta(5).[18][19][20][21]

Taariikh

Beesha Gadabuursi waxay si rasmi ah u dagaan ooy aad ugu badan yihiin isla markaana iska leeyihiin gebi ahanba gobolka Awdal. Sidoo kale, beeshu waxay deegaan rasmi ah ku leedahay gobolo ka mid ah wadanka Itoobiya iyo Jabuuti.[22]

Marka taariikhda dib loo raaco, beesha Samaroonku waxa ay ka tafiirmeen Sheekh Samaroon oo magaciisa saxda ahi uu ahaa Maxamuud, odaygaasi ooy isku wakhti noolaayeen odayga beesha Isaaq ka tafiirantey ee Sheekh Isxaaq.[23] Labadooduna maanta waxay ku aasan yihiin deegaanada Xiis iyo Maydh ee ka tirsan gobolka Sanaag ee Jamhuuriyada Somaliland.[24]

Dhaqan ahaan, dadka Gadabuursiga ahi waxay tan iyo wakhti hore ahaayeen kuwo beeroleey ah, ayagoo beeran jiray midho iyo khudaar badan oo ilaa maanta laga helo deegaanadaasi. waxa iyadna jirta tiro badan oo ka mid ah shacabka Samaroon, kuwaasi oo ah reer guuraa dhaqda xoolaha ay ka midka yihiin geela, lo'da, adhiga, fardaha, dameeraha IWM. Dadka reer guuraaga ahi waxay si joogto ah u daba socdaan roobka ayagoo kolba u guura meesha roob fiican, biyo iyo daaqsiimo wanaagsan u leh xoolaha.

Si kastaba ha ahaatee, beesha Samaroon waxay tan iyo qarniyo badan ahaayeen dad aad u horumarsan oo leh ilbaxnimo ka sareeysan bulshooyinkii ay isku wakhtiga ahaayeen. Marka laga yimaado caado hoosaadka iyo dhaqanka xeerka ee caalamiga ka ahaa deegaanada beesha Gadabuursi, waxaa jirtey maamulo boqortooyo, saldanad iyo dowlado kala dambeeyay oo beeshu soo yeelatay.[25] Kuwaasi waxaa ka mid ah Boqortooyadii Adal, sidoo kale loo yaqaano Saldanadii Cadal, taasi oo ka talineeysay deegaanada Somaliland, meelo ka mid ah dalka Itoobiya, gebi ahaanba wadanka Jabuuti ilaa meelo ka mid ah dhulka maanta loo yaqaano Eratareya.[26]

Ugaasyada ama Boqortooyada Gadabuursi

Ugaaskii ugu horreeyay wuxuu ahaa Ugaas Cali Makayl-Dheere.[3]

Beesha Gadabuursi waxay siiyaan Boqorkooda magaca Ugaas.[27] Waa erey Soomaali dhab ah oo loo yaqaan Boqor ama Suldaan. Gaar ahaan Gadabuursi waa qabiilka kaliya ee leh dhaqan soo jireen ah in la helo Boqor.[28]

Ugaas Cali Makayl-Dheere oo ku dhashay 1575 deegaanka Dhoobo, oo ah aag woqooyiga kaga beegan magaalada hada ee Boorama ee woqooyi-galbeed Somaliland, ayaa loo diiwaan galiyay inuu gaystay jab xoog leh oo soo gaadhay ciidamadii Gallaha (Oromo) ee Nabadid.[29] Ugaas Cali Makayl-Dheere waxaa ku abtirsada beelweynta Reer Ugaas oo ah qoyska boqortooyada ee beesha Gadabuursi.[30]

