Cushitic peoples

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Cushites
(Cushitic peoples)
Cushitic_languages.SVG
Areas where Modern Cushitic languages are currently prevalent (Cushitic People subgroups that no longer speak Cushitic languages are not represented in this map).
Meelaha ay ku badan yihiin
The Horn of Africa, Nile Valley (Sudan and Egypt), parts of the African Great Lakes region, and due to immigration in parts of the Arabian Peninsula, Israel, and the Western world.
Luqada

Predominantly various Cushitic languages (Oromo and Somali being the largest), some Arabic (liturgical, co-official, or language shifts), Ethiosemitic languages (Amharic and Tigrinya primarily and Ge'ez for liturgical reasons), Modern Hebrew & European languages (immigration), and Nilo-Saharan languages (e.g. Nubian due to language shifts)

Diinta

Majority: Islam (Sunni), Christianity (Ethiopian Orthodox/Eritrean Orthodox, some P'ent'ay (Ethiopian-Eritrean Evangelicalism), some Eritrean Catholicism)
Minority: Syncretism, Judaism (Beta Israel)
Traditional Cushitic religion: (Waaq)

Dadka ay dhalyo wadagaan

other Afro-Asiatic peoples[1][2][3][4][5][6][7]

Dadka reer Cushitic (ama Cushites ) waa koox koox ah oo asal ahaan asal ahaan ka soo jeeda Waqooyi-Bari Afrika oo ku hadla ama horay u yaqaan luqadaha Cushitic ama luqadaha Ethiosemitic ee qoyska luqadda Afroasiatic . Luqadaha Cushitic waxaa maanta looga hadlaa geeska Afrika ( Jabuuti, Ereteriya, Itoobiya iyo Soomaaliya ), iyo sidoo kale dooxada Niilka ( Suudaan iyo Masar ), iyo qeybo ka mid ah gobolka The Great Great Lakes ( Tansaaniya iyo Kenya ) halka luuqadaha Ethiosemitic luqadaha ayaa looga hadlaa geeska afrika isla markaana si baaxad leh dooxada wabiga Niil. Tusaalooyinka dadkan waxaa ka mid ah Afarta, Beja, Oromo, Somali, Amxaarada, Tigreyaasha (Tigree-Tigrinya), Gurages, iyo Sidama oo ay ka mid yihiin dhowr kale.

Dad badan oo ku nool Koonfur-bari Afrika ayaa la rumeysan yahay inay leeyihiin abtirsiintii Koonfurta Cushitiga qadiimiga ah, oo hadda u badan dadka maxalliga ah oo isku-urursan - bulsho isku xigta oo loo yaqaan ' Savanna-xoolo dhaqatada' Neolithic oo ay la socdaan dhaqanka Elmenteitan . Xoola-dhaqatadan hore waxay u soo bandhigeen xoola-dhaqatada Bariga Afrika iyo dadka ku nool Koonfurta Afrika, qaab nololeed wali ka sareeya aagaggaas, tusaale ahaan, dadka Maasai iyo Khoikhoi ee Bariga iyo Koonfurta Afrika siday u kala horreeyaan. [8] Falanqaynta luqadaha taariikhiga ah iyo archaeogenetics waxay muujinayaan in luqadaha looga hadlo dhaqanka qadiimka ah ee Kerma ee waxa hada Koonfurta Masar iyo Waqooyiga Suudaan ay ahaayeen afafka Cushitic. Sidaa daraadeed, guushii 4-aad ee qarnigii 4aad oo uu leeyahay King Ezana ee Boqortooyada Aksum waxaa kujira qoraallo tilmaamaya laba koox oo kala duwan oo deggan Nubia qadiimka ah: "casaan" Kasu (midab khafiif ah) dadweynaha, oo la rumeysan yahay inay ahaayeen kuwa ku hadla luuqada Cushitic. u dariska ah Masriyiinta qadiimka ah iyo Kermans, iyo "madow" (midab madow) dadweynaha kuhadlaya bariga Suudaan oo badalkeed laxiriira Nilotes . Jiritaanka laba qaybood oo kaladuwan oo dadka Nubia ah ayaa sidoo kale lagu xaqiijiyay falanqaynta hidda-socodka (fiiri hiddo-wadaha Nubian ).

Dadka reer Kuush waa dadka ugu badan ee Geeska Afrika ; aag la rumeysan yahay inuu yahay meesha ay ku kala firidhsan yihiin dadka ku hadla Afka-weynaha ee ku yaal Bariga Afrika oo dhan . Dadka reer Cushitic waxay asal ahaan u hoggaansan yihiin Sunniyiinta Islaamiga ah iyo diinta kiristaanka ee qowmiyada tirada yar oo wali ku dhaqma caqiidada iyo diinta Yahuudda . Afka Soomaaliga waa luqadda kaliya ee Cushitic loo aqoonsan yahay luqad rasmi ah halka Oromo iyo Afaraad loo aqoonsan yahay inay yihiin luqadaha ka shaqeeya gobolka Itoobiya .

Ethnonym[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Nin afartan ah dharka dhaqanka reer guuraaga ah.

Eraygii Kuushii ama Kushi ( Hebrew kuši ) sidoo kale dhowr jeer ayuu soo muuqday Kitaabka Cibraaniga si loo tixraaco qof madow oo maqaarka ka soo jeeda, una dhigma Greek Aethiops . Tan ayaa markii dambe loo beddelay "Itoobiya / Itoobiyan" qaybo ka mid ah Kitaabka Quduuska ah, sida King James Bible. Ereygu waa soo bixitaankii Cush (כּוּשׁ Kūš ), oo tilmaamaya Boqortooyadii hore ee Kush . Buugga Cibraaniga ee Cibraaniga, reer Kuush waxaa loo tixgeliyaa inay yihiin farcankii wiilkiisii Nuux, iyo Kuush oo ahaa ina Xaam . Adeegsiga kitaabiga ah iyo taariikhiyan ayaa sidan sii socday, ereyga " Cushites " ( jinsiyadda Itoobiya ) oo loola jeedo shakhsiyaadka asal ahaan ka soo jeeda Bariga Afrika ( Geeska Afrika iyo Suudaan ). The dadyowga Kushitigga ku hadla ayaa maanta ka kooban ee Agaw, Oromo, Soomaali, Canfarta, iyo dhowr qabiilooyinka kale, waana la tixgeliyaa farcankii Kuush ku Masudi ayaa Meadows of Gold ka 947 AD. [9] Dadka Beja, oo sidoo kale ku hadla luqadda Cushitic, waxay leeyihiin caadooyin abtirsiinyo gaar ah oo asal ahaan ka soo jeeda Cush. [10] [11]

Ereyga Cushite wuxuu markaa ka yimid dadyowga qadiimka ah ee waqooyi-bari Afrika, kuwaas oo dhaxal galkooda si cad looga ogaan karo luqadaha ay ka soo jeedaan kuwa dadkii hore. Marka si guud loo eego dadka ay hadda u magacaabeen Cushite waa farac dhaqameedkii dadkaas. Si kastaba ha noqotee, ereyga Cushite ugu horrayn waa naqshadeynta luqadda, habka ugu habboon ee loo tixraaco kooxaha kooxaha, oo leh astaan-qaabeed luqadeed. Luuqaduhu waxay leeyihiin deganaansho iyo raadad dhaxal gal ah oo aad uga badan kooxaha dhaqamada. Dadka reer Cushite waa sidaa darteed kuwa ku hadla luqadaha ama ku hadla luqadaha taariikhiga ah ee kooxda Cushite ee ku hadasha luuqada Afro-Asiatic . Kooxahan dhaqameedku waxay noqon karaan noocyo kaladuwan waxayna soo bandhigayaan astaamo kala duwan oo gaar ah laakiin leh dhaqamo badan oo awood leh, qowmiyado iyo astaamo luqadeed, oo ay kujiraan caadooyinka xoolo dhaqatada reer guuraaga ah.

Taariikh[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Farshaxanka dhagaxa ee Neolithic ee dhismaha Laas Geel oo muujinaya geel . Geela waxaa laga yaabaa in markii hore lagu haystay Geeska Afrika oo markii dambena uu ku biirey qaab nololeedkii guuraaga ee reer guuraaga reer Kuush.

