Curiye kimiko

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U bood: gooshitaan, raadi
Kani waa maqaal ku saabsan Curiyaha kimiko. Maqaal kale fiiri Curiye
Periodic table (polyatomic).svg
Hydrogen discharge tube.jpg
Barium unter Argon Schutzgas Atmosphäre.jpg
Copper.jpg
HEUraniumC.jpg
Bromine vial in acrylic cube.jpg
HeTube.jpg
Kor: Jadwalka Curiyayaasha ee ku jiraan dhamaan curiyayaasha kimiko.
Hoos: tusaale falal kimiko. Ka so biloow bidix ila midig: haydarojiin, baariyaam, kober, yuraaniyaam, boromiin, iyo hiliyaam.

Curiye kimiko (Af-Ingiriis: chemical element; Af-Carabi: عنصر كيميائي) waa macdan, kimiko adke, hawo ama dareere ah kuwaas oo laga helo meelo kala duwan oo dhulka ah. Sida la ogyahay, ilaa hada waxaa jira 118 Curiye, kuwaas oo ku xusan miiska Diwaanka Curiye. Intaas waxaa dheer, ayadoo lagu saleeynayo calaamadaha iyo dhaqanka curiye ayaa wuxuu u kala baxaa qeeybo badan oo, guud ahaan, soo hoosgala Bir (metal) 91 curiye, Bir la Mood (metalloid) 6 curiye, Bir Ma Ahe (nonmetal) 17 curiye, iyo Neefo.

Qeexida Curiye[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Sida caadiga ah, curiye waa walax kimiko oo ka samaysan atom taas oo lagu kala saaro tirada atomic[1] ee bu'diisa ku jirta - tirada borotoono ee bu'da atom. Guud ahaan, waxaa curiyaha loo qeybiyaa sadex nooc: Bir, Bir la Mood iyo Bir Ma Ahe. Tusaale fiican waxaa ah, Ogsajiinta iyo Nitrojiinta (Bir Ma Ahe), Silikoonta iyo Aarsenik (Bir La Mood), iyo Aayronta, Naxaasta, Dahabka iyo Koberta oo ah bir.

Curiyaha kimiko waxaa ugu miisaan fudud Haydarojiinta oo leh tiro atomic 1 iyo tan ku xigta Hiliyaamta oo leh tiro atomic 2. Sidoo kale, labadan curiye waa kuwa ugu badan Koonka; halka Aayron iyo Ogsajiintu ay yihiin labada ugu badan qaab-dhismeedka qolofta dhulka. Inkastoo macdanta iyo isku dhisyada curiyaha qaarkood dadku aqoon u lahaayeen tan iyo 10,000 sano ka hor, inta u badan curiyayaasha waxaa la helay dhamaadkii qarnigii 19aad iyo qarnigii 20aad.[2]

Tirada Atomikga Curiye[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Tirada Atomikga ee curiye waxay la mid tahay tirada borotoonis ee ku jirta bu'da curiyahaas, isla markaana waa tan qeexda astaamaha falgalka ee curiyahaas. Tusaale ahaan, dhamaan atomyada Kaarboontu waxay ka kooban yihiin 6 borotoonis (protons) taas oo macnaheedu yahay tirada atomikga ee Kaarboon waa 6. Dhinaca kale, atomyada Kaarboontu waxaa laga yaabaa ineey leeyihiin tiro nuyuutroono (neutron) kala duwan; marka atomka curiye isku mid ah kaas oo leh tiro nuyuutroono kala duwan waxaa lagu magacaabaa isotopeka curiye.

Tirada borotoono ee ku jirta bu'da (nucleus) atomika curiye waxaa lagu ogaan karaa saxarada koronto (electric charge) taas oo ku xidhn tirada elektaroono ee atomkaasi. Sidoo kale, elektaroonadu waxay ku wareegaan bu'da atomka ayagoo sheega astaamaha iyo dhaqanka curiyahaas. Tirada nuyuutroono ee caloosha atomka ku dhex jirta inta badan saamayn kuma laha dhaqanka curiye.

Calaamada astaanta u ah tirada atomika ee atom waa halbeega Z.

Miisaanka & Cufka Atomikga Curiye[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Tirada cufka ee curiye, calaamada halbeega u ah waa A, waa tirada Nukliyuusta (nukliyuustu waa tirada borotoonada iyo nuyuutroonada) ee ku dhex jirta bu'da atomik[3]. Isotopeyo kala duwan oo curiye isku mid ah waxaa lagu kala saaraa ama soocaa tirada cufka ee atomka, taas oo lagu qoro bidixda astaanta curiye (e.g 276C).

Tusaale fiican waxaan u soo qaadan karnaa curiyaha Magniisiyaam tirada cufkiisu waa 24, marka waxaan u qoraynaa Magniisiyaam-24, taas oo u dhiganta 12 borotoon iyo 12 elektaroon.

Halka tirada cufku ka tahay tirada nuyuutroono iyo elektaroono ee atom, cufka atomikgu waa tirada saxda ah ee cufka isotope gaar ah ee curiye. Calaamada halbeega u ah cufka atomik waa u.