Ugaas Nuur I, oo loo caleemo saaray 1698, wuxuu guursaday Faaya Aale Boore oo ahayd gabadhii uu dhalay Boqorkii Gallaha (Oromo) ee la odhan jiray Aale Boore.[3] Ugaas Nuur I iyo Faaya Aale Boore waxay dhaleen Ugaas Hiraab iyo Ugaas Shirdoon oo ahaa kii 7aad ee safka ka danbeeya Ugaas Hiraab.[3] Aale Boore wuxuu ahaa boqorkii Oromada ee caan ahaa oo bariga iyo galbeedka Hararghe ka talin jiray. Dagaaladii oo ke dhexeeyay Gadabuursiga iyo Oromada waxay calaamad u noqotay isbadal taariikhi ah oo lagu soo gabagabeynayo quwada Oromada ee Bariga Hararghe.[3]

Beesha Gadabuursi wuxuu ku guuleystey inuu jebiyo oo dilo Boqorka ku xigey Aale Boore, xiligii Ugaas Rooble I oo la caleemo saaray 1817. Waxaa la sheegaa in intuu xukunka hayey qabiilka Gadabuursi ay gaareen saameyn weyn iyo dherer aad u weyn. Markii ay ku guuleysteen inay ka adkaadaan xukunka Gallaha (Oromo), boqorka wakhtigaas oo magaciisu ahaa Nuuno oo dharbaaxo kulul ku riday niyadda Gallaha, sababtuna tahay in la dilay Boqorkoodii aadka u jeclaa. Waxaa ka adkaaday Geedi Bahdoon, oo sidoo kale loo yaqaan Geedi Malable. Waran ayuu ku dhuftay Boqorka isagoo taagan geed hortiisa, waranki oo lagu muday geedka gudihiisa taas oo u suurta galin weyday Boqorka inuu ka baxsado ama ka saaro waranki. Markii uu dhintay ka dib waxaa lagu aasay aag hadda loo yaqaan Qabri Nuuno oo u dhow magaalada Sheed dheer ee degmada Awbare.[3][31]

Ugaas Rooble I wuxuu dhintay 1848 waxaana lagu aasay aag la yiraahdo Dhexroor, oo u dhow Awbare. Waxay caado u noqotay Soomaalida wixii ka dambeeya Ugaas Rooble I markasta oo Ugaas la caleemo saaro oo roob da’o, waa in loogu magac daro Ugaas Rooble, oo macnihiisu yahay 'midka roobka leh' ama 'roob sameeye'.

Ugaas Nuur II wuxuu ku dhashay Saylac sanadka markuu ahaa 1835 waxaana lagu boqray ceelka la oran jiray Bagi sanadkii 1848.[32] Wuxuu xiriir adag la sameeyay Khedive-ka Masar iyo Abdallah II ibn Ali (Cabdala Cabdishakuur) oo ahaa waali Harar, intii uu xukunka hayay quwadaha reer Galbeedku waxay ku tartamayeen awoodda maamulka Geeska Afrika. Wuxuu kaloo ahaa gabyaa caan ah. Wuxuu ahaa nooca ku hadla ereyada aan waligood ilaawi doonin mar ay dhegaha dadka galaan. Wuxuu curiyay gabayo badan oo oranaya kuwaas oo runtii sharxaya siyaasada iyo aqoonta waqtigaas jirtay. Sidee loo maraa dulqaad iyo macaamil xeel dheer oo qofku awood u yeesho inuu soo xero geliyo cadowgiisa. Wuxuu kaloo oran jiray markasta oo uu gabay maqlo waligiis ma iloobi doono. Shaqadiisu waxay ahayd welina lagu baraa casharrada Maansada Soomaaliyeed ( Suugaan: Fasalka Koobaad ).[33][34]