Geeska Afrika

Caddaynta archeological iyo caddeynta luqadaha ee laga soo uruuriyay toponyms iyo diiwaannada Masaarida hore waxay muujinayaan in caddeynta ugu horeysa ee hadalka Cushitic aan laga helin halka ay ku hadlaan qoyska luqadaha ugu badan maanta - kan Geeska Afrika, laakiin Suudaan. Dhaqamada Nubian-ka hore sida A-Group Dhaqanka & C-Group Dhaqanka waxay si joogto ah ugu xirnaayeen dadkii hore ee Cushitic laakiin maqnaanshaha qoraalada asalka ah ama diiwaanada aagga ayaa soo bandhigaya dhibaatooyinka lagu hubinayo dhaqamadan inay yihiin gunaanad Cushitic, ama xitaa Proto-Cushitic. DNA-da qadiimiga ahi waxay soo bandhigaysaa il cusub oo macluumaad kusaabsan bariga hore ee Holocene bariga afrika, iyo jihada muhiimka ah ee xigta ayaa ah in si adag loogu daro macluumaadka sifiican oo kusaabsan aragtiyada ay soosaareen aasaaska mudada dheer la aasaasay ee cilmiga iyo cilmiga sayniska. [12]

Dadka reer Cushitic waxay u badan tahay inay samaysteen oo bilaabeen inay ka guuraan dooxada Niil ee prehistory . Laas Geel, sawirada godadka qadiimiga ah ee Waqooyiga Soomaaliya waxay daliil u yihiin calaamadaha ugu horreeya ee dad la rumeysan yahay inay abti u yihiin Afro-Asiatic ku hadla Geeska Afrika . Xaalad ilaalin ah oo heer sare ah, farshaxanka dhagaxa ah ayaa muujinaya xayawaanka duurjoogta ah iyo lo'da qurxinaysa (lo'da iyo dibiyada). Waxay kaloo soo bandhigaan xoolo-dhaqato, laga yaabee reer guura xoolo dhaqato ah, oo iyagu ah kuwa abuura sawirada. Markay ahayd qarnigii 5aad ee BC, dadkii deggenaa dowladdii hore ee Suudaan waxay ka qeybqaateen kacdoonkii Neolithic, reeraha xoolaha sida caadiga ah waxaa lagu tiriyaa "xirmada" Neolithic "oo ay keentay horumarka beeraha. Dhacdooyinka dhagaxa ee Nubian waxay muujinayaan muuqaallo u muuqda inay soo jeedinayaan isla dhaqan diineed, oo ah kuwa lagu arko dhammaan qaybaha Waqooyi Bari Afrika iyo Dooxada Nile. Idaha, riyaha, iyo lo'da ee koonfur-galbeed Aasiya asal ahaan waxaa markii ugu horreysay lasiiyay woqooyi bari Afrika ee Suudaan qiyaastii ≈8000 sano kahor (BP), waxayna ku faafay bariga Afrika laga bilaabo ≈5000 BP, ugu dambeyntiina wuxuu gaadhay koonfurta koonfur Afrika by2000 BP. Sida xoola-dhaqatada — oo ah hab nololeedku ay ku tiirsan tahay daaqsiga xoolaha — kuna baahay bariga Afrika ayaan caddayn. Xooluhu waxay ka muuqdaan woqooyiga Itoobiya iyo Jabuuti goor dambe, ≈4500-44000 BP, oo si liidata looma diiwaangeliyay meelo kale oo ku yaal geeska Afrika iyo Koonfurta Suudaan.

Caddaynta ugu horreysa ee kooxaha ku hadla afka Cushitic ee Geeska Afrika laga yaabee inay ku hadlayaan nooc ka mid ah Proto-Cushitic, waxay ka yimaadaan sawirada godadka qadiimka ah. Laas Geel, waa farshaxankii hore ee dhagaxa qadiimiga ahaa ee Waqooyiga Soomaaliya wuxuu marqaati u yahay calaamadaha ugu horreeya ee dadweyne la rumeysan yahay inay asal u yihiin Afro-Asiatic ku hadla Geeska Afrika . Xaalad ilaalin ah oo heer sare ah, farshaxanka dhagaxa ah ayaa muujinaya xayawaanka duurjoogta ah iyo lo'da qurxinaysa (lo'da iyo dibiyada). Waxay kaloo soo bandhigaan xoolo-dhaqato, laga yaabee reer guura xoolo dhaqato ah, oo iyagu ah kuwa abuura sawirada. Markay ahayd qarnigii 5aad ee BC, Proto-Cushites oo deggenaa waxa hadda Suudaan u badan tahay waxay ka qayb qaadatay kacaankii Neolithic kaasoo u oggolaaday in ay ku noolaadaan xayawaanada kooxaha kacsan oo horey u ugaadhsadeyaal ama ugaarsade. Dameeraha waxaa lagayaabaa inay markii hore xoola dhaqatada ahaayeen dadka xoolo dhaqatada ah ee Nubia awoowayaasha dameerka casriga ah inay yihiin Nubian iyo somalida dameeraha duurjoogta Afrika . [13] Dameeraha ayaa dibiga u adeegsaday dibi xayawaanka ugu horeeya ee dhaqankaas iyo hoygeeda ayaa u adeegsaday kordhinta dhaqdhaqaaqa dhaqamada xoolo-dhaqatada, iyada oo laga faaiidaysto xoolo-dhaqatada oo aan u baahnayn waqti ay ku calaacalaan hilbihooda, isla markaana ay muhiim u ahaayeen horumarka socdaalka masaafada dheer ee guud ahaan. Afrika. [14] Dhacdooyinka dhagaxa ee Nubian waxay muujinayaan muuqaallo u muuqda inay soo jeedinayaan isla dhaqan diineed, oo ah kuwa lagu arko dhammaan qaybaha Waqooyi Bari Afrika iyo Dooxada Nile. Puntland iyo gobollada Somaliland ee Soomaaliya ayaa hoy u leh goobo badan oo qadiimiga ah iyo qaab dhismeedka megalithic, oo leh farshaxan la mid ah dhagaxaanta oo laga helay Haadh, Gudmo Biyo Cas, Dhambalin, Dhagah Maroodi iyo goobo kale oo fara badan, halka dhismayaal qadiim ah ay ku jiraan kuwo kale, oo laga helay Sheekh., Caynabo, Aw-Barkhadle, Caanood Amuud, Heis, Maydh, Haylan, Qa'ableh, Qombo'ul iyo El Ayo . Si kastaba ha noqotee, inbadan oo kamid ah qaabdhismeedyadan wali wali sifiican looma baaraandego, waa geedi socod caawin doona in iftiin dheeri ah laga siiyo taariikhda deegaanka loona fududeeyo ilaalintooda jiilalka. [15]

Bariga Afrika

Jarid dhagaxyo, cayayaanno iyo faasasoooqoshada reer-guuraaga Bariga Afrika ee Neolithic

Caddaynta taariikhiga ah iyo luuqadda ayaa muujineysa in dadka ku hadla afka Cushitic ay xukumaan gobolka Bariga Afrika ka hor inta uusan Bantu fidin 1000 sano ka hor ilaa 1 AD. Markii la soo saaray gorfeynta laf-dhabarta dusha sare ee laba qaybood ayaa waxaa loo aqoonsaday " aasaaska ' Caucasoid ' baddaha ka jira gobolka in ay xiriir la leeyihiin dadyowga Cushitic ka soo jeeda gaar ahaan, halka" Neerotic "wali ay ku tiirsan tahay kooxihii hore ee Nilotic .