Isotopes[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Dhinaca kale, isotope waa atomyo ka tirsan hal curiye kuwaas oo leh tiro borotoono isku mid ah, laakiin tirada nuyuutroonadu kala duwan yihiin. In ka badan 66 ka mid ah 96ka curiye si dabiici ah loo helo, waxay leeyihiin in ka badan hal isotope dagan. Tusaale ahaan, curiyaha Kaarboon wuxuu leeyahay 3 isotope oo kala duwan. Hadaba tirada borotoono ee Kaarboontu waa isku mid, dhamaantood waa 6, laakiin waxay kala leeyihiin 6, 7, iyo 8 nuyuutroon. Maadaama tirada cufka ee kaarboon tahay 12, 13 iyo 14 gebi ahaan waxaa inoo soo bixi sadex isotope oo kala ah kaarbon-12 oo loo qoro 12C, kaarboon-13 13C, iyo kaarboon-14 14C.

Kaarboonta ku jirta nolosha maalin kasta waa iskujir 12C, 13C, iyo 14C.

Guud ahaan, curiyeyaasha inta u badan waxay leeyihiin isotopeyo radioactive ah, kuwaas oo in badani loo helo si dabiici ah, kuwo kalena lagu diyaariyo laabka (laboratory). Isotopeyada radioactive ah waa kuwo aan fadhiyin (unstable isotopes), laakiin haddii isotopeka atom aanu ahayn radioactive waxaa loo yaqaanaa isotope degan (stable isotope). Dhamaan isotopeyada degani waa kuwo dabiici ah.

Shaxda Diiwaanka Curiye[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Qaab-dhismeedka miiska Diiwaanka Curiye waa shax ka kooban 18 saf, Guruubyo, kuwaas oo kor ka imanaya ilaa hoos iyo 7 saf, Heerka, kuwaas oo ka bilaabma midig ilaa bidix, iyo labo saf oo ka hooseeya. Sidoo kale, miiska jadwalka diiwaanka curiye waxaa loo kala jabin karaa afar afar-gees oo kala ah: s-block oo dhinaca bidix xiga, p-block oo dhanka midig xiga, d-block oo dhexda ku jira, iyo f-block oo ka hooseeya dhamaantoodba.

Qaybaha khaanadaha safafka midig ilaa bidix waxaa loo yaqaanaa heerka (period), sida heerka 1aad, halka safafka khaanadaha kor ka imanaya loo yaqaano guruub (group) kuwaas oo qaarkood magacyo leeyihiin sida Biniktojiin (Pnictogens) oo ah guruubka 15aad, Jaalkojiin (chalcogen) oo ah guruubka 16aad,Halogens guruubka 17aad iyo Neefta Gobta (noble gas) guruubka 18aad.

Dhamaan curiyaha ka soo biloow mida koowaad ee Haydarojiin oo leh tiro atomic 1 ilaa laga gaadho curiyaha 118 Ununoktiyaam waxaa la helay wakhtiyo kala duwan iyo meelo kala duwan; ayadoo curiyaha 113, 115, 117 iyo 118 aan wali la xaqiijinin. In kastoo qaarkood la arko qadar iyo tiro aad u yar, 98ka curiye ee ugu horeeya jadwalka Diwaanka Curiye ayaa ah kuwo si dabiici ah looga helo oogada dhulka.

Jadwalka Curiyayaasha ( Kaltanka Curiyayaasha)
Qaybaha → 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
↓ Walxaha
1 1
H
2
He
2 3
Li
4
Be
5
B
6
C
7
N
8
O
9
F
10
Ne
3 11
Na
12
Mg
13
Al
14
Si
15
P
16
S
17
Cl
18
Ar
4 19
K
20
Ca
21
Sc
22
Ti
23
V
24
Cr
25
Mn
26
Fe
27
Co
28
Ni
29
Cu
30
Zn
31
Ga
32
Ge
33
As
34
Se
35
Br
36
Kr
5 37
Rb
38
Sr
39
Y
40
Zr
41
Nb
42
Mo
43
Tc
44
Ru
45
Rh
46
Pd
47
Ag
48
Cd
49
In
50
Sn
51
Sb
52
Te
53
I
54
Xe
6 55
Cs
56
Ba
*
72
Hf
73
Ta
74
W
75
Re
76
Os
77
Ir
78
Pt
79
Au
80
Hg
81
Tl
82
Pb
83
Bi
84
Po
85
At
86
Rn
7 87
Fr
88
Ra
**
104
Rf
105
Db
106
Sg
107
Bh
108
Hs
109
Mt
110
Ds
111
Rg
112
Cn
113
Uut
114
Fl
115
Uup
116
Lv
117
Uus
118
Uuo

Lanthanides 57
La
58
Ce
59
Pr
60
Nd
61
Pm
62
Sm
63
Eu
64
Gd
65
Tb
66
Dy
67
Ho
68
Er
69
Tm
70
Yb
71
Lu
** Actinides 89
Ac
90
Th
91
Pa
92
U
93
Np
94
Pu
95
Am
96
Cm
97
Bk
98
Cf
99
Es
100
Fm
101
Md
102
No
103
Lr


</noinclude>

Qeybaha Diiwaanka Curiye[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Ayadoo la tix-raacayo naqshad uu sameeyay saynisyahan Ruush ahaa oo la odhan jirey Dmitri Mendeleev (1869), ayaa guud ahaan curiyeha waxaa loo qeeybiyaa toban-iyo-sideed (18) Juffo[4], kuwaas waxaa ugu caansan:

Bir (Metal)[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Bir (Metal) waa shey adke ah (curiye, Isku dhis iyo Jaandi) taas oo iftiimaysa, jidh adag leh, isla markaana aad ugu wanaagsan gudbinta dabka iyo kulka. Birtu waa curiye kimiko kuwaas oo leh calaamado iyo astaamo ka duwan kuwa Bir Ma ahe iyo Bir La Moodkaba.

