Taariikhda Qaramada Midoobay

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A map of the world with countries displayed in colours corresponding to the dates the countries joined the United Nations. Countries not involved with the United Nations are shown in grey.
Maabka Aduunka oo lagu muujiyay wadanada iyo wakhtiga ay ku biireen Qaramada Midoobay

Taariikhda Qaramada Midoobay waxay ka soo bilaabantaa Dagaalkii Labaad ee Aduunka. Wakhtigaas wixii ka dambeeyay xubnaha iyo shaqada ururku wuu balaadhay waxayna maanta gaadhay dhamaan caalamka oo dhan, ayada oo qarniga 21aad noqotey meel kulmisa dhamaan madaxda aduunka.

Sida taariikhda lagu hayo hindisaha iyo magaca Qaramada Midoobay waxaa horaantii iska lahaa madaxweynihii wadanka Maraykanka Franklin Roosevelt wakhtigaasi oo uu rabay in lagu magacaabo xulafadii Isbaahaysiga.[1] Fikradaasi waxaa ku raacay Ra'iisal wasaarihii Boqortooyada Biritayn kaasi oo socdaal shaqo ku joogay cariga Maraykanka wakhtigaasi 1941. Si kastaba ha ahaatee sanadihii xigay waxaa ereyga Qaramada Midoobay aad u isticmaalayay xulafadii isbaahaysiga ee dagaalka kula jirtey awoodi Nazi-ga.

A black and white motion picture of some men signing papers on a desk in the center of a huge decorated room.
Aasaasitaankii Qaramada Midoobay


Ku Dhawaaqida QM (1942)[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Qorsheeyntii dhisitaanka ururka wuxuu bilaabmey wakhti ka horeeyay Dagaalkii Labaad taasi oo la aaminsan yahay in Waaxda Siyaasada Maraykanka (US State Department) bilowday qorsheeynta arimaha ururka sanadkii 1939.[2] Maqaalkii ugu horeeyay ee ku dhawaaqida Qaramada Midoobay waxaa si wada jir ah u diyaariyay 29 Diisamber 1941 madaxweynihii Maraykanka Franklin D. Roosevelt, ra'isul-wasaaraha Boqortooyada Biritatn Winston Churchill, gacanyarahii Roosevelt Harry Hopkins, kuwaasi oo wakhtigaas ku sugnaa Aqalka Cad ee Maraykanka. Madaxweyne Roosevelt wakhtigaasi wuxuu Qaramada Midoobay ku tilmaamayay Xulafadii Isbaaheysiga Dagaalkii Labaad (Allies of World War II). Fikradan waxaa markiiba ku raacay raisal wasaarihii Boqortooyada Britayn kaasi oo isla markiiba ka hirgeliyay wadankiisa.

Baasaboodhkii ugu horeeyay ee Qaramada Midoobay la daabacay 1944

Qiyaastii 1–2 Janaayo 1942, ayaa lagu dhawaaqay Qaramada Midoobay wakhtigaasi ooy saxeexeen sharciga ururkaas ilaa 26 wadan.[3][4] Badhtamigii 1945kii waxaa heshiiska saxeexay 21 wadan oo kale kuwaasi oo sii xoojijiyay hanoqaadkii ururka.[5]

Heshiskaasi wuxuu ku bilaabmayay sidan:

WAXAAN KU DHAWAAQAYNAA ISKU XIDHKA IYO MIDNIMADA MARAYKANKA, BOQORTOOYADA BRITAIN OO LA SOCOTO WAQOOYIGA IRELAND, MIDOWGA SOOFIYEETI, SHIINAHA, AUSTRALIA, BELGIUM, KANADA, COSTA RICA, CUBA, JEKOSLOVAKIA, JAMHUURIYADA DOMINIKA, EL SALVADOR, GIRIIGA, GUATEMALA, HAITI, HONDURAS, HINDIYA, LUXEMBOURG, NETHERLANDS, NEW ZEALAND, NICARAGUA, NORWAY, PANAMA, POLAND, KOONFUR AFRICA, YUGOSLAVIA
Saxeexa dowladaha ayaa hoosta kaga qornaa maqaalkaasi.

