Qamadi

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U bood: gooshitaan, raadi

Qamadi (Af-Carabi: قمح; Af-Ingiriis: wheat) waa midho yaryar oo firiley ah, kana baxa geedka qamadiga kaas oo dadka, xoolaha iyo xayawaanku cunaan. Geedka qamadiga ah Saynis ahaan loo yaqaano Triticum spp[1][2] waa midho firiley ah midaasi oo asal ahaan ka timid deegaanad Leefant ee bariga dhow, laakiin maanta laga beerto dhamaan caalamka oo idil. Sanadkii 2013ka waxsoo saarka heeda caalamku waxay ahayd 713 milyan oo tan taasi oo ka dhigeeysa firileyda sadexaad ugu soo saarka badan dunida. Waxaa ka horeeya oo kali ah galleyda (laga soo saaray 1,016 milyan ton) iyo bariiska oo laga soo saaray 745 milyan ton.[3]

Sidoo kale, qamadigu wuxuu ahaa midka labaad ee ugu beerasho badnayd sanadkii 2009ka, taasi oo dunidu soo saartey 682 milyan ton; waxaa ka horeeysay kaliya galleyda oo laga soo saaray 817 milyan ton, waxaa isna dhinaca ku hayay bariiska oo laga soo saaray 679 milyan ton.[4]

Firileyda geedka qamadiga waxaa lagu beeraa dhulka ugu badan ee dhir laga ganacsado. Waxaana la sheegay in ganacsiga qamadigu ka sareeyo marka la iskudaro dhamaan midhaha la soo saaro oo dhan.[5] Marka laga hadlayo dhamaan caalamka, midhaha qamadigu waa hogaanka khudaarta borotiinka leh ee jidha dadku u baahan yahay. Tirada borotiin ee ku jirta firida qamadiga waxay ka badan tahay inta ku jirta galleyda, bariiska iyo garowga.[6] Marka laga eego dhinaca cuntooyinka dadku quutaan, guud ahaan qamadigu waa midka labaad ee ku xiga bariiska, taasi oo dhaafineysa galleyda maadaama iyada ay in badan u tahay quud xayawaanka.

Dhinaca kale, qamadigu wuxuu ahaa furo horumariyay xadaaradihii iyo ilbaxnimooyinkii hore ee aduunka, sababtoo ah waxay ka mid ahayd midhaha sida fudud loo beerto ee wax badan laga goosto, isla markaana wakhti aad u dheer la kaydin karaayay. Intaas waxaa dheer in qamadigu ka qeyb-qaatay soo shaacbixii maamul-caasimadeedka ka bilaabmey sida Baabiyloon iyo Asiyriya ee marka dambe isku bedelay xadaarado iyo boqortooyooyin balaadhan. Midhaha geedka qamadigu waa cunto degan taasi oo laga sameeyo daqiiqda, canjeerada, rootida, buskudka, keega, firida lagu qureecdo, baastada, noodhalka[7] iyo cuntooyinka la khamiiriyo si looga sameeyo khamri,[8] iyo noocyada kale ee alkahoosha,[9] iyo shidaalka dhirta.[10]

Iskusoo wada duub oo, waxaa jira lix nooc oo loo qeybiyo qamadiga: 1) qolof adag oo case, 2) dayr adke cas, 3) jiilaal case jilicsan, 4) durum (adayg), 5) adke cad, iyo 6) kulka cad jilicsan.[11] Noocyada adag ayaa leh macdanta ugu badan ee gluten waxaana loo isticmaalaa in laga sameeyo rootida, sabaayad iyo noocyada la midka ah. Dhinaca kale, qamadiga jilicsan waxaa laga sameeyaa rootida jilicsan sida canjeerada iyo malawaxa, keega iyo buskudka. Qaarada Yurub, in badan oo qamadiga laga beero deegaanadaasi waxaa dib u quuta xoolaha iyo xayawaanka carbiska ah.[12][13]


Taariikh[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Qamadigu waa xubin ka mid ah midhaha firileyda ah ee dadku soo dhaqan jireen tan iyo biloowgii ilabxnimada. Geedka qamadigu waa mid isagu isbacarimiya waxaanu leeyahay noocyo dhowr ah oo iskuwada qaab dhow. Cilmibaadhis aarkiyooloji ahi waxay sheegtay in geedka qamadiga laga beeran jiray deegaanda nafaqeysan ee bariga dhexe iyo bariga dhow, ilaa Waqooyiga Afrika. Baadhitaano la sameeyay sanadahan dambe waxay xuseen in midhaha geedka qamadigu ka bixi jireen koonfurbari Turkiga,[14] iyo deegaanada Einkorn ee Wadi el Jilat wadanka Cumaan, halkaasi oo lagu beeran jiray 7,500 sano C.H ilaa 7,300 sano C.H (Ciise Hortii).[15]