Birtu waa shey marka la garaaco la qaloocin karo ayadoon kala jabayn, la dhalaalin karo, isla markaana la dhuubi karo ama wax dhuuban laga dhigi karo. 91 curiye oo ka mid ah 118da curiye ee jadwalka Diwaanka Curiye waa bir. 27ka kale ayaa u kala baxa neef, bir ma ahe, bir la mood iyo qeybaha kale ee Diwaanka Curiye.[5]

Si ka duwan cilmiga Kemistariga, micnaha ereyga bir waa ku kala duwan yahay qeybaha aqoonta. Tusaale ahaan, aqoonyahana xidigaha ee Cilmi Falagu waxay ereyga bir u isticmaalaan dhamaan curiyayaasha marka laga reebo Haydarojiin (H) iyo Hiliyaamta (He) kuwaas oo ah walxaha ugu badan Xidigaha muuqda ee Koonka. Dhinaca kale, curiyeyaal badan iyo isku dhisyo badan ayaa noqda bir marka kuleyl badan lagu shido, kuwaas waxaa loo yaqaanaa Sheyada Birta ee ka Samaysmay Bir Ma ahe.[6]

Curiyaha Birta ah
Magaca Sawir
Titaaniyaam Titan-crystal bar.JPG
Aayron Iron electrolytic and 1cm3 cube.jpg
Naxaas

NatCopper.jpg

Sinki Zinc fragment sublimed and 1cm3 cube.jpg
Dahab Gold-crystals.jpg
Alumiiniyaam Aluminium-4.jpg
Nikel Nickel chunk.jpg
Iskaandhiyaam Scandium sublimed dendritic and 1cm3 cube.jpg
Kobalti Kobalt electrolytic and 1cm3 cube.jpg
Roodhiyaam Rhodium powder pressed melted.jpg
Manganiis Mangan 1-crop.jpg
Gaaliyaam Gallium crystals.jpg
Tin Sn-Alpha-Beta.jpg

Birta Ku Meelgaadhka (Transitional Metals)[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Marka lagu gudo jiro cilmiga Kimisteriga, Transitional Metalsku (ama Birta Ku Meelgaadhka ah) waxay leeyihiin labo macno:

  • Qeexida waafaqsan (IUPAC)[7] waxay ku sheegtay in transitional metal ay yihiin curiye kimiko kuwaas oo qolofka elektaroonadoodu aanu dhamaystirneyn ama kuwo leh atom qolofka bu'diisu leedahay elektaroono kala dhantaalan[8].

Guruubka d-block tirada atomka curiyuhu waxay u dhaxeysaa 1 ilaa 10 elektaroono d ah[10][11].

Guruubyada 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Heerka 4aad Sc 21 Ti 22 V 23 Cr 24 Mn 25 Fe 26 Co 27 Ni 28 Cu 29 Zn 30
Heerka 5aad Y 39 Zr 40 Nb 41 Mo 42 Tc 43 Ru 44 Rh 45 Pd 46 Ag 47 Cd 48
Heerka 6aad * 57–71 Hf 72 Ta 73 W 74 Re 75 Os 76 Ir 77 Pt 78 Au 79 Hg 80
Heerka 7aad ** 89–103 Rf 104 Db 105 Sg 106 Bh 107 Hs 108 Mt 109 Ds 110 Rg 111 Cn 112

Guruubka 3aad: Iskaandhiyaam (Sc), Itriyaam (Y) Lanthanum (La), Aktiiniyaam (Ac), Luteetiyaam (Lu), iyo Lawreensiyaam (Lr).

Guruubka 4aad: Titaaniyaam (Ti), Sirkooniyaam (Zr), Haafniyaam (Hf) iyo Rutherfordium (Rf).

Guruubka 5aad: Fanadhiyaam (V), Dubniyaam (Db), Niyobiyaam (Nb) iyo Tantalum (Ta).

Guruubka 6aad: Koroomiyaam (Cr), Molybdenum (Mo), Tungsten (W) iyo Siiborgiyaam (Sg).

Guruubka 7aad: Manganiis (Mn), Teknetiyaam (Tc), Reheniyaam (Re) iyo Bohriyaam (Bh).

Guruubka 8aad: Aayron (Fe), Rutheniyaam (Ru), Osmiyaam (Os) iyo Hasiyaam (Hs).

Guruubka 9aad: Kobalti (Co), Roodhiyaam (Rh), Iridiyaam (Ir) iyo Meitneriyaam (Mt).

Guruubka 10aad: Nikel (Ni), Baladiyaam (Pd), Balatiniyaam (Pt) iyo Darmstadtiyaam (Ds).

Guruubka 11aad: Kober (Cu), Naxaas (Ag), Dahabka (Au) iyo Roentgeniyaam (Rg).

Guruubka 12aad: Sinki (Zn), Kaadmiyaam (Cd), Meerkuri (Au) iyo Kobernishiyaam (Cn).

Birta Alkali[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Birta Alkali (Alkali Metal) waa guuto curiyeyaal bir ah kuwaas oo leh astaamo kimiko isku mid ah.

Guruubka Birta Alkali waa lix curiye ee guruubka 1aad ee Diwaanka Curiye kuwaas oo kala ah: Liithiyaam (Li), Sodhiyaam (Na), Botashiyaam (K), Rubiidhiyaam (Rd), Kaasiyaam (Cs) iyo Faransiyaam (Fr).