Buuggii saamaynta ku lahaa Dib-u-dhiska Taariikhda iyo Dhaqanka ee Taariikhda Afrika ayaa la daabacay 1982, Ehret wuxuu si ballaadhan la waafaqay Harold C. Fleming fikirka hore ee ku saabsan joogteynta xuduudaha qowmiyadeed ee Afrika in kasta oo wakhtiyadii dambe ee xiriirku socday. Si kastaba ha noqotee, wuxuu wali sii waday waxa loogu yeero eraybixintii hore ee loo yaqaan " Hamites terminology" isagoo u door bidaayo magacaabis kale. Wuxuu qoraa in caddaynta qalfoof ay muujisay in laba dad oo kala duwan oo asal ahaan kala duwan iyo asal ahaan juqraafi ahaan ay ku wada noolaayeen Rift Valley inta lagu gudajiray Neolithic: koox ka mid ah xiriiriyaasha ugu dhow waxay la lahaayeen "Caucasoid Mediterranean" gaar ahaan Masar iyo gaar ahaan koox labaad oo aad ugu dhawaa. laxiriira tirada "casriga" ee dadweynaha. Iyada oo loo marayo luqadaha taariikhiga ah, Ehret guud ahaan waxay aqoonsatay abtirsiinta "Mediterranean Caucasoid" dadka leh asaaska Savanna Pastoral Neolithic, oo ku hadla luqado ay leeyihiin laanta Cushitic ee qoyska Afro-Asiatic . Wuxuu xiriir la sameeyay "Negroid" oo weli ku jira kuwa sameeya dhaqanka Elmenteitan, kaasoo uu tilmaamay inay u badan tahay inuu ku hadlo afafka Nilo-Saharan . Falanqaynta hidda-socodka ee dhowaanta waxay caddeysay in xitaa dhaqanka Elmenteitan uu ahaa mid gaar u ah soo saarista Cushitic sidaas darteedna labada dhaqan ee Stone Age ay ugu dambeyntii ka soo baxeen isla isha. [12]

Dadkan ayaa loo haystaa inay mas'uul ka ahaayeen monoliths-ka dhagaxa, xirmooyinka derbiyada, nidaamyada waraabka iyo dhaqannada kale ee la xiriira ee wali ku jira Bariga Afrika. Caddaynta ugu dambaysa waxay muujineysaa in labada shacab aysan sidii hore aheyn markii loo maleynayay kooxaha casriga ah sida Maasai iyo dadka reer Turkana inay muujinayaan saameyn hidde iyo dhaqan labadaba labadan koox prehistoric. [16] Marka loo eego taariikhda qadiimiga ah ee taariikhiga ah ee waxyaalaha la xiriira iyo waxyaalaha qalfoofka ah, Cushites waxay markii ugu horreysay degeen dhulka hoose ee Kenya inta u dhaxaysa 5,200 iyo 3,300 ybp, wejiga loo yaqaan ' Xoolo-dhaqatada Reer-hoose ee Savanna-xoola-dhaqatada ah . Waxay markii dambe ku faafeen buuraha Kenya iyo Tansaaniya qiyaastii 3,300 ybp, taas oo aakhirkii loo yaqaanay marxaladda sare ee xoolo-dhaqatada Highland Savanna . Namoratunga II waa archaeoastronomical site dhinaca galbeed ee Lake Turkana ee Kenya . Goobtu waxay ka kooban tahay 19 tiir oo aasaaska u ah, oo la socda 7 nidaam xiddigle: Triangulum, Pleiades, Bellatrix, Aldebaran, Central Orion, Saiph, iyo Sirius . Baadhitaanku wuxuu soo jeedinayaa in goobaha Namoratunga ay dhiseen awoowayaashii dadyowga maanta jira maadaama ay yihiin wax la mid ah qaabab la mid ah oo lagu arkay qaybo ka mid ah Geeska Afrika, tusaale ahaan, kuwa ay dhiseen dadka Borana . [17] [18] Xiddigo isku mid ah iyo xiddigaha ayaa loo adeegsadaa dadka casriga ah ee reer Cushitic si ay u xisaabiyaan jadwal sax ah si loo go'aamiyo xilliyada daaqa. Xaqiiqada ah in Namoratunga taariikhdeedu tahay qiyaastii 300 BC waxay soo jeedineysaa in jadwalka taariikhiga ah ee ku saleysan aqoonta cilmiga astronomical laga qaatay bariga Afrika ugu yaraan 2300 sano. [19]

Bogga Kalokol Pillar Site ee Turkana, Kenya

Kooxaha koofurta koonfureed waxay ka badbaadeen illaa iyo xilligii Roman Era oo ka duwan kooxaha kale ee laga tirtiray tahriibka soo socda ee dadka ka yimid Galbeedka Afrika. Azania, waa magaca ah oo uu soo codsatay in qaybo kala duwan oo koonfur kulaylaha Africa . Xilligii Roomaanka iyo laga yaabee hore, toponym wuxuu tixraacayaa qayb ka mid ah xeebta Koonfur-Afrika ee ku fidsan Kenya, [20] illaa laga yaabo ilaa koonfur fog illaa Tansaaniya . Dadka reer Azaaniyaanka ahi waxay ahaayeen dadkii hore ee Mushiticic Cushitic oo xukumayey gobolkan ilaa ballaarinta Bantu. [21] Gobol ay ka qodeen ayaa ka koobnaa 67 xabaal dhagax ka hor. Xilliga qoob ka ciyaarka ee ugu da'da weyn ayaa loo diiwaangeliyay inuu ahaa 3,500 sano jir, laga soo bilaabo 1,500 BC. Qabuuradan iyo xabaalaha dhagaxa ah waxaa dhistay xoolo dhaqatada ku dhaqan Koonfurta Cushitic ee ku hadla Stone Bowl sida ay qabaan Stiles iyo kuwa kale oo salka ku haya cilimiyada cilmiga ee hadhaaga iyo calaamadaha luqadaha. [22] Ilo-wareedyadii hore waxay diiwaan geliyaan magacyada dekedaha, waxay bixiyaan talo ku saabsan sida ay isugu xiriiraan hoggaamiyeyaasha maxalliga ah, waxayna sharxeen alaabada ganacsiga. Dadka reer Azaaniyaanka waxaa lagu tilmaamay inay yihiin niman dhaadheer oo “casaan” ah oo kalluumeysto, ugaarsada, iyo lo'da, idaha iyo riyaha. Kuwaani Azaaniyaanka ahi waxay u badnaayeen afafkii Cushitiga kuwaas oo u haajiray bariga Afrika waqooyiga bari ka hor, mana ahayn dadkii degenaa ee mugdiga ahaa ee ay sharaxeen ganacsatada muslimiinta ah ee xeebaha Bariga Afrika qarniyo ka dib. Waxay lahaan jireen alaab qiimo badan oo ay ku ganacsadaan - fool maroodi, wiyil roon, tortoiseshell, dhir udgoon, gaar ahaan qorfe cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), udgoonka ugu macaashka badan xagga ganacsiga, iyo udgoon (frankincense, myrrh, iyo ambergris) - oo lagu badelay bir, qamadi, maro, iyo saxanno. [23]

Marka loo eego caddaynta hidaha iyo fosilkaba, taranka Homo sapiens wuxuu u rogay dad dabiici ah oo casri ah oo keliya geeska Afrika inta u dhaxaysa 200,000 iyo 100,000 sano ka hor waxayna ka kala firxadeen Geeska Afrika. Aqoonsiga Homo sapien idaltu iyo Omo Kibish inay yihiin bini aadam ahaan casriga ah waxay xaq u siinayaan sharaxaada aadanaha casriga ah magaca Homo sapiens sapiens . Sababtoo ah taariikh nololeedkooda hore iyo astaamaha u gaarka ah ee idaltu iyo kibilka waxay matalaan awoowayaashii hore ee bini-aadamka dabiiciga ah ee dabiiciga ah sida ay soo jeediyeen aragtida dibedda -Afrika .

Rag ka socda Punt oo watay hadiyado, Baadiyaha Rekhmire.

Shell bartamihii 125,000 sano jir ayaa laga helay dalka Ereteriya, taasoo muujineysa cunitaanka bini aadamkii hore oo ay kujirtey cuntooyinka kalluunka laga helo xeebta .

Doonta Bab-el-Mandeb ee Badda Cas : hadda qiyaastii 12 mayl (20)   km) ballac, dhinaca hore cidhiidhi ah.