Hadaba wakhtiyadii uu socday Dagaalkii Labaad waxaa caan noqotey isticmaalka Qaramada Midoobay taasi oo laga waday Xulafada Wadanada Isbaahaystay ee kor ku soo xusnay. Marka wadan rabo inuu ururkaas Qaramada Midoobay ky biiro waxaa shardi ahayd inuu saxeexo heshiiska isla markaana dagaal ku dhawaaqo Isbaahaysigii Nasiga (Axis).[6]

Qorshaynti QM[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Fikrada ah in ururka Qaramada Midoobay noqdo mid caalamka dhan ka dhexeeya waxay bilaabantey Shirkii Moosko ee 1943dii iyo Shirkii Tehraan ee isla sanadkaasi. Shir dhacay bishii Agoosto ilaa Oktoobar 1944kii ayaa wadanada Shiinaha, Boqortooyada Biritayn, iyo Midowgii Soofiyeeti, oo ku kulmay caasimada Washington, D.C ayaa waxay ku soo saareen in ururka Qaramada Midoobay laga dhigo mid caalami ah oo u dhaxeeya wadanada aduunka dhamaantood. Is-aragyo kale iyo hadalo badan ka dib waxaa la isku raacay cida xubin ka noqon karta ururka iyo shaqooyinka uu qaban doono kuwaasi ooy ka mid ahaayeen inuu ilaaliyo nabada guud ee caalamka, horumarinta dhaqaalaha iyo xidhiidhka bulshooyinka caalamka.[7][8]

Aasaasitaanka QM[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Qaramada Midoobay 1945. Wadanada buluuga khafiifka ah waa kuwii ururka bilaabay. Kuwa buluuga jaamudka ah waa wadanada la ilaalinayay iyo la gumaysanayay

Markeey taariikhdu ahayd Abriil 25, 1945, waxaa magaalada San Fransisko ka bilaabmay Shirkii Caalamiga ee Qaramada Midoobay halkaasi ooy ku kulmeen wadano gaadhay 50 dal iyo tiro badan oo ururo caalami ah. Hadaba 26 Juun, labo bilood ka dib markii shirka la bilaabay, ayaa 50kii wadan dhamaantood saxeexeen Dastuurka Qaramada Midoobay. Ka dib markii ay dib u eegis ku sameeyeen wadanada Shiinaha, Midowga Soofiyeeti, Boqortooyada Biritayn, Maraykanka iyo tiro kale oo wadano ah ayaa 24 Oktoobar 1945, waxaa si rasmi ah loogu dhawaaqay jiritaanka Ururka Qaramada Midoobay.[9]

Hoos waxaa ku qoran taariikhda wadanada xubinta ka ah Qaramada Midoobay ay soo gudbiyeen warqadii ogolaanshaha ururka:[10]

  • Maraykanka - 8 Aug 1945
  • Faransiisk - 31 Aug 1945
  • Dominican Rep. - 4 Sep 1945
  • Nicaragua - 6 Sep 1945
  • New Zealand - 19 Sep 1945
  • Brazil - 21 Sep 1945
  • Argentina - 24 Sep 1945
  • El Salvador - 26 Sep 1945
  • Haiti - 27 Sep 1945
  • China - 28 Sep 1945
  • Turkey - 28 Sep 1945
  • Denmark - 9 October 1945
  • Chile - 11 Oct 1945
  • Philippines - 11 Oct 1945
  • Paraguay - 12 Oct 1945
  • Cuba - 15 Oct 1945
  • Lebanon - 15 Oct 1945
  • Iran - 16 Oct 1945
  • Luxembourg - 17 Oct 1945
  • Saudi Arabia - 18 Oct 1945
  • Czechoslovakia - 19 Oct 1945
  • Syria - 19 Oct 1945
  • Yugoslavia - 19 Oct 1945
  • UK - 20 Oct 1945
  • Egypt - 22 Oct 1945
  • Byelorussia - 24 Oct 1945
  • Poland - 24 Oct 1945
  • Ukraine - 24 Oct 1945
  • Midowga Soofiyeeti - 24 Oct 1945
  • Greece - 25 Oct 1945
  • India - 30 Oct 1945
  • Peru - 31 Oct 1945
  • Australia - 1 Nov 1945
  • Costa Rica - 2 Nov 1945
  • Liberia - 2 Nov 1945
  • Colombia - 5 Nov 1945
  • Mexico - 7 Nov 1945
  • South Africa - 7 Nov 1945
  • Canada - 9 Nov 1945
  • Ethiopia - 13 Nov 1945
  • Panama - 13 Nov 1945
  • Bolivia - 14 Nov 1945
  • Venezuela - 15 Nov 1945
  • Honduras - 17 Nov 1945
  • Guatemala - 21 Nov 1945
  • Norway - 27 Nov 1945
  • Netherlands - 10 Dec 1945
  • Uruguay - 18 Dec 1945
  • Ecuador - 21 Dec 1945
  • Iraq - 21 Dec 1945
  • Belgium - 27 Dec 1945