Curiyayaasha safkan guruubka 1aad waxaa loo yaqaanaa s-block sababtoo ah dhamaantood waxay leeyihiin elektaroono qolof-sare u wareega s (s-orbital).[12]

Sidoo kale, curiyeyaasha Birta Alkali waxay leeyihiin dhaqan isku dhow: dhamaantood waa bir iftiimaysa, jilicsan, isla markaana aad u firfircoon oo leh falgal degdeg ah. Dhamaantood waxa lagu kala jari karaa midida jileec darteed, si dhakhso badan ayayna u daxaleeystaan sababtoo ah waxay la falgalaan Ogsajiin. Firfircoonida falgalkooda darteed, ayaa waxa lagu dhex keeydiyaa saliida si looga ilaaliyo hawada, waxaana sida dabiiciga ah la helaa ayagoo isku dhisyo kala duwan ah sida cusbada. Sidoo kale, curiyeyaasha birta alkali waa milme si fudud ugu dhex milma biyaha.[13]

Curiyaha Birta Alkali
Magaca Sawir
Kaalshiyaam Calcium unter Argon Schutzgasatmosphäre.jpg
Magniisiyaam Magnesium crystals.jpg
Liithiyaam Lithium paraffin.jpg
Sodhiyaam Na (Sodium).jpg
Botashiyaam Potassium-2.jpg
Rubiidhiyaam Rb5.JPG
Kaasiyaam (Cs)
Faransiyaam (Fr)

Birta Alkalineta Dhulka[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Curiyaha Beriiliyaam.
Curiyaha Magniisiyaam.
Curiyaha Istaroontiyaam.
Curiyaha Raadhiyaam.

Birta Alkalineta Dhulka (Alkaline Earth Metal) waa guuto curiyeyaal bir ah kuwaas oo leh astaamo kimiko isku mid ah.

Guruubka Birta Alkalineta dhulka waa lix curiye ee guruubka 2aad ee Diwaanka Curiye kuwaas oo kala ah: Beriiliyaam (Be), Magniisiyaam (Mg), Kaalshiyaam (Ca), Istoroontiyaam (Sr), Baariyaam (Br) iyo Raadhiyaam (Ra).

Curiyayaasha safkan guruubka 2aad waxay soo galaan s-block sababtoo ah dhamaantood waxay leeyihiin elektaroono qolof-sare u wareega s (s-orbital).[14]

Marka heerkulku caadiga yahay, Birta Alkalineta Dhulku waa adke, dhamaantoon leh midabka naxaasta oo iftiimaya, isla markaana leh falgal firfircoon.

Curiyaha Birta Alkalineta Dhulka
Magaca Sawir
Botashiyaam Potassium-2.jpg
Meerkuri Pouring liquid mercury bionerd.jpg
Beriiliyaam Be-140g.jpg
Istoroontiyaam Strontium destilled crystals.jpg
Baariyaam
Magniisiyaam Magnesium crystals.jpg
Kaalshiyaam
Raadhiyaam Radium226.jpg

Bir La Mood (Metaloid)[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Bir la Mood (Metaloid) waa curiye kimiko kuwaas oo leh calaamado iyo astaamo u dhexeeya birta iyo bir ma aheha, taas ooy aad u adag tahay in la kala saaro ineey bir tahay iyo ineey bir ma ahe tahay.

In kastoo barashada Kimisteriga ay ku jirto Bir la moodku, ma jiraan nimaad u gaar ah oo lagu qeexi karo curiyeyaashan.

Lixda curiye ee loo aqoonsadey bir la moodka waa: Booron (B),Silikoon (Si), Jermaaniyaam (Ge), Aarsenik (As), Antimony (Sb), iyo Teluriyaam (Te). Sidoo kale waxaa jira tiro dhowr ah oo ayagana lagu daro liiska Bir la Moodka, waxaana ka mid ah: Kaarboon (C),Alumiiniyaam (Al), Seleniyaam (Se), Boloniyaam (Po) iyo Astantiin (At).

Sida caadiga ah, curiyeha Bir la Moodka ahi wuxuu leeyahay muuqaalka birta oo kale, laakiin waa adke si fudud loo kala jabin karo, halka birta aanan sahal lagu kala jabin karin. Waxaa intaas dheer, curiyaha bir la moodka waa mid kulka iyo korontada si daciif ah u gudbiya ama aanan gudbinin gebi ahaanba.[15]

Si kastaba ha ahaatee, curiyeyaashan waxaa laga samayn karaa isku dhisyo tayo fiican oo jaandi ah, quruurado ama dhalooyin, olol difaace, iyo badh-gudbiye dabka iyo korontada.

Curiyaha Bir La Moodka
Magaca Sawir
Silikoon SiliconCroda.jpg
Booron Boron mNACTEC.jpg

Bir Ma Ahe (Non-Metallic)[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Bir Ma Ahe (Nonmetal) waa curiye kimiko kuwaas oo leh calaamado iyo astaamo ka duwan kuwa birta. Sida caadiga ah, curiyaha bir ma ahe waxaa lagu yaqaanaa waa kuwo si fudud u uumi baxa, si fudud loo kala jabin karo, iyo in aanay gudbinin kulka iyo korontada. Waxa sidoo kale lagu yaqaanaa curiyaha bir ma ahe markuu la falgalo walax kale inuu soo sii daayo awood ion aad u sareeysa, isla markaana ku daro ama la wadaago elektaroono curiyaha kale ama isku dhiska uu la falgalaayo.

