Dawlada Cosmaniya

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Ottoman Empire
Af-Carabi: دَوْلَتِ عَلِيّهٔ عُثمَانِیّه
Devlet-i ʿAlīye-i ʿOsmānīye
1922
Calan (1844–1922) Astaanta ciidanka (1882)
Motto
دولت ابد مدت
Devlet-i Ebed-müddet
"The Eternal State"
Anthem
Noocyo badan
(1808–1922)
Dhulka boqortooyadu ka talin jirtey 1683.
Caasimadda
Luqadaha
Diinta
Government
  • Boqortooyo
  • (1299–1876)
  • (1878–1908)
  • (1920–1922)
Suldaan
 - 1299–1326 Cusmaankii Koowaad (ugu horeeyay)
 - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI (ugu dambeeyay)
Khaliif
 - 1512–1520 Selim I (ugu horeyay)[4]
History
 - Bilaabatay Enter start year
 - Cusmaaniyiin I 1402–1414
 - Boqotooyadi II 1453
 - Wakhtigii Saldanada 1876–1878
 - Bilowgii Xeerka iyo Sharciga 1908–1920
 - Jamhuuriyada Turkeyga established[5] 29 October 1922
 - Khaliifad 3 March 1924
Area
 - 1683 [6][7] 5,200,000 km2 (2,007,731 sq mi)
 - 1914 1,800,000 km2 (694,984 sq mi)
Population
 - 1856 est. 35,350,000 
 - 1906 est. 20,884,000 
 - 1912 est. 24,000,000 
Lacagta Akçe, Para, Sultani, Kuruş, Lira
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Sultanate of Rum
Adal Sultanate
Anatolian beyliks
Byzantine Empire
Kingdom of Bosnia
Second Bulgarian Empire
Serbian Empire
Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Croatia
Mamluk Sultanate
Hafsid dynasty
Hospitallers of Tripolitania
Kingdom of Tlemcen
Empire of Trebizond
Principiality of Samtskhe
Turkish Prov. Gov.
Hellenic Republic
Caucasus Viceroyalty
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Revolutionary Serbia
Albania
Kingdom of Romania
Principality of Bulgaria
OETA
Mandatory Iraq
Kingdom of Hejaz
French Algeria
British Cyprus
French Tunisia
Italian Libya

Boqortooyadii Cusmaaniyiinta (Af-Ingiriis: Ottoman Empire; Af-Carabi: دَوْلَتِ عَلِيّهٔ عُثمَانِیّه, loogu dhawaaqo: /əmən/; 'Af-Turki: Devlet-i ʿAlīye-i ʿOsmānīye; Luuqada Turkig maanta: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu ama Osmanlı Devleti), sidoo kale loo yaqaano Saldanadii Turkiga,[8] Cusmaaniyiinta Turkeyga,[9][10] waxay ahayd boqortooyo Islaamiya oo awood yeelatay qarnigii 13aad deegaano ka mid ah waqooyigalbeed wadanka maanta loo yaqaano Turkiga.[11] Boqortooyada waxaa asal ahaan bilaabay ismaamulkii beelaha ee ka jiray deegaanada Antanoliya wakhtigaasi, waxaana markiiba awooda qabsadey ninkii loogu magaca daray boqortooyada Cusmaankii I.[12][13]

Qoraalka gudaha oo kooban

Hordhac

Dawlada Cosmaniya
Dowladda Cosmaniya

Dowladii Cusmaaniyiinta (1299-1924) waxay ahaayeen dawlad Islaamiya taasi oo aasaasey Cismaannkii Koowaad. Dowlada boqortooyadani waxa ay xukuntay dhul aad u balaaran, waxaa ka mid ah Aasiya (sida Bariga Dhexe wadanada maanta loo yaqaano), Geeska Afrika, iyo meelo badan oo ka mid ah Yurub.

Boqortooyadii dowlada Cusmaaniyiinta waxaa saldhigeeda ugu wayni ahaa magaalada Istanbuul, ee maanta ka tirsan wadanka Turkiga.

Taariikh

Suldaankii cismaaniyiinta ugu horeeyay waxa uu ku dhashay magaalada (Sogüt) oo ah meel laga maamulo magaalada wayn ee (bin shahiir)sanadkii 1258 kadib markii uu dhintay suldaankii halkaas xukumayay ayaa suldaan cismaan loo dooratay in uu noqdo hogaamiye.taasina waxa ay horseeday in ay bilaabanto dawladii cusmaaniyiinta.waxa uu suldaan cismaan samaystay dawlad adag iyo ciidan aad u awood badan.waxa uu baabi'iyay oo uu gacanta ku dhigay.dawladii giriiga.kadib dawladiisi waxa ay gaadhay dhul aad u balaadhan.oo ay kamid tahay soomaaliya.cismaaniyiintu waxa ay islaamka gaadhsiiyeenn.badhtamaha yurub.

Waxa looqaybinkaraa fiditaankii iuyo taariikhdii cismaaniyiinta laba qaybood. qaybta hore waxa ay tahay xilgii horumarka iyo awooda milatari taas oo soo gaadhsiisnayd sanadii 1566 iyo taariikh kale oo ay dawladaasi soo martay xiliyo adag iyo dhibaato siyaasadeed waxaanay soo gaadhsiisanayd sanadii 1683.