Si kastaba ha noqotee, natiijooyinka dhowaan laga helay Jebel Irhoud ee dalka Marooko waxaa la cadeeyay inuu ku jiro hadhaagii bini aadamnimo duugoobay ka dib waa kuwii laga helay Geeska Afrika; Tani waxay soo jeedinaysaa, halkii ay ka kici lahayd Bariga Afrika qiyaastii 200,000 sano ka hor, aadanaha casriga ah waxaa laga yaabaa inay horey u joogeen dhererka Afrika 100,000 sano ka hor. Sida laga soo xigtay qoraaga daraasadda Jean-Jacques Hublin, "Fikradda ayaa ah in hoomo sapiens hore u kala firdhay qaaradda iyo walxaha casriga bini'aadamka ay ka muuqdeen meelo kala duwan, sidaas darteedna qaybo kala duwan oo Afrika ah ayaa gacan ka geystay soo bixitaanka waxa aan ugu yeedhanno bini'aadamka casriga ah maanta." Dadka hore ayaa laga yaabaa inay ka koobnaayeen tiro ballaaran, isku-duubnaan dadweyne ah oo ku baahsan Afrika oo dhan faafitaankoodana waxaa fududeeyay cimilo qoyan oo abuuray "Sahara cagaaran", qiyaastii 330,000 ilaa 300,000 sano ka hor. Kordhinta bini aadamka casriga ah ayaa laga yaabaa inay sidaas ku dhacday baaxad ahaan qaaradeed halkii lagu xiri lahaa gees gaar ah oo Afrika ah. Wadada loo haajiro aragtida "Ka Baxsan Afrika" waxay u badan tahay inay ka dhacday Bariga Afrika si kastaba ha noqotee iyada oo loo sii marayo Bab el Mandeb.

Maanta jaranjarada 'Bab-el-Mandeb, Badda Cas' waxay qiyaastii tahay 12 mayl (20 kiiloomitir) balaaran, laakiin 50,000 sano kahor waxay aad u ciriiri jirtay heerarka baddana 70 mitir ayey ka hooseeyeen. In kasta oo dariiqyadu aysan weligood xidhnayn, haddana waxaa jiri kara jasiirado u dhexeeyo oo lagu gaari karo iyada oo la adeegsanayo tuuryo fudud.

Sida ay qabaan aqoonyahanada luuqada, geeska afrika waxaay suurta gal noqon kartaa in uu noqdo wadankii asalka ahaa ee luuqada Pro-Afroasiatic maadaama loo tixgalinayo gobolka luuqada Afroasiatic in uu muujinayo kala duwanaanshaha ugu weyn, calaamad badanaa loo arko in uu matalayo asal juqraafi ahaan. Geeska Afrika sidoo kale waa meesha haplogroup-ka E1b1b uu ka yimid, Christopher Ehret iyo Shomarka Keita waxay soo jeediyeen in juqraafiga khadka E1b1b la isugu keenay qaybinta luqadaha Afroasiatic. Falanqaynta hidda-socodka ee lagu sameeyay dadka kuhadlaya Afroasiatic ee kuhadasha dadka waxay sii ogaatay in uhoreyn -jirooyin kadhaxeeya dalalkii-kadhaxanka Africa ee kadhaca geeska afrika waxay kadhacday Masar 23,000 sano kahor waxayna keentay abtirsiyo aan aheyn Afrikaan oo loogu magac daray Ethio-somalida ee gobolka.

Caddaynta ugu horreysa ee dawlad-dhisidda Geeska Afrika waxay ka timaaddaa meel laga diiwaan geliyey ilaha qadiimiga ah ee Masar. The Land of Punt ( Masriyiintii : pwnt ; akhrinta kale ee Egiptological Pwene ( t ) [24] ) waxay ahayd boqortooyo qadiim ah. Lammaane uu ganacsi ee Masar, waxaa lagu yaqaan soo saarka iyo dhoofinta dahabka, beduliyum Beeyada, blackwood, haabniim, foolmaroodi ah, iyo xayawaanka duurjoogta ah. Gobolka waxaa lagu yaqaanaa diiwaannada qadiimiga ah ee Masaarida ee socodsiinta ganacsiga. [25] Duulimaadkii hore ee duugoobay ee Masaarida ee Punt waxaa abaabulay Fircoon Sahure oo ka mid ah Dawladii Fifth (qarnigii 25aad ee BC). Si kastaba ha noqotee, dahabka ka yimid Punt waxaa loo diiwaangeliyay inuu ku sugnaa Masar ilaa iyo xilligii Fircoon Khufu ee Dawladii Afaraad .

Intaa ka dib, waxaa jiray duulimaadyo badan oo ku socday Punt lixdnaad, kow iyo tobnaad, laba- iyo- tobnaad iyo siddeed iyo tobnaadkii Masriyiintii Masar. Qarnigii laba iyo tobnaad, ganacsiga lala yeesho Punt waxaa lagu xusaa suugaanta caanka ah ee Tale of Shipwrecked Sailor .

Mararka qaarkood Punt waxaa loo yaqaan Ta netjer ( tꜣ nṯr ), "Dhulkii Eebbe". [26] Meesha saxda ah ee Punt waxaa wali ka doodaya taariikhyahanno. Inta badan culimada maanta waxay aaminsan yihiin in Punt ay ku taal koonfur-bari Masar, oo ay u badan tahay gobolka xeebta ee casriga ah ee Jabuuti, Soomaaliya, waqooyi-bari Itoobiya, Eritrea, iyo xoola-dhaqatada Badda Cas ee Suudaan . [27] Waxa kale oo suuragal ah in dhulku daboolay labada gees ee Afrika iyo Koonfurta Carabiya . [28] [29] Puntland, gobolka maamul ee Soomaaliya ee ku yaal geeska geeska Afrika, waxaa loo magacaabay tixraaca Land Punt. [30] Waxa xiiso leh ereyga Habesha (oo sidoo kale loo yaqaan ' dadka Abisiniyan ') taariikh ahaan ayaa loo adeegsaday (ka hor inta aan la jaan-qaadin Itoobiyaanku) si loogu tixraaco dhammaan dadka ku nool Geeska Afrika safarro carbeed iyo taariikh-yaqaanno juqraafiyeed. Kii ugu horreeyay ee safradan wuxuu ahaa Al-Yaaqubi, oo booqday gobolka 872 CE. Ereyga ayaa loo maleynayaa inay yihiin aqoonyahano asal ahaan ka soo jeeda Masar, khabiirka South Arab Eduard Glaser, wuxuu ku dooday in "hieroglyphic ḫbstjw, loo adeegsaday tixraac" dad shisheeye oo ka yimid gobollada soo saaray fooxa "(ie. Punt ) waxaa adeegsaday Queen Hatshepsut c. 1460 BC, waxay ahayd adeegsiga koowaad ee ereyga ama si uun isku xidha. Inta badan dunnida adduunka, ku dhawaad 82%, wali waxaa laga soo saaraa gudaha Soomaaliya, iyadoo qaar ka mid ah frankincense ay sidoo kale ku uruursan yihiin Koonfurta Carabiya, Itoobiya iyo Suudaan . [31]

Ta netjer ( tꜣ nṯr ), oo macnaheedu yahay "Dhulkii Eebbe". Tani waxay tixraac u tahay xaqiiqda inay ka mid ahayd gobollada Sun Eebbe, taas oo ah, gobollada ku yaal jihada qorrax-soo-baxa, illaa Bariga Masar. Kheyraadka gobollada bari waxaa ka mid ahaa alaabada loo isticmaalo macbudyada, gaar ahaan fooxa. Suugaanta duugga ah (iyo suugaanta aan hadda guud ahayn) waxay adkaysay in sumadda "Dhulkii Ilaah", markii loo tarjumay "Dhul Quduus ah" ama "Dhulkii ilaahyada / awoowayaasha", ay macnaheedu ahayd in Masriyiintii hore ay u arkeen Land of Punt sidii waddankoodii hore. . WM Flinders Petrie waxay rumeysan tahay in Dynastic Race ay ka timid ama soo martay Punt iyo in "Pan, ama Punt, ay ahayd degmo ku taal koonfurta koonfur galbeed Badda Cas, oo laga yaabo inay qabsato labada xeebta Afrika iyo Carabta." Intaa waxaa dheer, EA Wallis Budge wuxuu sheegay in "Dhaqanka Masriyiinta ee Muddada Dynastic uu qabtay in guriga abtirsiinyada Masriyiinta uu yahay Punt. . . " . [32] Si kastaba ha noqotee, ereyga Ta netjer looma adeegsan oo keliya Punt, oo ku yaal koonfurta-bari ee Masar, laakiin wuxuu kaloo ahaa gobollada Aasiya bari iyo waqooyi-bari Masar, sida Lubnaan, oo ahayd isha alwaaxda laga helo macbudyada.