Si kastaba ha ahaatee, toban-iyo-todoba (17) curiye ayaa loo aqoonsadey bir ma ahe kuwaas oo inta ugu badan tahay neefo kala ah: Haydarojiin (H),Hiliyaam (He), Nitrojiin (N), Ogsajiin (O), Foloriin (F), Niyoon (Ne), Koloriin (Cl), Aargon (Ar), Kiribtoon (Kr), Siinoon (Xe) iyo curiyaha radioactiveka ah Raadhoon (Rn); hal curiye oo bir ma ahe ahi waa dareere Boromiin (Br); iyo xoogaa curiye adke ah sida Kaarboon (K), Fosforos (P), Salfar (S), Seleniyaam (Se), iyo Aaydhiin (I).

Curiyayaasha Bir Ma Ahe waxay inta u badan ku kala jiraa khaanado ka mid ah guruubka 14aad, guruubka 15aad ama Biniktojiin (Pnictogen), Jaalkojiin (Chalcogen), Guruubka 17aad ama Halogens, iyo Guruubka 18aad ama Neefta Gobta.

In kastoo curiyaha birta shan-jeer laab ka badan yahay curiyaha bir ma ahe, labo ka mid ah bir ma ahe - Haydarojiin iyo Ogsajiinta - ayaa waxay yihiin boqolkiiba sagaal-iyo-sagaashan (99%) Koonka muuqda; iyo hal curiye bir ma ahe ah, waa Ogsajiinta, ayaa waxay tahay in ku dhow 50% samayska qolofka dhulka, badaha iyo cirka dhulka. Intaas waxaa dheer, jidhka noolaha dhamaantiis wuxuu ka samaysan yahay bir ma ahe iyo isku dhisyo ka samaysan bir ma ahe.

Curiyaha Bir Ma Ahe
Magaca Sawir
Fosforos PhosphComby.jpg
Kaarboon Diamond.jpg
Salfar Sulfur-sample.jpg

Neef (Gas)[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Atomyada, Malakuyuulada iyo aayonada (ions) neefta waa kuwo xor ah oo hadba dhinac u socda.

Neeftu (gas) waa mid ka mid ah sadexda aasaaska u ah walaxda (matter). Waxa laga yaabaa in neefta saafi ahi ka samaysan hal atom, sida Neefta Gobka ama neef atomic sida Niyoon, malakuyuul ka samaysan labo atom, sida Ogsajiinta oo kale, ama isku dhis (compound) ka kooban malakuyuulo ka yimid atomyo kala duwan, sida Kaarboon-labo-ogsaydh (C2O).

Iskumilanka neeftu waxay ka kooban tahay neefo saafi ah oo kala duwan sida hawada oo kale. Waxa neefta ka soocay adkeha iyo dareereha waa ayadu waxay ka samaysan tahay saxaro (particles) kala furan isla markaana kala madax-banaan, taasi oo ka dhigtey neefta mid bilaa ur ah oo isha dadku arki karin.

Marka cadaadiska iyo heerkulku caadiga yihiin, neefaha kali ah ee dagan ee curiyeha ka tirsan waa kuwa ka sameysan malakuyuulo labo atom iyo wixii ka badan, kuwaas oo ah: Haydarojiin (H2), Nitrojiin (N2), Ogsajiin (O2); iyo marka lagu daro labo ka mid ah Halogenska Foloriin (F2), iyo Koloriin (Cl2). Neefahaasi waxaa soo raaca kuwa ka samaysan hal atom ee Neefta Gobta (Noble Gases) kuwaas oo kala ah: Hiliyaam (He), Niyoon (Ne), Aargon (Ar), Kiribtoon (Kr), Siinoon (Xe) iyo Raadhoon (Rn).

Curiyaha Neefta ah
Magaca Sawir
Haaydarojiin Hydrogen discharge tube.jpg
Hiliyaam
Nitrojiin Liquidnitrogen.jpg
Ogsajiin
Koloriin Chlorine ampoule.jpg

Curiyeha Biniktojiinska (Pnictogens)[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Biniktojiin (Pnictogen) sidoo kale loo yaqaano Guruubka Nitrojiinta waa guuto curiye kimiko ee Guruubka 15aad ee safafka Diwaanka Curiye. Guruubkan wuxuu ka kooban yahay lix curiye kuwaas oo kala ah: Nitrojiin (N), Fosforos (F), Aarsenik (As), Antimony (Sb), Bismuth (Bi) iyo Ununbentiyaam (Uup).

Curiyaha Jaalkojiin (Chalcogen)[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Curiyaha Salfar.
Curiyaha Seleniyaam.
Curiyaha Teluriyaam.

Jaalkojiin (Chalcogen) sidoo kale loo yaqaano Guruubka Ogsajiinta ama Guruubka 16aad waa guruub curiye kimiko ee qeybta 16aad ee safafka Diwaanka Curiye. Guruubkan wuxuu ka kooban yahay lix curiye kuwaas oo kala ah: Ogsajiin (O), Salfar (S), Seleniyaam (Se), Teluriyaam (Te), Boloniyaam (Po) iyo Lifermoriyaam (Lv).

Neefta Halogen[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Halogen waa guuto curiyeyaal hawo, dareere iyo adke ah kuwaas oo leh astaamo kimiko isku mid ah.

Marka heerkulku caadiga yahay, curiyeyaasha hawoda ah waa midab casaan ah, kuwa dareeraha ahi waa cagaar, halka kuwa adkaha ahi leeyihiim midab madoow ah.[16][17][18]

Guruubkan Halogenska waa shan curiye ee guruubka 17aad ee Diwaanka Curiye kuwaas oo kala ah: Foloriin (F), Koloriin (Cl), [Boromiin]] (Br), Aaydhiin (I), iyo Astatiin (At).