Kadib markii uu dhintay suldaan Maxamed al-faatex waxa xukunka ku murmay labada wiil ee uu ka tagay laakiin waxa adkaaday oo loo doortay boqor la odhan jiray baayasiid oo ahaa wiil uu katay maxamed al-faatex. kadib walaalkii waxa uu u cararay dhankaas iyo masar halkaas oo uu kaalmo karaadsaday dawladii katalinjiratay masar xiligaas ee Dawladii Mamaaliikta kadib halkaas wuu katagay oo waxa uu aaday dhanka jasiirada Rodes halkaas oo uu isku dayay in uu gacansiiyo ciidamadii hogaamiye diimeedka (Knights Hospitaller) iyo dawladaha reer galbeedka .

Sidoo kale fiiri

Tixraac

  1. Stanford Shaw, History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey (Cambridge: University Press, 1976), vol. 1 p. 13
  2. "In 1363 the Ottoman capital moved from Bursa to Edirne, although Bursa retained its spiritual and economic importance." Ottoman Capital Bursa. Official website of Ministry of Culture and Tourism of the Republic of Turkey. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
  3. In Ottoman Turkish the city was known with various names, among which were Kostantiniyye (قسطنطينيه) (replacing the suffix -polis with the Arabic nisba), Dersaadet (در سعادت) and Istanbul (استانبول). Names other than Istanbul gradually became obsolete in Turkish, and after Turkey's transition to Latin script in 1928, the city's Turkish name attained international usage.
  4. Lambton, Ann; Lewis, Bernard (1995). The Cambridge History of Islam: The Indian sub-continent, South-East Asia, Africa and the Muslim west. 2. Cambridge University Press. p. 320. ISBN 978-0-521-22310-2. https://books.google.com/books?id=4AuJvd2Tyt8C. 
  5. The Treaty of Sèvres (10 August 1920) afforded a small existence to the Ottoman Empire. On 1 November 1922, the Grand National Assembly (GNAT) abolished the sultanate and declared that all the deeds of the Ottoman regime in Istanbul were null and void as of 16 March 1920.
  6. Turchin, Peter; Adams, Jonathan M.; Hall, Thomas D (December 2006). "East-West Orientation of Historical Empires". Journal of world-systems research. 12 (2): 223. ISSN 1076-156X. Retrieved 12 September 2016. 
  7. Rein Taagepera (September 1997). "Expansion and Contraction Patterns of Large Polities: Context for Russia". International Studies Quarterly. 41 (3): 498. doi:10.1111/0020-8833.00053. Retrieved 12 September 2016. 
  8. Hamish Scott (2015). The Oxford Handbook of Early Modern European History, 1350-1750: Volume II. p. 612. https://books.google.be/books?id=Jb4DCgAAQBAJ&dq=The+Oxford+Handbook+of+Early+Modern+European+History,+1350-1750:+Volume+II&hl=nl&source=gbs_navlinks_s. "The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire"
  9. Raphaela Lewis (1988). Everyday Life in Ottoman Turkey. Dorset Press. ISBN 978-0-88029-175-0. https://books.google.com/books?id=aUJNAAAAYAAJ. 
  10. Godfrey Goodwin (1977). Ottoman Turkey. Scorpion Publications. https://books.google.com/books?id=WBvcheAv62wC. 
    • "Ottoman Empire". Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved 11 February 2013. 
    • Atalay, Kaşgarlı Mahmud ; çeviren Besim (2006). Divanü lugat-it-Türk : (çeviri) (5.baskı ed.). Ankara: Türk Dil Kurumu. p. 55. ISBN 975-16-0405-2. 
  11. Finkel, Caroline. Osman's Dream: The Story of the Ottoman Empire, 1300-1923. Basic Books. p. 2, 7. ISBN 978-0-465-02396-7. 
  12. Kafadar, Cemal (1995). Between Two Worlds: The Construction of the Ottoman State. p. 122. ISBN 978-0-520-20600-7. "That they hailed from the Kayı branch of the Oğuz confederacy seems to be a creative "rediscovery" in the genealogical concoction of the fifteenth century. It is missing not only in Ahmedi but also, and more importantly, in the Yahşi Fakih-Aşıkpaşazade narrative, which gives its own version of an elaborate genealogical family tree going back to Noah. If there was a particularly significant claim to Kayı lineage, it is hard to imagine that Yahşi Fakih would not have heard of it" 
    • Lindner, Rudi Paul (1983). Nomads and Ottomans in Medieval Anatolia. Indiana University Press. p. 10. "In fact, no matter how one were to try, the sources simply did not allow the recovery of a family tree linking the antecedents of Osman to the Kayı of the Oğuz tribe." 
    • Shaw, Stanford (1976). History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey. Cambridge University Press. p. 13. "The problem of Ottoman origins has preoccupied students of history, but because of both the absence of contemporary source materials and conflicting accounts written subsequent to the events there seems to be no basis for a definitive statement."