Dhamaadka muddadii Boqortooyada Cusub, Punt wuxuu lunsaday "dhul aan macquul ahayn oo cajaa'ib leh oo sheekooyin iyo halyeeyo ah." [33] Si kastaba ha noqotee, Masriyiintu waxay sii wadeen inay soo bandhigaan heeso jacayl oo ku saabsan Punt, "Markii aan jaceylka u hayo, oo gacmahaygu ay i agdhacayaan, Waxaan ahay sida nin loo tarjumay Punt, ama sidii qof dib ugu soo baxay, markii dunidu si lama filaan ah u gashay ubax. "

Kaniisadda Saint George, Lalibela, qarnigii 12-aad ee Agaw Zagwe . Doorka muhiimka ah ee diintu waa mid u dhaw dadka reer Cushitic.

Sudan

Hoose Nubia waa qeybta waqooyi ee Nubia, dhinaca hoose ee wabiga Niil oo ah dhanka sare ee Nubia . Mararka qaar, waxay ku fidsan tahay Masar Sare korkeeda ilaa Caadada koowaad iyo Labaad (gobolka loo yaqaanay dadka juquraafiga Greco-Roman sida Triakontaschoinos ), ilaa xad waa Aswan . Wax badan oo ka mid ah Upper Egypt iyo waqooyiga hoose ee Nubia waxaa daadadku ku soo qaadeen dhismaha Aswan High Dam iyo abuurida harada Lake Nasser . Si kastaba ha noqotee hawshii qadiimiga ahayd ee qadiimiga ahayd ee la sameeyay kahor fatahaadda waxay la micno tahay in taariikhda aagga ay aad uga fiican tahay tii hore ee Nubia. Taariikhdeeda ayaa sidoo kale lagu yaqaan xiriirka dheer ee ay la leedahay Masar .

In Upper Masar iyo Nubia Hoose ahayd taxane ah oo la joogo dhaqamada, ka Badarian, Amratian, Gerzean, A-Group, B-Group, iyo C-Group . Caddaynta luqadaha ayaa si xoogan u muujineysa in luqadaha Cushitic looga hadlo gobolka Nubia Hoose, oo ah gobol qadiim ah oo xayiraya maanta Koonfurta Masar iyo Waqooyiga Suudaan, kahor imaatinka luuqadaha Waqooyi Bari Suudaan ee Dooxada Dhexe. [34] Intii lagu gudajiray Boqortooyadii Nubia ee Hoose Nubia waxaa qabsatay Masar, markii Masriyiintu ay isaga baxeen inta lagu gudajiray Xilliga Dhexe ee Dhexe Nubia waxaad moodaa inay qeyb ka noqdeen Boqortooyada Nubian ee Sare ee Kerma . Boqortooyadii Cusbaa ee qabsatay dhammaan Nubia iyo Nubia Hoose waxay si gaar ah ugu dhaweyd Masar, laakiin xilligii dhexe ee labaad waxay noqotay xarunta madaxbanaanida dowlad goboleed Kush oo saldhig u ah Napata . Laga yaabee qiyaastii 591 BC caasimada Kush waxaa loo wareejiyay koonfurta ilaa Meroe .

Blemmyes Near East in 565 AD, Blemmyes and its neighbors.

Blemmyes waa boqortooyo qabiileed Beja ah oo jirtay ugu yaraan 600 BC ilaa qarnigii 3aad AD ee Nubia . Waxaa lagu sharxay taariikhyahannadii Roomaanka ee boqortooyadii dambe, iyada oo Emperor Diocletian uu ka qorey Nocene calooshood u shaqeystayaal Reer Galbeedka ah si ay u ilaashadaan Aswan, xuduuda koonfureed ee boqortooyada, weerarada ay ka geystaan Blemmyes. Reer Blemmyes waxay qabsadeen gobol aad u muhiim ah waxa maanta casriga ah ee Suudaan . Waxaa jiray dhowr magaalo oo muhiim ah sida Faras, Kalabsha, Ballana iyo Aniba. Dhammaantood waxaa lagu xoojiyey derbiyada iyo munaarado isku dhafan Masar, Hellenic, Roman iyo Nubian. Dhaqanka Blemmyes sidoo kale wuxuu ahaa mid saameyn ku leh dhaqanka Meroitic . Diintoodu waxay xuddun u ahayd macbudyada Kalabsha iyo Philae . Dhismihii hore wuxuu ahaa farshaxan aad u weyn oo maxalli ah, halkaas oo qoraxda, libaax u eg ilaah la yiraahdo Mandulis lagu caabudo. Philae wuxuu ahaa meel lagu xajisto xajka, oo leh guryo ku yaal Isis, Mandulis, iyo Anhur . Waxay ahayd meesha Roman Emperors Augustus iyo Trajan ay ku biiriyeen tabarucyo badan oo la galay macbudyo cusub, plazas, iyo shaqooyin taallo leh.

Luuqadaha[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Luqadaha Afroasiatic ca. 500 BC

Luqadaha Cushitic waxaa badanaa loo tixgeliyaa inay ku jiraan laamaha soo socda:

  • Waqooyiga Cushitic ( Beja )
  • Bartamaha Cushitic ( Afafka Agaw )
  • Bariga Cushitic
    • Bariga Cushitic hooseeya
    • Highush East Cushitic
    • Yaaku - Dullay
    • Dahalo
  • Koonfurta Cushitic

Afka Soomaaliga waa luqadda kaliya ee Cushitic loo aqoonsan yahay luqad rasmi ah halka Oromo loo aqoonsan yahay inay tahay luqadda shaqada ee Itoobiya . Afarta iyo Af-Soomaaliga waxaa loo aqoonsan yahay inay yihiin luqadaha qaranka laakiin si rasmi ah uma joogaan Jabuuti.

Luuqadaha Ethiosemitic

  • Woqooyiga Ethiopian
    • Ge'ez
    • Tigre
    • Tigrinya
    • Dahalik
  • Koonfurta Itoobiya
    • Koonfur Galbeed
      • Amxaaro - luqadda shaqada ee Dowladda Federaalka ee Itoobiya.
    • Harari-Bariga Grey
    • Dibadda Koonfurta Itoobiya
      • Galbeedka Grey

Luuqadaha taariikhiga ah ee xiriirka ka dhexeeya luqadaha Ethiosemitic iyo luqadaha Cushitic waa mid aad u kala duwan oo isku dhafan, aan wali si buuxda loo fahmin. Amxaar, Argobba iyo Tigrinya waxay umuuqdaan inay leeyihiin Central Cushitic substratum; Tigre wuxuu ka koobanyahay waqooyiga Cushitic [35] badal halka luuqadaha Harari-Gurage ay muujinayaan saameynta Highland East Cushitic. [36] Agaw waxaa lagu xusay qoraal qarnigii afraad ee boqorka Ezana ee Axum isagoo qabsaday dhulkoodii. [37] Iyada oo ku saleysan caddayntaas, khubaro badan ayaa qaatay fikraddii ugu horreysay ee ay caddeeyeen aqoonyahannada reer Yurub Edward Ullendorff iyo Carlo Conti Rossini in ay yihiin dadkii asal ahaan deggenaa badidooda Waqooyiga Itoobiya, ama laga saaray degitaankoodii asalka ahaa ama ay qaateen Semitic. -sii qabsashada Tigreega iyo Amxaarada . [38] Fikraddan waxaa sii xoojiyay jiritaanka jumlad loo yaqaan 'Cushitic substratum' oo ku qoran luqadaha Semitic-ga Itoobiya oo muujinaya tirada dadka ee guuritaankii hore ee ka imanaya Koonfur-galbeed Carabiya. Aqoonyahanada Itoobiyaanka ah ee ku takhasusay Daraasaadka Itoobiya sida Messay Kebede iyo Daniel E. Alemu guud ahaan way diidan yihiin aragtidan ku doodaya in guuritaanku uu ka mid yahay isdhaafsiga isweydaarsiga, hadii xitaa ay dhacdayba.

Luuqadaha Nilo-Saharan

  • Nubian (oo la xidhiidha Waqooyiga Cushites)
  • Samburu (oo la xidhiidha Rendille)
  • Datooga (oo la xidhiidha Ciraaq)

Waxay la xiriirtaa Nubians inkasta oo Cushitic la rumeysan yahay in lagu tiriyey mid ka mid ah luqadihii hore ee looga hadlay qeybo ka mid ah Nubia kala soocidda luqadda Meroitic ee xilliyadii dambe lama hubo sababta oo ah xog la'aanta iyo adkaanta tarjumaadda. Tan iyo markii xarfaha alifbeetada loo kala saaray 1909, waxaa la soo jeediyey in Meroitic ay la xiriirto luqadaha Nubian iyo luqadaha la midka ah ee Nilo-Saharan phylum. Sheegashada tartanka ayaa ah in Meroitic uu xubin ka yahay masarka Afroasiatic phylum.