Curiyeyaasha Halogenska waa guutada kali ah ee dhamaan 118da Curiye laga helo sadexda marxaladood ee walaxda - adke, dareere iyo hawo. Dhinaca kale, dhamaan xubnaha halogenska waxay noqdaan asiidh (acid) markey la falgalaan Haydarojiinta, waxaana laga soo dhex saaraa macdanta cusbada. Dhamaantood waa sun.


Curiyaha Halogenska
Magaca Sawir
Aaydhiin Sample of iodine.jpg
Koloriin Chlorine ampoule.jpg
Foloriin Liquid fluorine tighter crop.jpg
[Boromiin]] 25px]]
Astatiin Iod kristall.jpg

Neefta Gobta (Noble Gases)[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Neefta Gobta ama (Noble Gas) waa guuto curiyeyaal neef ah kuwaas oo leh astaamo kimiko isku mid ah.

Marka xaalada caadiga ah dhamaantood waa hawo bilaa ur, bilaa midab ah kuwaas oo leh falgal hooseeya.

Neefaha gobta ah waa lixda curiye ee guruubka 18aad ee Diwaanka Curiye kuwaas oo kala ah: Hiliyaam (He), Niyoon (Ne), Aargon (Ar), Kiribtoon (Kr), Siinoon (Xe) iyo curiyaha radioactiveka ah Raadhoon (Rn).

Hab-dhaqanka neefaha gobta ah waxaa lagu ogaan karaa dersida qaabdhismeedka atomkooda, qolofkooda sare iyo isku dhisyada ay sameeyaan. Barta dhalaalida iyo kululeynta neefahan waa mid isku dhow taas oo ka hooseysa 10 °C (18 °F); taas micnaheedu waa farqi yar oo heerkul ah ayay dareere ku noqon karaan.[19][20][21]

Niyoon, Aargoon, Siinoon, iyo Kiribtoon waxaa laga soo dhex saaraa hawada cirka, halka hiliyaamta laga dhex helo neefaha dabiiciga ee shidaalka laga soo saaro.


Neefaha Noble Gaseska
Magaca Sawir
Niyoon Neon discharge tube.jpg
Aargon Argon discharge tube.jpg
Kiribtoon Krypton discharge tube.jpg
Siinoon Xenon discharge tube.jpg
Hiliyaam Helium discharge tube.jpg
Raadhoon (Rn)

Magaca & Astaanta Curiye[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Si loo kala saaro farqiga iyo kala duwanaanshaha, isla markaana si fudud loogu aqoonsado, curiyayaashu waxay leeyihiin magacyo iyo calaamado kala duwan. Curiye kasta waxaa loogu magac daray deegaanka laga helay ama qofka helay markii ugu horeeysay. Inta u badan magaca curiyaha waxaa gadaal lagaga daray -iyaam (-ium). Tusaale ahaan, magaca curiyaha Sirkooniyaam (Zirconium) waxaa laga keenay macdanta Zircon, taas oo lagu daray -iyaam (-ium). Sidoo kale, curiyaha Bohriyaam waxaa loogu magac daray saynisyahanka reer Denmark ee Niels Bohr, taas oo ereyga Bohr lagu daray -iyaam (-ium).

Dhinaca kale, curiye kasta wuxuu leeyahay calaamad astaan u ah taas oo inta badan ah labo xaraf oo laga soo dhex saaray magaca curiyaha. Intaas waxaa dheer, waxa jira curiyayaal leh calaamad hal xaraf ah iyo kuwo leh calaamad sadex xaraf ah. Tusaale ahaan, curiyaha Haydarojiin calaamada astaantiisu waa H, curiyaha Kiribtoon waxa astaan u ah Kr, sidoo kale curiyaha Ununtriyaam astaanteedu waa Uut.

Guud ahaan, xarafka u horeeya ee magaca iyo calaamada astaanta ee curiye waxaa laga dhigaa xaraf weyn.

Dhismaha Diwaanka Curiye[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Qaab-dhismeedka miiska Diiwaanka Curiye waa shax ka kooban 18 saf, guruub, kuwaas oo kor ka imanaya ilaa hoos; iyo 7 saf, heerka, kuwaas oo ka bilaabma midig ilaa bidix, iyo labo saf oo ka hooseeya. Sidoo kale, miiska jadwalka diiwaanka curiye waxaa loo kala jabin karaa afar afar-gees oo kala ah: s-block oo dhinaca bidix xiga, p-block oo dhanka midig xiga, d-block oo dhexda ku jira, iyo f-block oo ka hooseeya dhamaantoodba.

Qaybaha khaanadaha safafka midig ilaa bidix waxaa loo yaqaanaa heerka (period), sida heerka 1aad, halka safafka khaanadaha kor ka imanaya loo yaqaano guruub (group) kuwaas oo qaarkood magacyo leeyihiin sida Biniktojiin (Pnictogens) oo ah guruubka 15aad, Jaalkojiin (chalcogen) oo ah guruubka 16aad,Halogens guruubka 17aad iyo Neefta Gobta (noble gas) guruubka 18aad.

Dhamaan curiyaha ka soo biloow mida kowaad ee Haydarojiin oo leh tiro atomic 1 ilaa laga gaadho curiyaha 118 Ununoktiyaam waxaa la helay wakhtiyo kala duwan iyo meelo kala duwan; ayadoo curiyaha 113, 115, 117 iyo 118 aan wali la xaqiijinin. In kastoo qaarkood la arko qadar iyo tiro aad u yar, 98ka curiye ee ugu horeeya jadwalka Diwaanka Curiye ayaa ah kuwo si dabiici ah looga helo oogada dhulka.