Asalka Qamadiga[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Qamadiga caadiga ah iyo kan duurjaleenka

Beerashada iyo gurashada midhaha firida ee cowka duurgaleenka ah ayaa markiisa horeba baray qamadig faa'iidadiisa dadkii ku dhaqnaa deegaanada carada nafaqeeysan ee Bariga Dhow. Markii la bilaabay beerida qamadiga ayaa mudo gudaheed uu isbedel ku yimid hab-dhismeedka jiiniska geedka kaasi oo bedelay nidaamkii duurjoognimada dahaadhka qolofta leh ee firida ku duubneyd, isla markaana noqdey mid qoloftiisu ka khafiifsan tahay kan duurjooga wax ka dibna ku dhex baaba'day midhaha firida geedka qamadiga.[16] Wakhti hada laga joogo 8,000 sano Ciise Hortii ayaa qodashada iyo beerida geedka qamadigu ku fiday agagaarka deegaanada nafaqeeysan.[17][18]

Si kastaba ha ahaatee, mudadii ka dambeeysay fiditaanka geedka qamadiga deegaanada Carada Nafaqeeysan, wuxuu midhaha geedku ganacsi ku gaadhay jihooyin kala duwan, sida Waqooyiga Afrika, boqortooyadii Beershiya, galbeedka Hindiya iyo bariga wadanada qaarada Yurub.

Muuqaalka[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Qoraalo La Xidhiidha[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Tixraac[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

  1. Luqman B. Abdulaahi
  2. Luqman B. Abdulaahi
  3. "FAOStat". http://faostat.fao.org/site/567/DesktopDefault.aspx?PageID=567#ancor. Retrieved 27 January 2015.
  4. "World Wheat, Corn and Rice". Oklahoma State University, FAO Stat. Archived from the original on 10 June 2015. https://web.archive.org/20150610121002/http://www.nue.okstate.edu/Crop_Information/World_Wheat_Production.htm.
  5. Curtis; Rajaraman; MacPherson (2002). "Bread Wheat". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. http://www.fao.org/docrep/006/y4011e/y4011e00.htm.
  6. "Nutrient data laboratory". United States Department of Agriculture.
  7. Cauvain, Stanley P. & Cauvain P. Cauvain. (2003) Bread Making. CRC Press. p. 540. ISBN 1-85573-553-9.
  8. Palmer, John J. (2001) How to Brew. Defenestrative Pub Co. p. 233. ISBN 0-9710579-0-7.
  9. Neill, Richard. (2002) Booze: The Drinks Bible for the 21st Century. Octopus Publishing Group – Cassell Illustrated. p. 112. ISBN 1-84188-196-1.
  10. Department of Agriculture Appropriations for 1957: Hearings ... 84th Congress. 2d Session. United States House Committee on Appropriations. 1956. p. 242.
  11. Six Basic Classes of Wheat Minnesota Association of Wheat Growers
  12. Smith, Albert E. (1995) Handbook of Weed Management Systems. Marcel Dekker. p. 411. ISBN 0-8247-9547-4.
  13. Bridgwater, W. & Beatrice Aldrich. (1966) The Columbia-Viking Desk Encyclopedia. Columbia University. p. 1959.
  14. Lev-Yadun, S; Gopher, A; Abbo, S (2000). "The cradle of agriculture". Science 288 (5471): 1602–3. doi:10.1126/science.288.5471.1602. PMID 10858140. 
  15. Nestbitt, Mark., When and where did domesticated cereals first occur in southwest Asia? in R.T.J. Cappers & S. Bottema (Eds.) The Dawn of Farming in the Near East. Studies in Early Near Eastern Production, Subsistence, and Environment 6, 2002 (1999). Berlin, ex oriente.
  16. Tanno, K Willcox; Willcox, G (2006). "How fast was wild wheat domesticated?". Science 311 (5769): 1886. doi:10.1126/science.1124635. PMID 16574859. 
  17. Feldman, Moshe and Kislev, Mordechai E., Israel Journal of Plant Sciences, Volume 55, Number 3 - 4 / 2007, pp. 207 - 221, Domestication of emmer wheat and evolution of free-threshing tetraploid wheat in "A Century of Wheat Research-From Wild Emmer Discovery to Genome Analysis", Published Online: 3 November 2008
  18. Colledge, Sue; University College, London. Institute of Archaeology (2007). The origins and spread of domestic plants in southwest Asia and Europe. Left Coast Press. pp. 40–. ISBN 978-1-59874-988-5. http://books.google.com/books?id=D2nym35k_EcC&pg=PA40. Retrieved 5 July 2011.
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