Qoomiyadaha[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Beja Baadiyaha
Sawir waxaa qaaday Shirkadda 10-aad ee Shirkadaha Maxalliga ah Royal intii lagu jiray Ololihii Magdala ee 1867–8. Boqoradda "Gallas" iyo Wiil ('Galla' hadda waxaa loo arkaa eray sharaf dhac ah)
Burburkii Suldaanka reer Adal ee Seila .

Kuush-ku hadla

Qowmiyadda oromadu waa koox qowmiyadeed oo degan Itoobiya . Waxay ka mid yihiin qowmiyadaha ugu waaweyn dalka Itoobiya waxayna matalaan 34.4% tirada guud ee dadka Itoobiya. Oromada waxay ku hadashaa luuqada oromada sidii afka hooyo (sidoo kale waxaa loogu yeeraa Afaan Oromoo iyo Oromada ), oo kamid ah laanta Cushitic ee luuqada Afro-Asiatic . Ereyga Oromo wuxuu ku soo muuqday suugaanta reer Yurub markii ugu horeysay sanadkii 1893 ka dibna tartiib tartiib ayuu caan ugu noqday qeybtii labaad qarnigii 20aad.

Soomaalidu waa koox qowmiyadeed oo dagan Geeska Afrika . Inta badan Soomaalidu waxay ku hadashaa luuqadda Soomaaliga, taasoo qayb ka ah laanta Cushitic ee qoyska Afroasiatic . Iyagu waa Sunniyiin Sunni ah . Qowmiyadaha qowmiyadaha laga tirada badan yahay waxay gaarayaan 12-18 milyan waxaana guud ahaan ay ku badan yihiin Soomaaliya (ku dhawaad 9 milyan), Itoobiya (4.5 milyan), Kenya (2.4 milyan), iyo Jabuuti (534,000). [39] Qurbo-joog Soomaaliyeed ayaa sidoo kale laga helaa qaybo ka mid ah Bariga Dhexe, Bariga Harooyinka Harooyinka Afrika, Koonfurta Afrika, Waqooyiga Ameerika, Oceania, iyo Galbeedka Yurub .

The Beja ( Beja : Oobja, Arabic ) waa koox qowmiyadeed oo dagan Suudaan, iyo sidoo kale qeybo ka mid ah Ereteriya iyo Masar taariikhdii ugu dambeysay ee ay ku noolaayeen ugu horeyn bariga bariga . Beja waa dhaqan ahaan reer guuraaga reer guuraaga ah ee reer guuraaga ah ee u dhashay waqooyiga bari ee Afrika tiradaasi waa 1,237,000 oo qof. Dadbadan oo Beja ah waxay ku hadlaan luuqada Beja sidii afkooda hooyo, oo ay iska leedahay laanta Cushitic ee reer Afro-Asiatic . Qaar ka mid ah kooxaha Beja waxay u dhaqaaqeen adeegsiga koowaad ama gaar u ah Carabiga. Ereteriya iyo koonfur-bari Suudaan, xubno badan oo ka tirsan kooxda Beni Amer ayaa ku hadla Tigre .

The Agaw ( Ge'ez Agäw, Agew casri ah) waa koox qowmiyadeed oo dagan Itoobiya iyo deriska la ah Eritrea . Waxay ku hadlaan luqadaha Agaw, oo ka tirsan laanta Cushitic ee qoyska luqadda Afroasiatic . Agaw waxaa laga yaabaa in marka hore lagu xuso qarnigii saddexaad Monumentum Adulitanum, oo ah qoraal Aksumite ah oo ay duubtay Cosmas Indicopleustes qarnigii lixaad. Qorniinku wuxuu tilmaamayaa dad la yiraahdo "Athagaus" (ama Athagaous), laga yaabee inuu yahay AA Agaw, oo macnaheedu yahay "wiilasha [40] ee Agaw.

Afarta ( Afar ), oo sidoo kale loo yaqaan Danakil, Adali iyo Odali, waa koox qowmiyadeed oo dagan Geeska Afrika . Waxay ugu horrayn ku nool yihiin Gobolka Afarta ee Itoobiya iyo woqooyiga Jabuuti, in kasta oo qaar waliba deggen yihiin koonfurta koonfurta Ereteriya . Afars wuxuu ku hadlaa luuqada Afka, oo qayb ka ah laanta Cushitic ee qoyska Afroasiatic . Canfarta ayaa dhaqan ahaan waa xoolo dhaqato, kor u riyaha, idaha, iyo lo'da oo lamadegaanka ku yaal. [41] Bulsho, waxay u habeysan yihiin galay beelaha qoysaska iyo labo fasal oo muhiim ah: asaimara ah ( 'casaan') kuwa fasalka adag siyaasad ahaan, iyo adoimara ah ( 'caddaanka') kuwa xoogsatada ah oo waxaa la helay in ka Mountains Mabla .

Saho mararka qaar waxaa loo yaqaan "Soho", waa koox qowmiyadeed oo daggan Geeska Afrika. Waxay si gaar ah ugu urursan yihiin dalka Ereteriya, qaarkoodna waxay ku nool yihiin qeybo ka mid ah Itoobiya . Waxay ku hadlaan Saho sidii afkooda hooyo, oo ay iska leedahay laanta Cushitic ee reer Afroasiatic waxayna xiriir dhaw la leedahay Afka .

Sidamo waa koox qowmiyadeed oo caadiyan ku nooshahay aagga Sidama ee Koonfurta, Qowmiyadaha, iyo Gobolka Dadka (SNNPR) ee Itoobiya . Waxay ku hadlaan luuqada Sidamo oo ah luuqada Cushitic ee qoyska Afroasiatic language . In kasta oo ay tiro badan yihiin haddana waxay ka maqan yihiin gobol qowmiyadeed oo gooni u ah.

Eiosemitc-kuhadal (wareejin luqadeed)

Qaar badan oo Ethiosemitic dadka -language ahaayeen hadla taariikh Kushitigga, ugu horrayn ka mid ah laanta Agaw . Tusaalooyin caan ah oo kuwan ka mid ah waxaa ka mid ah Amxaarada, Baroorta, Tigreega, iyo Tigre . Beta Israail taariikh ahaan waxay kuhadashay luuqada Agaw, kadib waxaa ku xigay wareejin luqadeed oo kuhadashay Amxaariga iyo Tigrinya, iyo qarnigii 21aad afafka Cibraaniga casriga ah sababtuna tahay kuxirnaanshaha bulshada Israel . Kooxaha ku hadla afka 'Ethiosemitic' guud ahaan waxay leeyihiin xiriir dhaqan iyo hidde ahaan u leh dadka ku hadla Cushitic waxaana mararka qaar loo tixgeliyaa inay yihiin koox hoosaad ka mid ah dadka Cushitic.

Dhaqanka[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Reer guuraaga ah ee reer guuraaga ayaa shaah ka cabaya Harar, Ethiopia.

Dadka reer Cushitic waxay leeyihiin dhaqamo kaladuwan oo kaladuwan oo iyaga si gaar ah iyo koox ahaanba ah laakiin guud ahaanba waxay u egtahay inay ku kala duwan yihiin xoolo-dhaqatada dabacsan iyo reer guuraaga reer guuraaga ah, iyadoo dadka ku hadla Bariga iyo Waqooyiga Cushitic guud ahaan ay u hoggaansamaan qaab nololeedyadan reer guuraaga xeebaha ah ee la aaminsan yahay inay abtirsiiyaan. Kuush.

