Dowladii Umawiyiinta

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Khulafada Umawiyiinta


Khulafadii Umawiyiinta
الخلافة الأموية
Al-Ḫilāfa al-ʾumawiyya (Carabi)
Boqortooyo

 

 

661–750
 

Calan Islaam

Meeshii ugu sareeysay markeey boqortooyada Khulafada Cabaasiyiintu maraysay.
Caasimadda Dimishiq
(661–744)
Harran
(744–750)
Luqadaha Carabi (mida kowaad) – Kobtik, Giriig, Beershiyaan (luuqada kowaad ee deegaanada qaar ilaa maamulkii Abd al-Malik) – Aramayk, Armeniyaan, Berber, luuqado Afrikan ah, Joorjiyan, Hebrew, Turkic, Kurdish
Government Khulafo
Khaliif
 - 661–680 Mucawiya I
 - 744–750 Marwan II
History
 - Mucawiya ayaa noqday hogaamiye 661
 - Jabkii iyo dhimashadii Marwan II 750
Area
 - 750 C.D (132 H.K) 15,000,000 km2 (5,791,532 sq mi)
Population
 - qarnigii 7aad est. 62,000,000 
Lacagta Dahab dinar iyo dirham
Today part of
Warning: Value specified for "continent" does not comply

Khulafadii Umawiyiinta (ingiriis: Umayyad Caliphate; carabi: ﺍﻟﺨﻼﻓﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﻳﺔ ama ﺍﻷﻣﻮﻳﻮﻥ) waa waa dowladii Islaamka ee maamulka kala wareegtay Afarta Khulafo taasi oo uu aasaasay Khaliifka 5aad ee ku xigay Khulafo Raashidiinta. Boqortooyada Dawladdani waxaa sameeyay asxaabiga weyn ee Mucaawiya wakhti ka dambeeysay dhimashaddii Nebi Muxamed (c.s.w).[7] Boqortooyada waxaa aasaasey Mucawiya (af-carabi: ﺍﻷﻣﻮﻳﻮﻥ, ama ʾUmawiyyūn, sidoo kale ﺑﻨﻮ ﺃﻣﻴﺔ, Banū ʾUmayya) taasi oo saldhig u ahayd magaalada barakeysan ee Makka.[8] Ka dib maamulkii Cusmaan binu Cafaan (644–656), waxaa hogaanka dowladii Islaamka la wareegay Mucawiya binu Sufyaan oo si xoog ah ku qabsaday maamulka isla markaana ka dhigay hogaanka Islaamiyiinta mid dhaxaltooyo ah. Mucawiya wuxuu wakhti dheer masuul ka ahaa gobolada dalka Suuriya, markuu la wareegay maamulka dowladii Islaamkana wuxuu magaalo madax ka dhigtey caasimada Dimishiq.[9]


Si kastaba ha ahaatee, wakhtigii Umawiyiintu haysay hogaanka boqortooyadii Islaamka waxay gaadhsiiyeen dhul aad u balaadhan ayagoo qabsadey waqooyiga Afrika, dhamaan deegaanada Bariga dhexe, meelo ka mid ah Aasiyada kore ilaa meelo badan oo koonfurta Yurub ah sida wadanada Isbayn, Giriig iyo gasiiradaha u dhow.[10] Markey Dawladda Umawiyiintu mareysay meeshii ugu sareeysay waxay heeysatay dhul aad u balaadhan oo dhan 5.79 mayl labalaaban (15,000,000 km2), taasi oo ah boqortooyadii ugu balaadhneyd ee dunidu aragto iyo mida shanaad ee ugu weyn waligeed.

Bilowgii Umawiyiinta[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Khulafadii Mucaawiye[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Furashaddii iyo fiditaankii boqortooyada Islaamka wakhtigii Rashidiinta ee maamulka hayeen afarta khaliif. Kala qeybsanaanta meesha waxay ku tusaysaa wakhtiyadii kala duwanaa ee Khulafadii Rashiidiinta kuwaas oo ugu dambeeyay Cali goortii ay bilaabantey Fitnadii Kowaad.
  Xoogagii adkaa ee Khulafo Raashidiintu samaysay kuwaas oo ugu dambeeyay Calli wakhtigii Fitnadii Kowaad
  Gobolada uu maamulayay Mucaawiye goortii ay bilaabantey Fitnadii Kowaad
  Goboladii uu gacanta ku hayay Cumar ibn al-Cas wakhtigii Fitnadii Kowaad
Masaajidka Umawiyiinta kaasi oo la dhisey wakhtigii Mucaawiye maamulka Dawladda Islaamka gacanta ku hayay.
Maabka gobolada Dawladda Umawiyiintu ka talineeysay.

