Hilaalee dynasty

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Boqorkii ugu horreeyay ee Maldivian-ta Hilaalee wuxuu ahaa Xasan I oo reer Maldives ah, isagana waxaa lagu dhawaaqay boqornimada sanadkii 1388 AD. Dawladdii Hilali waxay ahayd Dawladdii Somaalida . Qoraallada taariikhiga ah iyo taariikh-dhaqameedyada qaarkood waxay muujinayaan in Daroodkan uu ka soo jeedo soomalida . Waxay u muuqataa inay ahaayeen safar iyo ganacsadeyaal Ajuran Empire halkaas oo ay gumeysi ka sameeyeen jasiiradaha Maldive . Waxay degeen Hlhule 'lab' atoll. Qaar ka mid dukumiintiyada taariikhiga ah waxay muujinayaan in Hilali Kalo Hassan uu xukunka ka tuuray King Uthman Rasgefaan, kaasoo ahaa boqorka xukunka wakhtigaas isla markaana ay ka caroodeen isaga iyo wasiirradiisa oo dhan. Kadib Hilai Kalo Hassan waxay bilaabatay Dawladii Hilai. Dawladdii Hilaalee waxay ahayd mid ka hooseysa boqortooyadii Garen Dynasty . [1]

Markii Ibnu Battuta booqday jasiiradahaas, gudoomiyaha jasiiradda waagaas wuxuu ahaa Cabdicasiis Al Mogadishawi, oo Soomaali ah . oo ka mid ahaa xubnaha ugu caansan ka mid ah guri ammaan Hilaalee, Oo isna wuxuu ahaa taliyihii ah oo ka mid ah jasiiradaha Maldives. Abd al-Aziz sidoo kale wuxuu ku caanbaxay soo dhaweyntiisii Ibnu Battuta ee maxkamaddiisa, wuu u hibeeyay ka hor intuusan siin caqabad uu ku sii wado safarkiisa. [2]

Jiritaanka iyo mowqifka sare ee Abd al-Aziz waxa uu carrabka ku adkeeyay isku xirnaanta dhow ee u dhaxaysa Maldive-ta Maldives iyo Soomaalidii ka timid Muqdisho ee ka shiraacday Badweynta Hindiya .[3]

Maldives waxay noqotay middii ugu weyneyd ee addoomo loo diro Koonfurta Aasiya dhammaadkii qarnigii 16aad. Addoommada Maldivian waxaa loo diray Pasai markab Gujarati. Qaar ka mid ah ganacsatada sida kuwa ka yimid Banten ayaa doorbiday inay naftooda u safraan Maldives si ay u iibsadaan addoomo. [4]

Dukaamada Cowrie ee Maldives waxay ahaan jireen lacagta ugu weyn galbeedka Afrika qarniyo, waxayna ahayd dhoofinta ugu weyn ee dhoofinta muddada-dhexe inta lagu gudajiray ganacsiga . [5]