Guruubyada[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Marka laga waramayo jadwalka miiska Diwaanka Curiye Guruubku waa guuto curiye isku astaan, dhaqan iyo calaamad ah kuwaas oo ku jira hal saf oo khaanadaha Diwaanka Curiye.

Shaxda jadwalka Diwaanka Curiye, oo uu sameeyay saynisyahan Ruush ah Dmitri Mendeleev, waxay ka kooban yihiin 18 Guruub kuwaas oo ey ku dhex jiraan dhamaan 118ka Curiye. Inkastoo guruubyadu ku magacaaban yihiin tirada guruubka oo u dhexaysa 1 ilaa 18 qaarkood waxay leeyihiin magacyo u gaar ah, kuwaas waxaa ka mid ah Guruubka 15aad oo lagu magacaabo Biniktojiin ama (Pnictogens), Guruubka 16aad oo ah Jaalkojiin (Chalcogens), Guruubka 17aad oo lagu naaneyso Halogens, iyo Guruubka 18aad oo loo yaqaano Neefta Gobta ama (Noble Gases). Waxayna kala yihiin: Guruubka 1aad (Birta Alkali), Guruubka 2aad (Birta Alkalineta Dhulka), Guruubka 3aad, Guruubka 4aad, Guruubka 5aad, Guruubka 6aad, Guruubka 7aad, Guruubka 8aad, Guruubka 9aad, Guruubka 10aad, Guruubka 11aad, Guruubka 12aad, Guruubka 13aad, Guruubka 14aad, Guruubka 15aad sidoo kale loo yaqaano Biniktojiin ama (Pnictogens), Guruubka 16aad Jaalkojiin (Chalcogens), Guruubka 17aad oo lagu naaneyso Halogens, iyo Guruubka 18aad oo loo yaqaano Neefta Gobta ama (Noble Gases).

Tirada curiye ee ku jirta khaanadaha guruubku way kala duwan yihiin. Qaarkood waxaa ku jira 8 curiye, kuwo kale wax ku dhex jira 6 curiye, halka guruubyada qaar ay ku dhex jiraan 4 curiye oo kali ah.

Heerarka[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Heerarka Diwaanka Curiye.

Qaabdhismeedka shaxda miiska lagu ururiyey curiyeyaasha ee loo yaqaano Diwaanka Curiye wuxuu leeyahay safaf khaanado u kala socdo kor iyo hoos (guruub), midig iyo bidix (heerka). Heerku (period) waa safafka khaanadaha ee ka bilaabma midig ilaa bidix ee miiska jadwalka curiyayaasha, kuwaas oo ah todoba saf (7) oo qeybta sare ka kooban tahay iyo labo saf oo ka hooseeya.

Curiyayaasha ku jira saf heerka isku midka ah waxay leeyihiin cuf atomik, awood aayano (ions), iyo is-heysad elektaroono isku mid ah. Ka soo biloow midig ilaa bidix tirada gacan-atomik hoos ayay u dhacdaa. Tani waxaa keentay isku xigida borotoonada iyo elektaroonada curiye ayaa aad ugu sii dhowaanaya bu'da atomka.

Si ka duwan guruubyada, Heerarka shaxda miiska diwaanka curiye ma lahan magacyo u gaar ah, laakiin waxaa lagu kala soocaa tiro kuwaas oo kala ah: heerka 1aad, heerka 2aad, heerka 3aad, heerka 4aad, heerka 5aad, heerka 6aad, iyo heerka 7aad. Intaas waxaa soo raaca labo saf oo ka hooseeya kuwaas oo kala ah Lanthanides iyo Actinides.

S-Block[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

S-blockta ku jirta Diiwaanka Curiye waa curiyeyaasha ku jira 2da guruub ee ugu horeeya guruubyada jadwalka Diwaanka Curiye. Kuwaas oo ka bilaabmaya guruubka 1aad iyo guruubka 2aad ee loo kala yaqaano Birta Alkali[22] iyo Birta Alkalineta Dhulka.

S-block curiyeyaasha ku jira waa kuwo intooda badan firfircoon oo leh astaamo iyo calaamado ka duwan dhamaan guruubyada kale ee Diwaanka Curiye.

In kastoo ay ku jiraan khaanado kale, Haydarojiin iyo Hiliyaam waxaa lagu tiriyaa guruubkan s-block.

Dhaqanka iyo astaamaha s-block waxay la xidhiidhaa tirada atomic[23] ee curiyuhu leeyahay, midaas oo sii korodha marka la sii dhexgalo diwaanka curiye. Labada guruub ee s-block waxay leeyihiin tirooyinka atomik ee hoos ku xusan:

Group 1:
Haydarojiin (Z=1), Liithiyaam (Z=3), Sodhiyaam (Z=11), Botashiyaam (Z=19), Rubiidhiyaam (Z=37), Kaasiyaam (Z=55), Faransiyaam (Z=87).
Group 2:
Beriiliyaam (Z=4), Magniisiyaam (Z=12), Kaalshiyaam (Z=20), Istoroontiyaam (Z=38), Baariyaam (Z=56), Raadhiyaam (Z=88).

D-Block[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

D-blockta ku jirta Diiwaanka Curiye waa curiyeyaasha ku jira guruubka 3aad ilaa guruubka 12aad[24][25]. Curiyeyaasha d-block waxaa sidoo kale loo yaqaanaa Transitional Metal[26].