Name Reign

From

Reign

Till

Born
1 Ugaas Cali Makayl-Dheere 1607 1639 1575[35]
2 Ugaas Cabdi I Ugaas Cali Makayl-Dheere 1639 1664
3 Ugaas Xuseien Ugaas Cabdi Ugaas Cali 1664 1665
4 Ugaas Cabdile Ugaas Cabdi Ugaas Cali 1665 1698
5 Ugaas Nuur I Ugaas Cabdi Ugaas Cali 1698 1733
6 Ugaas Hiraab Ugaas Nuur Ugaas Cabdi 1733 1750
7 Ugaas Shirdoon Ugaas Nuur Ugaas Cabdi 1750 1772
8 Ugaas Samatar Ugaas Shirdoon Ugaas Nuur 1772 1812
9 Ugaas Guuleed Ugaas Samatar Ugaas Shirdoon 1812 1817
10 Ugaas Rooble I Ugaas Samatar Ugaas Shirdoon 1817 1848
11 Ugaas Nuur II Ugaas Rooble Ugaas Samatar 1848 1888 1828
12 Ugaas Rooble II Ugaas Nuur Ugaas Rooble 1888 1898
13 Ugaas Cilmi Warfaa "Cilmi-Dheere" Ugaas Rooble Ugaas Samatar 1898 1938 1835[36]
14 Ugaas Cabdi II Ugaas Rooble Ugaas Nuur 1938 1948
15 Ugaas Doodi Ugaas Cabdi Ugaas Rooble 1948 1952
16 Ugaas Rooble III Ugaas Doodi Ugaas Rooble 1952 1977
17 Ugaas Jaamac Muxumed Ugaas Cilmi-Warfaa 1960 1985
18 Ugaas Cabdirashiid Ugaas Rooble Ugaas Doodi 1985 -[37]

Reeraha Beesha

Marka la qeybinayo ama la kala dhigaayo beesha, reeraha beesha Gadabuursi waxaaa loo kala saaraa, guud ahaan, sadex waaxood[38] kuwaasi oo kala ah:

1. Beesha Habar Cafaan: beesha Habar Cafaan sidoo kale lagu naaneyso (HC) waa mid ka mid ah sadexda rukun ee beel-weynta Gadabuursi, waxayna ka kooban tahay labo iyo toban qabiil ama reerood.
2. Beesha Makaahiil: beesha Makaahiil waa ta ugu balaadhan uguna badan beelaha gudabursi waax ka mid ah sadexda rukun ee Samaroonka, waxayna guud ahaan u kala baxaan 15 qabiil ama reerood.
3. Beesha Maxamed Case: beesha Maxamed Case waa rukun ka mid ah sadexda tiir ee beel-weynta Samaroon kuwaasi oo deegaan ku ah dhulka iyo deegaanada xeebta Bada Cas ee gobolka Awdal. Beesha Maxamed Case waxaa loo kala saaraa kow iyo toban qabiil ama reerood.

Juquraafiga Deegaanada

Guud ahaan Beesha Gadabuursi waxay degaan ku yihiin oo asal ahaan ka soo jeedaan; deegaanadan:

Waxbarashada

Beesha Samaroon ama Gadabuursi waxay caan ku yihiin waxbarashada, ayagoo loo yaqaano Dadkii Aqoonta Soomaaliyeed, isla markaana deegaanadooda iyo dhulka ay ku nool yihiin lagu magaaco Hoygii Waxbarashada. Sababta magacyadaasi iyo naanaysahaasi loogu bixiyay waa mid qoto dheer, salkana ku heeysa heerka aqoont, cilmiga iyo waxbarashoda beesha Gadabuursi.

Isku soo wada duuboo, Magaalada Borama oo kali ah waxaa ku yaala tiro badan oo jaamacado ah, uguna horeeyso jaamacadii kowaad ee laga furo cariga Soomaaliyeed ka dib dagaaladii sokeeye, waa Jaamacada Camuud; sidoo kale waxaa ku taala Jaamacada Eelo American; tiro ka badan 20 Dugsi Sare; iyo boqolaal dugsiyo hoose iyo dhexe iskugu jira. Intaasi waxaa dheer, beeshu aad ayay ugu wanaagsan tahay barashada diinta Islaamka.[39] Deeganada sida gaarka ah ay u leeyihiin beesha Samaroonku ee wadanka Somaliland iyo Itoobiya waxaa ku yaala dugsiyo waxbarsho oo taariikhi ah. Dugsiyadaas oo ay ka soo qalin jabiyeen aqoonyahano badan, hogaamiyayaal badan, indheergarad badan oo maanta ku kala faafsan dunida hareeraheda iyagoo qabiil kasta leh.