Name Monarch from Monarch until Notes
Sultan Hassan I 1388 1398 First of the Hilaaly dynasty. Son of Golhaavahi Kambulo (probably a Lunar dynasty lady) and Kulhiveri Hilaalu Kaeulhanna Kaloge son of Muslim Abbas of Hulhule
Sultan Ibrahim I 1398 1398 Son of Sultan Hassan I. Deposed by his uncle Hussain.
Sultan Hussain I 1398 1409 Brother of Sultan Hassan I. Assumed the throne after deposing his nephew Sultan Ibrahim I.
Sultan Nasiruddine 1409 1411 Introduced the Islamic penal code. Possibly a member of the Lunar dynasty
Sultan Hassan II 1411 1411 Drowned in a tank.
Sultan Isa 1411 1411 Brother of Sultan Hassan II.
Sultan Ibrahim I 1411 1421 Second reign, first reigned in 1398.
Sultan Osman II 1421 1421 Son of Sultan Osman I.
Sultan Danna Mohamed 1421 1421 Uncle of Sultan's Hassan I and Hussain I. Prime Minister to Osman I
Sultan Yoosuf II 1421 1443 Son of Sultan Hassan I
Sultan Aboobakuru I 1443 1443 Son of Sultan Hassan I half brother of Sultan Yoosuf II. Killed in battle with the Portuguese who came to summon the Council of Ministers of the Maldives to Cochin.
Sultan Hasan III 1443 1467 Son of Sultan Aboobakuru I. Deposed by Sayyid Mohamed while abroad.
Sultan Sayyid Mohamed 1467 1467 Possible descendant of the Prophet Muhammad. Deposed by Sultan Hassan III upon returning to Maldives.
Sultan Hasan III 1467 1468 Second reign.
Sultan Mohamed II 1468 1480 Son of Sultan Hasan III.
Sultan Hassan IV 1480 1480 Son of Sultan Mohamed II. Deposed by Omar II.
Sultan Omar II 1480 1484 Son of Sultan Yoosuf II.
Sultan Hassan V 1484 1485 Son of Sultan Omar II.
Sultan Hassan IV 1485 1491 Second reign.
Sultan Hassan VI 1491 1492 Grandson of Sultan Aboobakuru I.
Sultan Ibrahim II 1492 1492 Son of Omar II.
Sultan Kalu Mohamed 1492 1492 Son of Sultan Omar II. Deposed by his brother Yoosuf.
Sultan Yoosuf III 1492 1493 Son of Sultan Omar II.
Sultan Ali II 1493 1495 Grandson of Sultan Hassan I.
Sultan Kalu Mohamed 1495 1510 Second reign. Son of Sultan Omar II Deposed for a second time, this time by his nephew Hassan.
Sultan Hassan VII 1510 1511 Son of Sultan Yoosuf III.
Sultan Sharif Ahmed 1511 1513 An Arab from Mecca. Possible descendant of Muhammad
Sultan Ali III 1513 1513 Killed in a duel with his sister Burecca (Buraki Raani). Grandson of Sultan Aboobakuru I. Son of Mohamed Farhana Kalo and Recca daughter of Aboobakuru I
Sultan Kalu Mohamed 1513 1529 Third accession assisted by his wife princess (later queen) Burecca who killed her brother Ali III
Sultan Hassan VIII 1529 1549 Son of Sultan Kalu Mohamed and Fatuma Dio, a concubine from Shiraz in Persia.
Sultan Mohamed III 1549 1551 Assassinated by his brother Hassan succeeded him. Son of Golhavahi Aysha Rani Kilege and Omar Maafaiy Kilege son of Kalu Mohamed and Aysha Rani Kilege daughter of Korari Kilege. Therefore, Grandson of Sultan Kalu Mohamed.
Sultan Hassan IX 1551 1552 Brother of Mohamed III. He was the first Maldivian and only member of its royalty to renounce Islam and convert to Christianity. He was deposed upon conversion, and known subsequently by the Lusitanian name of Dom Manoel.
Interregnum 1552 1554 Maldives ruled by a Council of Ministers.
Sultan Aboobakuru II 1554 1557 Son of Ibrahim Faarhana Kilege and Sanfa Dio. Former Prime Minister to Dom Manoel.
Sultan Ali IV 1557 1558 Killed in battle. Son of Prime Minister Abdur Rahman Dorhimeyna Kaloge and Sitti Rani Kilege. He was married to Princess Aysha Rani Kilege, aunt of Dom Manoel and daughter of Kalu Mohamed.
King Dom Manoel ( Sultan Hassan IX ) 1558 1573 Restored as the king. Formerly known as Sultan Hassan IX. A Maldivian Catholic named Andiri Andirin acted as his regent, while Manoel lived in Goa.
Interregnum 1573 1573 Maldives ruled by Kateeb Mohamed Thakurufan of Utheemu after he assassinated Andiri Andirin, the regent of King Dom Manoel. As per a treaty he got refuge from Ali Raja of Cannanore, Mohamed Thakurufan's base of operation was Minicoy under the sovereignty of Cannanore. Keteeb Mohamed Thakurufan did not honour this promise. The Ali Raja demanded dominion over the Maldives, as promised to him by the Kateeb of Uteem.