Buug- yaraha safarka qarnigii hore Periplus ee Badda Erythraean ayaa xusaysa dadka reer guuraaga ah ee ku nool Barbara taas oo tilmaamaysa laba gobol oo qadiim ah oo xoolo-dhaqatada Waqooyi-Bari Afrika. Labada meelood waxaa degganey Bariga Barbaroi ama Baribah ("Berbers") ama kuwa wax barta tani waxay sidoo kale sabab u noqon kartaa xaqiiqda magaaladii hore ee magaalada Berbera sida ay ugu yeerayaan falsafad-yaqaanada Griiga. Dadkaas degani waxay ahaayeen awoowayaashii maanta ku hadla dadka ku hadla Afka-Cushitic sida Soomaalida iyo Bejas . Runtii, taariikhda qoto-dheer ee hab-nololeedka reer guuraaga waxaa muuqata in bini aadamku ay u badan tahay in markii ugu horreysay la xukumo gudaha Soomaaliya ama lagu soo bandhigo halkaas waxyar ka dib markii qoysku ku noolaaday Koonfurta Sacuudi Carabiya. Soomaaliya waxay leedahay tirada ugu badan geela adduunka waxayna hoy u tahay sawirada qadiimiga ah ee Laasgeel sawiro muujinaya reeroyow Soomaaliyeed xoolahooda xoolaha .

Labada arrimood ee ugu waaweyn dhaqanka dhaqamada qowmiyadaha Itoobiya ee sida gaarka ah hodanka u ah ayaa ah Cushites dhaqan ahaan xudun u ah dhulka hoose iyo Ethiosemites ee dhulalka sare kuwaas oo la rumeysan yahay inay ka soo kaceen saamiga maxalliga ah ee Cushitic ee ay la leeyihiin muhaajiriinta Koonfurta Arabiya qarnigii ugu horreeyay Qarniga. Tigreega iyo Amxaarada oo ka talin jiray taariikhda siyaasadeed ee Itoobiya aasaaskeedii Axum, waxay sidoo kale siinayaan beero adayg ah, oo caadi ahaan ku nool degsiimooyin kala firidhsan iyo beero dalagyada (oo ay kujiraan dhufayska asaliga) oo ay weheliso qoditaanka dibiga. Kuleylka kulul, meelaha hoose ee koonfurta Addis Ababa halkaasoo hoe gacanta laga isticmaalo, hubinta (mooska beenta ah) ayaa noqda dalaga ugu weyn. Qaab dhismeedka siyaasadeed ee waqooyiga buuraleyda Semitic, dowlad qabsashadeed, wuxuu si muuqata uga duwan yahay cadaawada daran ee u dhaxeysa Cushites xoolo dhaqatada - halka, sida oromada dhexdooda ah, tani ay la xiriirto da 'iyo jiil (gadaal), ama sida soomaalida dhexdeeda oo leh qowmiyado qeybin. urur. Xarumaha dhexe ee Kaffa, Sidamo, oromada fadhigoodu yahay Oromada iyo Afaraad ayaa u dhexeeya labadan xagjirnimo. In kasta oo dhaqanka udub-dhexaadka u ah qarniyaalku uu ahaa Christian Orthodox, farqiga u dhexeeya Masiixiyiinta iyo Muslimka, oo kor loogu qaaday dhaqankii hore ee Yuhuuda, labadaba waxay xoojinayaan oo ka gudubtaa kala-qaybsanaanta qowmiyadahaas, oo aan waligood si rasmi ah loo dareemin ama siyaasad ahaan ay muhiimad weynayn sida ay maanta yihiin. Kuush, ayaa si weyn saameyn ugu yeeshay Islaamka iyo Masiixiyadda . [42]

Gabadh yar oo Itoobiyaan ah oo diyaarineysa kafeega xafladaha kafeega dhaqameed. Way dhaqaaqdaa, jabtaa oo jartaa kafeega isla goobta.

Qaxwaha waxaa markii ugu horaysay la ogaaday lagana beeray qoomiyada oromada ee itoobiya. Bulshooyinka Cushitic ee ku dhaqma xoolo-dhaqatada reer guuraaga & transhumance-ka waxay u muuqdaan inay si adag u horumarinayaan dhaqan bulsheed, bulsho dimoqraadi ah, oo si aad ah loogu baahnaa “dhaqan xumo” dhaqan dhaqan bulsheed sida ku dayasho mudan Xeerka Soomaalida, Saho Rahbe iyo Oromo Gadaa. Bulshooyinka noocan ah badiyaa waa qabyaalad, laakiin waxay ku dhisan yihiin aaminaada guud ee kooxda firfircoon iyo nidaamyada noocan oo kale ah waxay saameyn ku yeelan karaan dhaqamada qaarkood sida loo isticmaalo maanta sida nidaamka xawaaladaha Soomaalida ee Xawaay oo kuxiran aaminaadda iyo maamuuska udhaxeeya, qaate iyo dirayaha. .

82% adduunka Frankincense waxay ku kortaa Soomaaliya iyadoo ilbaxnimadi hore ee Punt ay xuddun u ahayd maalmahan casriga ah ee Ereteriya, Jabuuti, Soomaalida, Itoobiya halkaas oo ay Frankincense ka siiyeen Masriyiintii hore. Dabqaad tarjumayaa idan ee Soomaaliya waxa uu isticmaalaa in lagu gubi foox iyo kaalinta iyo dhaqaaqay agagaarka guriga for a udgoonka cusub weligeed ah.

Jabuuti, Ereteriya, Itoobiya, Soomaaliya iyo Suudaan waxay leeyihiin waxyaalo la mid ah oo ka dhashay dhaqanka, diinta, dhaqanka, taariikhda iyo himilooyinka laakiin waxay qaddarinayaan cunnooyinka iyo dhir udgoonnada, cabbitaannada iyo macmacaanka, dharka iyo qalabka macaan-ka-ciyaarista, heesaha iyo miyuusigga, iyo dahabka iyo udgoonnada.

Muusig[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Miyuusigga Cushitic wuxuu adeegsadaa nidaam nooc gaar ah oo pentatonic ah, oo leh astaamo u dhexeeya muddo dheer oo u dhexeeya qoraalada qaarkood. Dhadhaminta heesaha iyo heesaha ayaa si xoogan loogu xiriiriyaa Geeska Afrika iyo Suudaan. Heesaha dhaqanka ayaa soo bandhigaya qaabab kala jaad ah oo polyphony ah ( heteropcam, drone, imitation, iyo counterpoint ). Dhaqan ahaan, maansooyinku waxay la xidhiidhaan akhrinta gabayada.

Khuraafaad[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Kahor imaatinka diimaha Ibraahim, inta badan dadka reer Cushitic waxay ku dhaqmayeen diin asal ahaan. Badhtamaha diintani waxay ahayd ilaah Waaq, oo loo sheegay inuu cirka fadhiyo oo ruxay roobab xilliyeedka. In kasta oo aan si weyn maanta loogu dhaqmin, hadhaaga iyo hadiyadaha diintani wali waxaa laga heli karaa ereyada iyo caadooyinka kooxaha kala duwan ee Cushitic sida Oromada, Rendille iyo Soomaalida. Dadka Oromada ah, tusaale ahaan, waxay rumeysnaayeen inuu Waaq u diray ilaaliyeyaal taabacsan taageerayaasheeda la yiraahdo Ayyaana ; Ragaasi waxay ka ilaalin doonaan wixii dhib ah. Tani waxay si toos ah ugu xidhan tahay magacyada dhaqanka ee Ayaanle (masc) iyo Ayaan (fem), oo macnaheedu yahay kuwa haysta Ayaan ama nasiib . [43] [44] Sidoo kale gudaha Soomaaliya waxaa jira beelo badan iyo meelo la yiraahdo Waaq; sida Ceel Waaq oo macnaheedu yahay "ceelka Waaq" iyo Caabud Waaq oo macnaheedu yahay "halka Waaq lagu caabudo". Qaar ka mid ah Soomaalida Daarood wali waxay leeyihiin magacyo Waaq sida Jid Waaq, Qabiilka Tagaal Waaq ee Ogaadeen iyo Majeerteen Siwaaqroon. Sidoo kale waxaa jira adeegsi badan oo Afka Soomaaliga ah oo loo yaqaan Waaq, sida BarWaaqo oo macnaheedu yahay "markii dhulku ka buuxo doog iyo biyo". [45] [46]

Hidaha[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Qowmiyadaha Cushitic waxay leeyihiin set kala jaad ah oo kaladuwan oo aan caddayn. Si kastaba ha noqotee, caamadaha qaarkood ayaa la arki karaa.