Shakhsiyaadka Caanka ah

Sida ku xusan taariikhda, beesha Samaroonka waxaa ka dhashay tiro badan oo geesiyo, dagaalyahano, siyaasiyiin, hogaamiyayaal, aqoonyahano, indheergarad, culimo diin, gabayaa, fanaaniin heesaa iyo madax kale oo caan ka dhex ah shacabka Soomaaliyeed iyo dhamaan dunida oo dhan. Dadkaasi aan soo sheegnay waxaa ka mid ah:

Sidoo kale fiiri

Tixraac

  1. I.M Lewis (1959)
    Documentation[create]

    (PDF) https://arcadia.sba.uniroma3.it/bitstream/2307/4913/1/The%20Galla%20in%20northern%20Somaliland.pdf.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)

  2. "Awdal ee magaalo-madaxda u tahay caasimada Borama"
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 Nur, Sheikh Abdurahman 1993
    Documentation[create]

    . 1993 https://www.scribd.com/document/442929206/Ilbaxnimadii-Adal-Iyo-Sooyaalkii-Soomaaliyeed.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)

  4. http://dspace-roma3.caspur.it/bitstream/2307/4150/1/Clanship,%20conflict%20and%20refugees_An%20introduction%20to%20Somalis%20in%20the%20Horn%20of%20Africa.pdf Archived Oktoobar 13, 2016 // Wayback Machine - CLANSHIP, CONFLICT AND REFUGEES: An Introduction to Somalis in the Horn of Africa - Guido Ambroso - Page 6
  5. Hayward, R. J.; Lewis, I. M. (2005-08-17). Routledge. p. 242. ISBN 9781135751753 https://books.google.com/books?id=_8D0gYZZVKEC.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)
  6. "Dir ee shacan weynaha Soomaaliyeed"
  7. "Biyomaal ee laga helo koonfuta Soomaaliya, beesha Surre (Cabdale iyo Qubays) ee ku dhaqan badhtamaha Soomaaliya, Gaadsan iyo Gurgure"
  8. "Samaroonku waxa ay ka tafiirmeen Sheekh Samaroon oo magaciisa saxda ahi uu ahaa Maxamuud"
  9. "wakhti hore ahaayeen kuwo beeroleey ah, ayagoo beeran jiray midho iyo khudaar"
  10. "magaalada Baki, deegaanada Camuud ee dhow magaalada Borama, magaalada Dilla"
  11. "roobka ayagoo kolba u guura meesha roob fiican, biyo iyo daaqsiimo"
  12. "xoolohoodu iskaga talaabaan xuduudaha wadanka Soomaaliya, Itoobiya, Jabuuti iyo Somaliland"
  13. "Waqooyiga Soomaaliya, meelo ka mid ah dalka Itoobiya, gebi ahaanba wadanka Jabuuti"
  14. "Dadka Nabada iyo Hooyga Aqoonta."
  15. "Jaamacada Camuud; sidoo kale waxaa ku taala Jaamacada Eelo American; tiro ka badan 20 Dugsi Sare; iyo boqolaal dugsiyo"
  16. "beesha Gadabuursi waxaaa loo kala saaraa, guud ahaan, sadex waaxood"
  17. Mohammad, Abdulkader Saleh (2013-01-01). LIT Verlag Münster. ISBN 9783643903327 https://books.google.com/books?id=jwjX_yVT7AoC&pg=PA107&dq=Gadafur+Gadaburse&hl=nl&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjriaz7uIHRAhUr74MKHTwXD_sQ6AEIHTAA#v=onepage&q=Gadafur%20Gadaburse&f=false.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)
  18. http://dspace-roma3.caspur.it/bitstream/2307/4150/1/Clanship,%20conflict%20and%20refugees_An%20introduction%20to%20Somalis%20in%20the%20Horn%20of%20Africa.pdf Archived Oktoobar 13, 2016 // Wayback Machine - CLANSHIP, CONFLICT AND REFUGEES: An Introduction to Somalis in the Horn of Africa - Guido Ambroso - Page 6
  19. Garre live in Southern Somalia, North Eastern Kenya and Southern Ethiopia. In Southern Somalia, they live in Kofur near Mogadishu and El Wak District in Gedo Province. In Ethiopia, they live in Moyale, Hudet and Woreda of Liban zone. In Kenya, the Garre inhabit Wajir North and Moyale. UNDP paper http://www.undp.org/content/dam/kenya/docs/Amani%20Papers/AP_Volume1_n2_May2010.pdf
  20. Hayward, R. J.; Lewis, I. M. (2005-08-17). Routledge. p. 242. ISBN 9781135751753 https://books.google.com/books?id=_8D0gYZZVKEC.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)
  21. The Quranyo section of the Garre claim descent from Dirr, who are born of the Irrir Samal. UNDP Paper in Keyna http://www.undp.org/content/dam/kenya/docs/Amani%20Papers/AP_Volume1_n2_May2010.pdf
  22. "gobolka Awdal"
  23. "Sheekh Samaroon oo magaciisa saxda ahi uu ahaa Maxamuud"
  24. "Xiis iyo Maydh ee ka tirsan gobolka Sanaag"
  25. "maamulo boqortooyo, saldanad"
  26. "Itoobiya, gebi ahaanba wadanka Jabuuti ilaa meelo ka mid ah dhulka maanta loo yaqaano Eratareya"
  27. Lewis, I. M. (1961-01-01). LIT Verlag Münster. p. 204. ISBN 9783825830847 https://books.google.com/books?id=yoMBQCr4LysC.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)
  28. Westermann, Diedrich; Smith, Edwin William; Forde, Cyril Daryll (2007-01-01). Oxford University Press. p. 230 https://books.google.com/books?id=nlIqAQAAIAAJ.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)
  29. I.M Lewis (1959)
    Documentation[create]