Mucaawiya (ingiriis: Muawiyah I; [carabi]]: معاوية ابن أبي سفيان, loogu dhawaaqo: Muʿāwiyah ibn ʾAbī Sufyān; 602 – April 29 or May 1, 680) waa asxaabiga dhisay boqortooyadii Umawiyiinta[11] ee ku xigtey maamulkii Khulafada ee Dawladda Islaamka.[12] Sidoo kale, wuxuu ahaa ninkii labaad ee khaliif noqda kaas oo ka soo jeeda qabiilka Umawiyiinta.[13]

Wakhtigii uu noolaa Nebi Muxamed (n.n.k.h) Mucaawiya wuxuu xoghaye[14] u ahaa nebiga, taas oo xataa markuu dhintey uu jagadaasi u sii hayay khulafadii la wareegtay hogaanka dowladii Islaamka sida Abu Bakar iyo Cumar (Cumar bin Khataab).[15] Intaas waxaa dheer, Mucaawiya wuxuu ka qayb galay dagaalo badan iyo qaswado xoog leh, waxaana tusaale fiican inoo ah dagaalkii lagu furtey Suuriya ee lagaga guuleystay boqortooyadii Baaysantiin, deegaankaasi oo markii dambe lagu wareejiyay hogaanka Mucaawiya.[16]

Taariikhda[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Maamulkii Umawiyiinta[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

Xigasho[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta]

  1. The Peoples, Sekene Mody Cissoko, History of Humanity:From the Seventh to the Sixteenth Century, Vol. IV, ed. M.A. Al-Bakhit, L. Bazin and S.M. Cissoko, (UNESCO, 2008), 1190.[1]
  2. Jonathan Miran, Red Sea Citizens: Cosmopolitan Society and Cultural Change in Massawa, (Indiana University Press, 2009), 100.[2]
  3. Khalid Yahya Blankinship, The End of the Jihad State: The Reign of Hisham Ibn 'Abd al-Malik and the Collapse of the Umayyads, (SUNY Press, 1994), 286.[3]
  4. Khalid Yahya Blankinship, The End of the Jihad State: The Reign of Hisham Ibn 'Abd al-Malik and the Collapse of the Umayyads, 147.[4]
  5. Stefan Goodwin, Africas Legacies Of Urbanization: Unfolding Saga of a Continent, (Rowman & Littlefield, 2006), 85.[5]
  6. Islam in Somali History:Fact and Fiction, Mohamed Haji Muktar, The Invention of Somalia, ed. Ali Jimale Ahmed, (The Red Sea Press, Inc., 1995), 3.[6]
  7. "(ingiriis: Umayyad Caliphate; carabi: ﺍﻟﺨﻼﻓﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﻳﺔ ama ﺍﻷﻣﻮﻳﻮﻥ)"
  8. "labaad ee maamuladii afarta khulafo Islaamka ee la sameeyay dhimashaddii Nebi Muxamed (c.s.w)"
  9. "Mucawiya wuxuu wakhti dheer masuul ka ahaa gobolada dalka Suuriya"
  10. "Aasiyada kore ilaa meelo badan oo koonfurta Yurub ah sida wadanada Isbayn, Giriig"
  11. Caliph and Caliphate: Oxford Bibliographies Online Research Guide. Books.google.ca. http://books.google.ca/books?id=EmN8tCx_jR4C&pg=PA10&dq=first+Umayyad+Caliph&hl=en&sa=X&ei=ekTzUJO1M8G9rQGyuICADg&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=first%20Umayyad%20Caliph&f=false. Retrieved 2013-04-30.
  12. The Umayyad Dynasty at the University 0f Calgary
  13. Al-Tabari, Muhammad ibn Jarir. The History of the Prophets and Kings (Tarikh al-Rusul wa al-Muluk), Vol. 18 Between Civil Wars: The Caliphate of Mu'awiyah 40 A.H., 661 A.D.-60 A.H., 680 A.D. (Michael G. Morony).
  14. Sahih Muslim, The book of (Virtues of the companions), narration no. [6409]:168-(2501) numbered by mohammad fo'ad abdul-baqi
  15. AD 2036 Is the End: The Truth about the Second Coming of Christ and the meaning of life, p. 77. By Christian Jacobsen [7]
  16. A Chronology Of Islamic History 570-1000 CE, By H.U. Rahman 1999 Page 48 and Page 52-53