The nature of the relationship between Kateeb Mohamed Thakurufan and the Ali Raja of Cannanore was outlined in a letter sent by a later Ali Raja, Mariambe Ali-Adi Raja Bibi, to the Sultan Mohamed Mueenuddine I of the Maldives. The letter was dated Friday 17 Jamada-el-oula Anno Hegirae 1243 (7 December AD 1827). According to the letter Mohamed Thakurufan had entered into a treaty ceding sovereignty of the Maldives to the Ali Raja of Cannanore in the event Thakurufan was established in power in Male. (refer page 294 of Divehi Tarikh).

King Dom Manoel ( Sultan Hassan IX ) 1573 1583 Kateeb Mohamed Thakurufan concluded a Treaty with King Dom Manoel in order to ward off the Ali Raja of Cannanore with whose help the Kateeb seized power in Male.

Under the treaty, Dom Manoel was restored but remained in Goa. The co-regents were Kateeb Mohamed Thakurufan of Utheem and his brother Hassan Thakurufan. The kateeb conferred on himself the title of sultan in 1583 upon Dom Manoel's death. This was in breach of the Treaty and was not legally binding.

King Dom João ( Son of Sultan Hassan IX ) 1583 1603 Son of King Manoel, who remained in Goa. He had two brothers, Dom Francisco and Dom Pedro. Kateeb Mohamed Thakurufan and his brother Hassan Thakurufan ruled for King Dom João as co-regents. Kateeb Mohamed Thakurufan assumed the title of Sultan following the death of King Dom Manoel. He married a Portuguese Christian noblewoman, Donna Francisca Vasconelles and had two children, Dom Philippe and Dona Inez.

Ibrahim, also known as Kalaafaan (literally "Lord") was the de facto sultan, but legally the regent of Kings Dom João and Dom Philippe who resided in Goa. He reigned from 1585 to 1609. Son of Mohamed Thakurufan, kateeb of Utheemu and Rehendiye Goyye daughter of Cat Fatima of Boarhi Woods in Baarah.

Ibrahim Kalaafaan was the regent at the time of Pyrard's detainment in the Maldives after the shipwreck.

King Dom Philippe ( Grandson of Sultan Hassan IX ) 1603 1632 Son of King Dom João and Donna Francisca Vasconelles. Hussain Faamuladeyri Kilege acted as regent from 1609 to 1620. Muhammad Imaduddin I acted as regent from 1620 to 1632. De-recognised in the Maldives after an abortive expedition with Portuguese assistance in order to abolish regency and assume power.

references[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

  • Liistada Sultans of Maldives
  • Liiska magacyada Sunnida Muslimka
  1. Dhivehi raajje: a portrait of Maldives By Adrian Neville pg 6
  2. Ibn Batuta, 1304-1377. (2004). Gray, Albert, 1850-1928., Defrémery, C., Sanguinetti, B. R. (Beniamino Raffaello), 1811-1883. (4th reprint ed.). Asian Educational Services. ISBN 8120612191. OCLC 655654634 https://www.worldcat.org/oclc/655654634.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)
  3. Ibn Batuta, 1304-1377. (2004). Gray, Albert, 1850-1928., Defrémery, C., Sanguinetti, B. R. (Beniamino Raffaello), 1811-1883. (4th reprint ed.). Asian Educational Services. ISBN 8120612191. OCLC 655654634 https://www.worldcat.org/oclc/655654634.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)
  4. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named :0
  5. S. Hogendorn, Jan. p. 31 https://doi.org/10.1080/01440398108574822.  Barameter aan la aqoon |url-status= ignored (caawin); Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)