D-block curiyayaasha ku jira waxay leeyihiin tiro atomik[24] ka bilaabanta s2d1 (Guruub 3) ilaa s2d10 (Guruub 12). Tusaale ahaan, Cr waa s1d5 (ma ahan s2d4); sidoo kale, birta Guruubka 11waxay noqonayaan s1d10 (ma ahan s2d9), taasi oo dhamaystireysa qolofka-d (d-subshell) ee Guruubka 11aad[25][27].

P-Block[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

P-blockta ku jirta Diiwaanka Curiye waa curiyeyaasha ku jira 6da guruub ee ugu dambeeya guruubyada jadwalkani, marka laga reebo Hiliyaamta oo ayadu ka mid ah s-block. Kuwaas oo ka bilaabmaya guruubka 12aa ilaa laga gaadho guruubka 18aad ee loo yaqaano Neefta Gobta (noble gases).

P-block waxaa ku jira dhamaan Bir Ma Ahe, birta daciifka ah iyo half-birta oo dhan.

F-Block[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

F-blockta ku jirta Diiwaanka Curiye waa curiyeha atomkiisa ama aayaniskiisu (ions) leeyihiin elektaroono hab wareeg f (f-orbital). Curiyayaashan waxaa sidoo kale loo yaqaanaa curiyayaasha dhexe ee transitionka[28].

Falgalka Curiye[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Ciwaano La Mid Ah[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Sidoo kale akhri:

Xigasho[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

  1. Greenwood, pp. 24–27
  2. Gray, p. 6
  3. Bury, C. R. (1921). "Langmuir's theory of the arrangement of electrons in atoms and molecules". J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 43 (7): 1602–1609. doi:10.1021/ja01440a023. 
  4. Koppenol, W. H. (2002). "Naming of New Elements (IUPAC Recommendations 2002)" (PDF). Pure and Applied Chemistry. 74 (5): 787–791. doi:10.1351/pac200274050787. 
  5. Gray, p. 6
  6. Emsley, John (2011). Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements (New ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-960563-7. 
  7. IUPAC, Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book") (1997). Online corrected version:  (2006–) "transition element".
  8. Bury, C. R. (1921). "Langmuir's theory of the arrangement of electrons in atoms and molecules". J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 43 (7): 1602–1609. doi:10.1021/ja01440a023. 
  9. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Jensen
  10. Petrucci, R. H. et al. (2002), “General Chemistry”, 8th edn, Prentice-Hall, pp. 49–50, 951
  11. Miessler, G. L. and Tarr, D. A. (1999) “Inorganic Chemistry”, 2nd edn, Prentice-Hall, p. 16
  12. Haire, Richard G. (2006). "Fermium, Mendelevium, Nobelium and Lawrencium". In Morss; Edelstein, Norman M.; Fuger, Jean. The Chemistry of the Actinide and Transactinide Elements (3rd ed.). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer Science+Business Media. ISBN 1-4020-3555-1. 
  13. Scerri 2007, p. 24
  14. Messler, R. W. (2010). The essence of materials for engineers. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers. p. 32. ISBN 0763778338. 
  15. Scerri 2007, p. 24
  16. Bagnall, K. W. (1967). "Recent advances in actinide and lanthanide chemistry". In Fields, PR; Moeller, T. Advances in chemistry, Lanthanide/Actinide chemistry. Advances in Chemistry. 71. American Chemical Society. pp. 1–12. doi:10.1021/ba-1967-0071. ISBN 0-8412-0072-6IUPAC, Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book") (1997). Online corrected version:  (2006–) "{{{title}}}". 
  17. Day, M. C.; Selbin, J. (1969). Theoretical inorganic chemistry (2nd ed.). New York, MA: Reinhold Book Corporation. p. 103. ISBN 0763778338. 
  18. Holman, J.; Hill, G. C. (2000). Chemistry in context (5th ed.). Walton-on-Thames: Nelson Thornes. p. 40. ISBN 0174482760. 
  19. Bagnall, K. W. (1967). "Recent advances in actinide and lanthanide chemistry". In Fields, PR; Moeller, T. Advances in chemistry, Lanthanide/Actinide chemistry. Advances in Chemistry. 71. American Chemical Society. pp. 1–12. doi:10.1021/ba-1967-0071. ISBN 0-8412-0072-6IUPAC, Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book") (1997). Online corrected version:  (2006–) "{{{title}}}". 
  20. Day, M. C.; Selbin, J. (1969). Theoretical inorganic chemistry (2nd ed.). New York, MA: Reinhold Book Corporation. p. 103. ISBN 0763778338. 
  21. Holman, J.; Hill, G. C. (2000). Chemistry in context (5th ed.). Walton-on-Thames: Nelson Thornes. p. 40. ISBN 0174482760. 
  22. http://www.cytss.edu.hk/chem/f67res/i1.pdf
  23. http://periodictable.com/Properties/A/ElectronConfigurationString.sp.html
  24. 24.0 24.1 R.H. Petrucci, W.S. Harwood and F.G. Herring “General Chemistry” (8th ed, Prentice-Hall 2002), p.341-2
  25. 25.0 25.1 C.E. Housecroft and A.G. Sharpe “Inorganic Chemistry” (2nd ed, Pearson Prentice-Hall 2005), p..20-21
  26. Jensen, William B. (2003). "The Place of Zinc, Cadmium, and Mercury in the Periodic Table" (PDF). Journal of Chemical Education. 80 (8): 952–961. Bibcode:2003JChEd..80..952J. doi:10.1021/ed080p952. 
  27. F.A. Cotton and G. Wilkinson “Advanced Inorganic Chemistry” (5th ed, John Wiley 1988) p.625
  28. Template:Greenwood&Earnshaw Chapters 30 and 31
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