Aaban ahaan, E-M35 (oo sidoo kale loo yaqaanno E1b1b1, oo hore loogu yaqaanay E3b1) waxay sameyneysaa xariiq muhiim ah dad badan oo reer Cushitic ah, qeybo kale oo aabbanimo oo muhiim ah oo ka mid ah dadka reer Cushitic waxaa ka mid ah J-M267 (oo sidoo kale loo yaqaan J1), A-M13 (A1b1b2b, hore A3b2), iyo T-M70 (T1a, kii hore ee K2).

Dad badan oo reer Cushitic ah ayaa aabbanimo ahaan loogu dabaqi karaa inay asal ahaan ka soo jeedaan Dooxada Niil ( Masar iyo Waqooyiga Suudaan ) iyada oo loo marayo haplogroup E-M78 iyo gobolka Badda Cas ee Geeska Afrika iyada oo loo marayo haplogroup E-V1515 . Tani waxay ku soo beegmaysaa iyada oo la raacayo cilmiga cilmiga sayniska iyo cilmiga luqadeed ee dhigaya dhaqan-galinta qoyska luqadda Cushitic ee gobollada aan kor ku soo sheegnay.

Hooya ahaan, dadweynaha Cushitic way kala duwan yihiin, laakiin waxay wadaagaan xariijinno gaar ah oo ay ka mid yihiin kala- soocidda asalka Bariga Afrika ee ' Macro-haplogroup L ' (kala duwan L0, L1, L5, L2, L6, L4, L3 safka) iyo Waqooyiga Afrika iyo / ama Dhexe Bariga -origin M1 iyo Macro-haplogroup N (gaar ahaan N subclades N1a, N1b, R0a, HV1b1, I, K1a, U3a, iyo U6a).

Waxyaabaha ay ka dhasheen hidde-wadayaasha ayaa la soo xulay oo lagu xushay dadweynaha Cushitic

Dadka reer Cushitic waxay ku sugnaayeen jidadka isgoysyada Afrika iyo Eurasia ilaa xilligii Stone, iyadoo wabiga Niil uu u dhaqmayo sidii marin u dhaxeeyey Saxaraha Afrika iyo Levant & Waqooyiga Afrika sidaas darteed dadka reer Cushitic waxay leeyihiin asal fara badan, sida dadka kale ee intooda badan, oo noqday idiosyncratic of Cushitic dadweynaha. Sida laga soo xigtay daraasad DNA oo si otomaatig ah ay u soo saartay Hodgson et al. (2014), luqadaha Afro-Asiatic waxay u badan tahay inay ku faafiyeen Afrika iyo Bariga Fog iyadoo ay leeyihiin dad fara badan oo leh awoodo asal ah oo wata astaamo cusub oo aan ahayn Afrikaanka, taas oo cilmi-baaarayaashu ku magacaabeen "Ethio-Somali" ama "Semitic-Cushitic" "daraasad kale. Qeybtaani waxay ka kooban tahay dadka ku hadla Afka-Ingriisiga iyo kuhadalka-Ethiosemitic-ku Geeska Afrika waxayna matalaan inta badan abtirsiinyadoodii. Qeybta 'Ethio-Somali' waxay si aad ah ulaxiriiran tahay qaybta hidaha ee Maghrebi ee aan aheyn Afrikaanka, waxaana la rumeysan yahay inay ka go'day dhamaan awowayaashii kale ee aan Afrikaanka ahayn ugu yaraan 23,000 sano kahor. Salkaas, cilmi baarayaashu waxay soo jeedinayaan in asal ahaan Ethio-somaliga ah ee wata dadka (dadka) ay u badan tahay inay ka yimaadeen xilligii ka horeeya beeraha markii ay ka soo dhowaadaan Bariga dhow, iyaga oo u gudbay woqooyi bari Afrika iyaga oo u sii gudbaya Jasiiradda Siinay . Ka dib dadweynahu waxay u badan tahay inay u kala baxaan laba laamood, oo hal koox ay dhinaca galbeed ugu sii jeedaan dhanka Maghreb halka kan kalena u sii gudbayo dhinaca koonfureed xagga geeska. Falanqaynta qadiimiga ah ee DNA waxay muujineysaa in aasaaska aasaasiga u ah gobolka Geeska uu la mid yahay kan beeraleyda Neolithic ee koonfurta Levant .

Markii la xisaabiyo masaafada hidda-wadaha (FST) ee udhaxeysa afka-Ethiosemitic-ku-hadalka iyo kuwa ku hadla afka Itoobiyaanka Kuush, iyo dadka ku dhaqan Levant, Waqooyiga Afrika, iyo Jasiiradda Carbeed iyagoo adeegsanaya laba dariiq: Qeybaha — falanqaynta hidde-wadayaasha, tirada Semitic-ga Itoobiyanka iyo Cushitic waxay u muuqdeen inay ugu dhowda Yaman; marka kaliya loo isticmaalo qaybta aan Afrikaanka ahayn, waxay ku dhowdahay Masaarida iyo dadka ku nool Levant. [47]

Daraasad 2015 ah oo ay sameysay Dobon et al. Waxaa la aqoonsaday qayb ka mid ah abtirsiinta iswada ee ka soo jeeda Galbeedka Eurasia ee caadi u ah dadyow badan oo afafka ku hadasha Afroasiatic Waqooyi-bari Afrika . Waxaa loo yaqaanaa qeybta Coptic ',' waxay ka dhexjirtaa Coptska Masar ee daganaa Suudaan labadii qarni ee lasoo dhaafay. Qaybta Coptic waxay ka soo baxday qeyb ka mid ah abtirsiinta Waqooyi-bari Afrika iyo Bariga Dhexe oo ay wadaagaan Masaarida kale waxayna sidoo kale laga helaa heerar sarreeya oo ka dhex dhaca Cushites (≈40-60%). Saynisyahanada ku lug leh daraasada ayaa soo jeedinaya in qodobadan ay ka soo jeedaan asalka guud ee dadweynaha Masar. Waxay sidoo kale ku xiraan qaybta Copti iyo abtirsiintii hore ee Masaarida, iyada oo aan saameyntii dambe ee Carabtu ku dhex lahaan jirtay Masriyiinta kale. Qaybtakoorku wuxuu u dhigmaa qaybta ay ka kooban tahay Ethio-Somali.

Archaeogenetics

Archaeogenetics waa daraasadda DNA-da qadiimka ah iyadoo la adeegsanayo habab hiddo-wadayaal kala duwan iyo ilaha DNA. Horumar dhowaan laga sameeyay arimahan waxay suuragal ka dhigtay in la tijaabiyo dhowr kun oo sano jir ah oo haray. DNA Baydka falanqaynta a lafo Savanna dhaqatada Neolithic qodey ee Luxmanda site in Northern Tansaaniya ogaaday in tijaabada qaadeen tiro badan oo isirka la xiriira Pre-dhoobo Neolithic dhaqanka oo ka mid ah Levant, oo la mid ah in siday dadka casri ah Afroasiatic ku hadla deggan Geeska Afrika . Tani waxay soo jeedinaysaa in Savanna Pastoral Neolithic dhaqan ahaan laga yaabo inay ahaayeen kuwa ku hadla luuqada Cushitic oo ay joogi jireen gobolka qarnigii 2aad 2 sano kahor . Muddo kadib, waxay si tartiib tartiib ah ula qabsadeen bulshooyinka deriska ah ee ku yaal gobolka Great Lakes-ka Afrika. Intaa waxaa sii dheer, taariikhyahanadu waxay muujinayaan in kuwa sameeya Savanna Pastoral Neolithic (Stone Bowl Culture) ee aagga Great Lakes ay u badan tahay inay ku hadlaan luqadaha South Cushitic. Falanqaynta DNA-da ayaa sidoo kale xaqiijisay xiriirkii abtirsiintii u dhaxeeyay Beeraleyda dhaqanka hore ee Beeraleyda iyo sameeyeyaasha dhaqanka Epipaleolithic Iberomaurusia ee Waqooyiga Afrika, Dhaqanka Epipaleolithic Natufian ee Levant, dhaqanka xoolo dhaqatada Savanna ee Bariga Afrika, dhaqankii hore ee Neolithic Ifri N'Ammar ee Morocco, iyo dhaqanka Masaarida ee qadiimiga ah ee dooxada Niil, fossils laxiriira dhaqamadaas hore dhamaantood waxay wadaagayaan qeyb hiddo wadaag ah.

Sidoo kale eeg[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Tixraacyada[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

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