Shirkii ugu horeeyay ee Golaha Sare wuxuu qabsoomay 10 Janaayo 1946 magaalada London.[11] Sidoo kale waxaa ayaguna kulankii ugu horeeyay yeeshay Golaha Amniga.[12] Ururkii [Midowga Wadanada]] wuxuu si sharci ah u baaba'ay 18 Abril 1946 waxaana hadafkii iyo mashaariicdiisii lagu wareejiyay Qaramada Midoobay.


Shaqada[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Ururka Qaramada Midoobay wuxuu qabtey hoowlo aad u balaadhan; kuwaasi waxaa ugu muhiimsan horumarinta xidhiidhka bulshooyinka, daryeelida xuquuqda Aadamaha, horumarinta dhaqaalaha, dabargoynta gumeysiga, caafimaadka iyo waxbarashasa, daryeelka qoxootiga iyo ganacsiga.

Rajada ugu wayn ee laga aaminsan yahay Qaramada Midoobay waa ineey baajiso (joojiso) inuu dhaco daagaal wayn (dagaalka sadexaad), kaasi oo baabi'in kara dadka iyo duunyada caalamka.


Xarumaha QM[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Two skyscraper buildings on the bank of a river.
Xarunta sare Qaramada Midoobay New York
Huge complex of skyscrapers and other large buildings interlaced with trees and gardens. The surrounding area as far as the horizon is filled with trees and large rivers. In the foreground a crane and small building site show that a new construction is underway.
Dhismaha QM magaalada Fiyeena

Badhtamihii Diisambar 1945, ayaa Golaha Guurtida Maraykanka iyo Aqalka Wakiiladu u codeeyeen in Ururuka Qaramada Midoobay laga codsado ineey Xarunta Sare ka dhisato wadanka Maraykanka. Arintaasi way aqbashay Qaramada Midoobay, waxayna deegaan ka salaxatay bariga caasimada New York halkaasi oo ay ku iibsatey lacag dhan US $8.5 milyan oo ahayd lacag deeq ah. Dhismaha oo socday labo sano (1949 ilaa 1950) waxaa la furay Xarunta Sare Qaramada Midoobay Janaayo 9, 1951, inkastoo la dhamaystiray dhismaha bishii Oktoobar 9, 1952.[13]

Inkastoo xarunta ugu muhiimsan ku taalo caasimada New York, ururku wuxuu xafiisyo waaweyn ku leeyahay Jeniifa, Heeg, Fiyeena, Nayroobi iyo meelo kale oo badan.

Qoraalo La Xidhiidha[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Linkiyo Kale[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Tixraac[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

  1. http://web.archive.org/web/20060927143158/http://www.wordorigins.org/wordoru.htm#united
  2. Townsend Hoopes and Douglas Brinkley, FDR and the Creation of the U.N. (1997) pp 1-55
  3. David Roll, The Hopkins Touch: Harry Hopkins and the Forging of the Alliance to Defeat Hitler (2013) pp 172-75
  4. Robert E. Sherwood, Roosevelt and Hopkins, An Intimate History (1948) pp 447-53
  5. Edmund Jan Osmańczyk (2003). Encyclopedia of the United Nations and International Agreements: T to Z. Taylor & Francis. p. 2445. http://books.google.com/books?id=6AB2CadyN7QC&pg=PA2445. 
  6. Stephen C. Schlesinger, Act of creation: The founding of the United Nations: A story of superpowers, secret agents, wartime allies and enemies, and their quest for a peaceful world (2003)
  7. http://www.un.org/en/aboutun/history/dumbarton_yalta.shtml
  8. Robert C. Hilderbrand, Dumbarton Oaks: The Origins of the United Nations and the Search for Postwar Security (UNC Press, 2001)
  9. http://www.un.org/aboutun/sanfrancisco/history.html The 60th Anniversary of the San Francisco Conference
  10. http://www.un.org/depts/dhl/unms/founders.shtml
  11. "History of the United Nations 1941 - 1950". United Nations. Retrieved 12 March 2015. 
  12. "What is the Security Council?". United Nations. Retrieved 12 March 2015. 
  13. http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F10813F7385E177B93C2A8178BD95F468585F9
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