Heed

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Heed
Illustration Hordeum vulgare0B.jpg
Sawirgacmeed heeda
Kala saarista cilmiga ah
Boqortooyo: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Monocots
(unranked): Commelinids
Order: Poales
Qoyska: Poaceae
Qoyska hoose: Pooideae
Tribe: Triticeae
Genus: 'Hordeum'
Species: H. vulgare[1]
Binomial name
Hordeum vulgare
Carl Linnaeus


Heed (Af Ingiriis : barley; Af carabi: شعير) magaca sayniska Hordeum vulgare L., waa xubin ka mid ah dhirta cowsleyda ah ee bixisa midhaha xabada firida ah. Heeda waxaa markii ugu horeeysay taariikhda laga beeran jirey buuroleyda Tibet, ka dibna u soo gudubtey qaarada Aasiya, Afrika iyo Yurub. Sidoo kale, heedu waxay ka mid tahay dhirta cowka u eeg mida loogu beerashada badan yahay caalamka. Tan iyo wakhtiyadii hore, heeda waxaa dadku u isticmaali jireen cunto ahaan, in xoolaha la quudiyo, in laga sameeyo khamriga, in laga sameeyo cabitaano khafiif ah iyo sharaabyo kala duwan. Intaas waxaa dheer, waxaa heeda laga diyaariyaa nooc ka mid ah maraqa bilaa duxda ah, canjeerada iyo noocyo badan oo rooti ah. Midhaha heeda waxaa lagu yaqaanaa ineey yihiin kuwo caafimaad leh, socodiiya caloosha, nafaqo iyo awood siiya xubnaha jidhka.

Sida ay sheegtay Hay'ada Cuntada Aduunku, sanadkii 2007da heedu waxay mida afaraad ee ugu soo saarka badneyd midhaha firileyda ah, taasi oo wadanada caalamku soo saareen ilaa 136 milyan ton heed ah, isla markaana laga beeray deegaan dhan 566,000 kilomitir labo jibaaran (219,000 mayl labo jibaaran).[2]


Bayoloji[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Heed
muuqaalka isweydaarka xididaha heeda

Geedka heedu wuxuu xubin ka yahay dhirta cowsleyda ah. Geedkani isaga ayaa isbacarimiya, wuxuuna leeyahay jiinisyo ka kooban 14 koromosoom. Noocyada geedaha ay ka soo tafiirantay heedu waxay si xoogan uga baxaan xoogaga iyo banaanada deegaanda carada nafaqada leh ee Galbeedka Aasiya iyo Koonfurbari Afrika.[3]

Si kastaba ha ahaatee, cilmibaadis lagu sameeyay asalkii hore iyo raadraaca geedka heeda ayaa wuxuu iskugu biyo shubtay wadanka Tibet oo noqotey meeshii ugu horeeysay ee geedka heeda lagu dhaqan jirey wakhti aad u badan ka hor.[4]

Dhaqasho[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Heeda duurjooga ahi waxay leedahay qolof yuuban, goorta ay qaangaadho qoloftaasi way ka hadhaa, waxaana soo baxa firida oo kali ah. Si taasi ka duwan, heeda la dhaqdo ama dadku beeraan ma lahan qoloftaasi yuuban, taasi oo markaasi ka dhigeeysa fudeeyd goortii la goosan lahaa waa marka eey bislaato ee. Qolof la'aanta heeda la dhaqdo waxaa keenay midowga labo jiinis kuwaasi oo kala ah Bt1 iyo Bt2; waana astaan ay leeyihiin dhamaan heeda dadku beertaan.[5]

Muuqaalka[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Qoraalo La Xidhiidha[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Tixraac[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

  1. Template:ITIS
  2. . Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations http://faostat.fao.org/faostat. La keydiyay asal ahaan 8 May 2009. Soo qaatay 2009-05-18.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)
  3. Zohary, Daniel; Maria Hopf. (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. pp. 59–69. ISBN 0-19-850357-1 http://books.google.com/?id=C1H6_XWJS_gC&pg=PA59&vq=barley&dq=Domestication+of+Plants+in+the+Old+World:+The+Origin+and+Spread+of+Cultivated+Plants+in+West+Asia,+Europe,+and+the+Nile+Valley.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)
  4. Dai, F.; Nevo, E.; Wu, D.; Comadran, J.; Zhou, M.; Qiu, L.; Chen, Z.; Beiles, A.; et al. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 109 (42): 16969. doi:10.1073/pnas.1215265109 http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2012/10/01/1215265109.abstract.html?etoc.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)
  5. {clarify|reason=Is it possible to paraphrase "homozygous for the mutant allele" in language a lay person can understand? Even following the two links did not clear up my confusion. I understood this section just fine up to that point.|date=November 2014}
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