    (PDF) https://arcadia.sba.uniroma3.it/bitstream/2307/4913/1/The%20Galla%20in%20northern%20Somaliland.pdf.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)

  30. I.M Lewis (1959)
    Documentation[create]

    (PDF) https://arcadia.sba.uniroma3.it/bitstream/2307/4913/1/The%20Galla%20in%20northern%20Somaliland.pdf.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)

  31. I.M Lewis (1959)
    Documentation[create]

    (PDF) https://arcadia.sba.uniroma3.it/bitstream/2307/4913/1/The%20Galla%20in%20northern%20Somaliland.pdf.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)

  32. Taariikhtii Ugaas Nuur
  33. . Wasaaradda Waxbarashada iyo Barbaarinta. 1976 https://books.google.com/books?id=4DbWAAAAMAAJ&q=ugaas+nuur.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)
  34. Nur, Sheikh Abdurahman 1993
    Documentation[create]

    . 1993 https://www.scribd.com/document/442929206/Ilbaxnimadii-Adal-Iyo-Sooyaalkii-Soomaaliyeed.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)

  35. LEWIS, I. M. (1959-01-01). Rassegna di Studi Etiopici. 15: 31. JSTOR 41299539.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)
  36. Mukhtar, Mohamed Haji (2003-02-25). Scarecrow Press. ISBN 9780810866041 https://books.google.com/books?id=DPwOsOcNy5YC&q=dictionary+of+somalia&pg=PA291.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)
  37. A list of the Gadabuursi Sultans
  38. "beesha Gadabuursi waxaaa loo kala saaraa, guud ahaan, sadex waaxood"
  39. "Jaamacada Camuud; Jaamacada Eelo American; tiro ka badan 20 Dugsi Sare; iyo boqolaal dugsiyo"
Commons-logo.svg
Wikimedia Commons waxee heysaa war la xiriiro: