Dhulkii punt

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Muuqaal ku yaal Punt, oo muujinaya guryo dhowr ah oo ku yaal dhir udgoon, laba geedo timir timir ah, saddex geed oo malmal ah, shimbir ( Hedydipna metallica ), lo'da, iyo kalluun aan la garanayn iyo qoolleyda, biyo ku jira oo markii hore ahaa cagaar si ay u muujiso inay tahay cusbo ama dhareer. [1] Sketch derbigii alwaax ee Hatshepsut ee Deir el-Bahri, oo muujinaya socdaalkii boqornimada ee Punt.

The Land of Punt ( Masri : pwnt ; akhrinta kale ee loo yaqaan ' Egiptological akhrin' Pwene ( t ) [2], ku dhawaaqida / pu: nt /) waxay ahayd boqortooyo qadiim ah. Lammaane uu ganacsi ee Masar, waxaa lagu yaqaan soo saarka iyo dhoofinta dahabka, beduliyum Beeyada, blackwood, haabniim, foolka maroodiga iyo xayawaanka duurjoogta ah. Gobolka waxaa lagu yaqaanaa diiwaannada qadiimiga ah ee Masaarida ee socodsiinta ganacsiga. [3] Waa macquul inay u dhigantaa Opone geeska Afrika, oo markii dambe loo yaqaanay Gariiggii hore, halka qaar ka mid ah culimada Baybalka ay ku tilmaameen dhulka kitaabiga ah ee Put ama Havilah . [4] [5]

Mararka qaarkood Punt waxaa loo yaqaan Ta netjer ( tꜣ nṯr ), "Dhulkii Eebbe". [6] Meesha saxda ah ee Punt weli waxaa ka doodaya taariikhyahanno. Inta badan culimada maanta waxay aaminsan yihiin in Punt ay ku taal koonfur-bari Masar, oo ay u badan tahay gobolka xeebta ee casriga ah ee Jabuuti, Soomaaliya, waqooyi-bari Itoobiya, Eritrea, iyo xoola-dhaqatada Badda Cas ee Suudaan . [7] Waxaa kale oo suurtogal ah in dhulku daboolay labada gees ee Afrika iyo Koonfurta Carabiya . [8] [9] Puntland, gobolka maamul ee Soomaaliya ee ku yaal geeska geeska Afrika, waxaa loo magacaabay tixraaca Land Punt. [10]

Safarada Masar ee Punt[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Wareeggii hore ee duullimaadyadii Masaarida ee hore ee loo soo daayay ee Punt wuxuu abaabulay Fircoon Sahure oo uu ka mid ahaa kii Dawladii Dawladii Shanaad (25aad ee la xusayo), isaga oo soo saaray xamuulkii antyue iyo Puntites. Si loo noqdo, dahabka waxaa lagu qoray diiwaangelin si aad u joogtid dalka Masar ilaa iyo xilligii Fircoon Khufu ee Dawladii Afaraad[11]

Intaa ka dib, waxaa jiray duulimaadyo badan oo ku socday Punt lixdnaad, kow iyo tobnaad, laba- iyo- tobnaad iyo siddeed iyo tobnaadkii Masriyiintii Masar. Qarnigii laba iyo tobnaad, ganacsiga lala yeesho Punt waxaa lagu xusaa suugaanta caanka ah ee Tale of Shipwrecked Sailor .

Waagii boqornimadii Mentuhotep III (11-daadkii boqortooyadii, sanadki 2000 BC), sarkaal magaciisu yahay Hannu wuxuu abaabulay mid ama ka badan oo safar ah Punt, laakiin lama hubo inuu shaqsiyan u safray safaradaas. Hawlgallada meheradaha ee 12-kii boqoradood ee boqortooyooyinka Senusret I, Amenemhat II iyo Amenemhat IV ayaa sidoo kale si guul leh ugu socdaalay dhanka iyo ka imaanshaha dhulka qarsoon ee Punt. [12] [13]

Qarnigii siddeed iyo tobnaad ee Masar, Hatshepsut waxay dhistay maraakiib Badda Cas ah si ay ugu fududaato ganacsiga u dhexeeya madaxa gacanka Aqaba iyo dhibco ilaa koonfurta ilaa Punt si ay ugu keento alaabada guriga Karnak iyada oo lagu beddelayo dahabkii Nubian. Hatshepsut waxay shaqsiyan u sameysay safarkii Masriyiinta ee caanka ahaa ee u safray Punt. Farshaxannadeeyaasheeda ayaa wax badan ka sheegaya royals, dadka degan, hoyga iyo geedaha kala duwan ee jasiiradda, iyagoo ku muujinaya "Dhulkii ilaahyada, waa gobol aad uga fog bariga jihada qorrax soo baxa, oo ay ku barakeeyeen alaabo ujeedooyin diimeed", halkaas oo ganacsatadu ay la soo noqdeen dahab, fool maroodi, geed foolxun, foox, qoryo udgoon, hargaha xayawaanka, xayawaanka nool, waxyaabaha la isku qurxiyo ee indhaha lagu qurxiyo, qoryaha udgoon, iyo qorfe. Intii lagu jiray boqornimadii Boqortooyada Hatshepsut qarnigii 15aad ee BC, maraakiibta ayaa si joogto ah uga gudubta Badda Cas si ay u helaan bitumen, naxaas, macmacaan xardhan, naptha iyo alaabada kale ee laga dhoofiyo dhulka hoostiisa iyo hoos Badda Dhimatay ee loo yaqaan Elat. madaxa buundada Aqaba halkaas oo ay weheliso frankincense iyo malmal waqooyiga labadaba dhanka badda iyo dusha sare ee wadooyinka ganacsiga ee u dhexeysa buuraha ku teedsan waqooyiga dhanka xeebta bari ee Badda Cas. [14]

Geed horteeda macbudka Hatshepsut, ayaa sheegtey in laga keenay Punt by Safarka Hatshepsut, kaas oo lagu muujiyey darbiyada macbudka

Warbixin of tahay in dhoofkanu lahaan shan markab waaqsado on reliefs in meydka Hatshepsut ayaa macbudka ugu Deir el-Bahri .Inta qoraallada macbudka oo dhan, Hatshepsut "waxay haysaa khayaali ah in ergeygeeda" Chancellor Nehsi, oo lagu xuso madaxa duulista, uu u safray Punt "si uu uga soo saaro qadarinta dadka ka soo jeeda" oo qiray inay daacad u yihiin Fircoon Masar. [15] Xaqiiqdii, Socdaalkii Nehsi wuxuu ahaa hawlgal ganacsi oo fudud oo uu u aado dhul, Punt, kaasoo xilligan ahaa goob ganacsi oo si wanaagsan loo aasaasay. Intaa ka sokow, booqashada Nehsi ee Punt ma ahayn mid si geesinimo leh u kacsan maadaama uu "wehelinayay ugu yaraan shan markab oo kuwa Masaarida ah" waxaana si diiran u salaamay madaxa Punt iyo qoyskiisa dhow. [16] Puntites "kuma ganacsan keliya wax soo saarkooda cadar, cambaarta iyo lo'da gaagaaban, laakiin sidoo kale alaab ayay ka yimaadeen waddamada kale ee Afrika oo ay ku jiraan dahabka, foolka maroodiga iyo hargaha maqaarka." [15] Sida ku xusan qodobbada macbudka, Dhulka Punt waxaa xukumi jiray King Parahu iyo Boqoradda Ati. [17] Socdaalkan sifiican loo sharxay ee Hatshepsut wuxuu dhacay Sannadkii 9aad ee boqornimadii Fircoon ee ducadii Aamoos .

Askarta Masaarida ah ee duulaanka Hatshepsut u aaday dhanka dhulka Punt sida ku xusan macbudkeeda ku yaal Deir el-Bahri .

In kasta oo ay Masriyiintu "si gaar ah ugu fiicnayn halista safarka badda, iyo safarka dheer ee Punt, waa inay u muuqdeen wax la mid ah safarka dayaxa ee sahamiyaasha maanta ... abaalmarinada [helitaanka frankincense, ebony iyo malmal] wuxuu si cad u sheegay khataraha. " [18] Guushii Hatshepsut ee 18-aad ee boqortooyooyinka, sida Thutmose III iyo Amenhotep III ayaa sidoo kale sii waday dhaqankii Masaarida ee la-ganacsiga Punt. [19] Ganacsiga Punt wuxuu sii waday bilowgii qarnigii 20aad ka hor inta uusan dhammaan kahor dhamaadka Boqortooyada Masar cusub . Papyrus Harris I, dukumenti casri ah oo Masaar ah oo sheegaya dhacdooyin faahfaahsan oo ka dhacay boqornimadii boqoradii hore ee boqortooyadii Ramesses III, waxaa ku jira sharaxaad cad oo ku saabsan soo laabashada Masriyiinta ee ka soo laabashada Punt:

Dhamaadka muddadii Boqortooyada Cusuba, Punt wuxuu noqday "dhul aan macquul ahayn oo cajaa'ibyo iyo halyeeyo ah." [20] Si kastaba ha ahaatee, Masriyiintii sii waday in ay ka koobanahay jacaylka heeso ku saabsan Puntland, "Markii aan qaban dhow jeclaatay, Oo gacmaheedana way ka xadaan igu wareegsan, waxaan ahay sida nin loo tarjumay in Punt, ama sida qof baxay reedflats ah, marka dunida si lama filaan ah ubax ubax ". [21]

Gargaarkan ayaa muujinaya geedo foox iyo malmal oo ay ka heleen safarkii Hatshepsut ee Punt

Waqtiyada qaar, Masaaridii hore waxay ugu yeeri jireen Punt Ta netjer ( tꜣ nṯr ), oo macnaheedu yahay "Dhulkii Eebbe". [22] Tani waxay tilmaamaysaa xaqiiqada ah inay ka mid ahayd gobollada Qorraxda Sun, oo ah, gobollada ku yaal jihada qorrax-soo-baxa, illaa Bariga Masar. Kheyraadka gobollada bari waxaa ka mid ahaa alaabada loo isticmaalo macbudyada, gaar ahaan fooxa. Suugaanta hore (iyo suugaanta aan hadda guud ahayn) waxay ilaalisay in sumadda "Dhulkii Ilaah", markii loo tarjumay "Dhul Quduus ah" ama "Dhulkii ilaahyada / awoowayaasha", ay macnaheedu ahayd in Masriyiintii hore ay u arkayeen Land Punt inay tahay waddankoodii hore. . WM Flinders Petrie waxay rumeysan tahay in Dynastic Race ay ka timid ama soo martay Punt iyo in "Pan, ama Punt, ay ahayd degmo ku taal koonfurta koonfur galbeed Badda Cas, oo laga yaabo inay qabsato labada xeebta Afrika iyo Carabta." [23] Intaa waxaa dheer, EA Wallis Budge wuxuu sheegay in "Dhaqanka Masar ee xilligi Dynastic uu qabtey in guriga abtirsiinyada Masriyiinta ay tahay Punt ...". [24] Si kastaba ha ahaatee, Ta netjer dheer ma codsatay kaliya in ay Puntland, oo ku yaalla koonfur bari ee Masar, laakiin sidoo kale in gobollada Asia bari iyo waqooyi-bari ee Masar, sida Lubnaan, kaas oo ahaa isha ka mid ah qoriga macbudyo. [25]

Xaraashka macbudka Hatshepsut ee ku yaal Deir el-Bahri, Boqorka iyo boqoradda Punt ayaa lagu sawiray iyaga iyo taariikhdooda. Sababtoo ah muuqaalkeedii aan caadiga ahayn, Boqoraddu mararka qaarkood mala-awaashay in ay qabatay steatopygia horumarsan [26] ama elephantiasis . Hase yeeshee, iyadu waxa ay hadda Caafimaad ahaan la aqoonsan yahay sida isagoo tahay haystay Queen of Punt syndrome, Suite ka mid ah xaaladaha ay ku jiraan qoys cayilka, Launois Bensaude lipomatosis, cudurka Dercum, halsiata, lagu dhasho lipodystrophy, achondroplasia, X-lala hypophosphatemia, iyo Proteus cilad .

Meesha ugu weyn ee la soo jeediyay[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Meelaha la filayo ee ku xeeran Badda Cas iyo waddooyinka waaweyn ee safarka ah ee u dhexeeya dhulka iyo badda

Geeska Afrika[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Badi fikradaha ayaa ah Punt oo ku taal Waqooyi-bari Afrika, oo ku saleysan xaqiiqada ah in badeecada Punt (sida lagu muujiyey sawirada Hatshepsut) laga helay Geeska Afrika laakiin aad u yar ama mararka qaarkood ka maqnaa Arabia. Alaabooyinkan waxaa ka mid ah dahab iyo miro udgoon leh sida myrrh, frankincense, iyo ubax ; xayawaanka duurjoogta ah ka muujinayaa in Puntland ka mid gariga, baboons, hippotamuses, iyo shabeelka . Richard Pankhurst wuxuu yiri: “[Punt] waxaa loo aqoonsaday dhul ku yaal labada marin ee Carbeed iyo Geeska Afrika labadaba. Tixgelinta qodobbada ay Masriyiintu ka heleen Punt, gaar ahaan dahabka iyo foolka maroodiga, waxay soo jeedinayaan, si kastaba ha noqotee, in kuwan hore ay ahaayeen kuwa Afrika Tani waxay noo horseedaysa inaan ka soo qaadno in ereyga "Punt" laga yaabo inuu Afrika ka badan ka adeegsan jiray dhulka carabta. " [3] [27]

Sanadkii 2010, daraasad hidde ayaa lagu sameeyay haraaga ladilay ee digaaga oo ay dib uga soo celiyeen Punt Masriyiintii hore. Hogaaminayo kooxda cilmi-ka ah Museum Masaarida iyo University of California, Santa Cruz, saynisyahano loo isticmaalo oxygen isotope falanqaynta in la baaro timaha ka laba mumiyayaasha daanyeer in la sii raagayaan ee Museum British . Mid ka mid ah dhir-daarayaasha ayaa lahaa khaldan macluumaadka keli-taliska, sidaa darteed qiyamka kale ee oksijiinka kale waxaa la barbar dhigay kuwa muunad-xayawaannada casriga ah laga soo qaatay gobollada xiisaha leh. Baarayaasha ayaa marka hore ogaadey in xabadaha ay aad ugu dhowyihiin muunado casri ah oo laga arkay Ereteriya iyo Ethiopia oo ay ka soo horjeedaan kuwa deriska la ah Soomaaliya, iyada oo muunadada Itoobiya "asal ahaan ay ka dambeyso galbeedka Eritrea." Kooxda fursad uma helin inay isbarbar dhigaan hooyooyinka iyo daanyeerada Yemen . Saynisyahannada ayaa rumeysan in falanqaynta noocan ahi ay soo saari doonaan natiijooyin tan la mid ah maadaama, marka loo eego, khariidadaha goonni-isu-taagga ah ee gobolka ay soo jeedinayaan in daayeerrada ku sugan Yemen ay si dhow ula mid noqon doonaan kuwa jooga Soomaaliya. Borofisar Dominy, oo ka mid ah hoggaamiyeyaasha cilmi-baarista ayaa gabagabada ku soo gabagabeeyey "waxaan u maleyneynaa in Punt waa nooc ka mid ah gobolka ay ku habboon tahay oo ay ku jiraan bariga Itoobiya iyo dhammaan Eritrea." Sanadkii 2015, saynisyahannadu waxay sameeyeen daraasad dabagal ah oo lagu xaqiijinayo waxyaabihii u horeeyey, waxayna ku soo gabagabeeyeen "natiijooyinkayagu waxay muujinayaan ciyaar aad u sareysa oo ka socota bariga Soomaaliya iyo dariiqa Eritrea iyo Ethiopia, iyagoo soo jeedinaya in gobolkani ahaa isha Papio. hamadryas loo dhoofiyay Masar hore. " Bishii Juun 2018, archaeologists Polish ah oo cilmi baaris ku sameynayay Macbadka "Hatshepsut" tan iyo 1961 waxay ogaadeen muuqaalka kaliya ee shimbiraha xogaha ah ( Sagittarius agwọarius ) oo loo yaqaanay Masar qadiimiga ah ee ku taal aagga Bas-ka ee Portico of Punt oo muujiyey Socdaalkii weyn ee Fircoon ee ku socday Dhulkii Punt. Xoghaynta shimbiraha waxay ku nooshahay kaliya dhul daaqsimeedka furan ee Afrika iyo savannah, waxaa lagu sheegay liiska shimbiraha laga helay Suudaan, Itoobiya, Ereteriya, Jabuuti, iyo Soomaaliya, shimbirahaas lagama helo Carabiya. [28]

sida uu qabo Papyrus Harris I, dukumenti casri ah oo Masaar ah oo sheegaya dhacdooyin faahfaahsan oo ka dhacay boqornimadii boqoradii hore ee boqortooyadii Ramesses III, waxaa ku jira sharaxaad cad oo ku saabsan soo laabashada Masriyiinta ee ka soo laabatay Punt: hey si nabad ah ayaa ku timid dalkii la degay ee Coptos: Waxay si nabad ah ugu ruxruxaan iyagoo wata alaabtii ay keeneen. Alaabtii waxaa lagu xardhay badda dusheeda, iyo dameeraha, iyo dadka, oo lagu soo celiyey doonyaha ku yaal dekedaha Koptos. Iyagu [alaabada iyo Puntites] ayaa loo diray xagga hoose, iyagoo soo galaya iyagoo faraxsan oo boqornimadiisa jooga. reer egyptiis waxay u safreen gobol koonfurta koonfureed ku yaal egpyt si ay uhelaan rakaabka punt. Sida laga soo xigtay isha ay u safreen gobol hadda ku yaal gacanta maamulka Qena ee Masar qiyaastii 43 km (27 mi) waqooyiga magaalada Luxor ee koonfurta egypt halkaas oo ay ku safraan dhanka hoose taas oo si aan caadi aheyn u dhiganta aagga koonfureed ee egypt agagaarka agagaarka geeska afrika. Sida laga soo xigtay ilaha egytian.. [29]


Meelaha kale ee la soo jeediyay[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Jasiiradda carabta[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Dimitri Meeks wuxuu ku raacsan yahay mala-awaalka Geeska Afrika wuxuuna farta ku fiiqay qoraallo qadiim ah oo tilmaamaya in Punt ku taal xeebta galbeed ee Jasiiradda Carbeed, laga soo bilaabo Gacanka Aqaba ilaa Yemen, wuxuu qoray "Qoraallada muujinaya Punt ee shakiga laga qabo in koonfurta ay ku sugan yihiin Tirada dadka laga tirada badan yahay, laakiin waa kuwa keliya ee lagu soo qaatay istiraatiijiyadda hadda jirta ee ku saabsan meesha uu dalku ku yaal, Punt, waxaa noo sheegay in Masriyiintu ku sugan yihiin - la xiriirta dooxada Niil - labada waqooyi, xiriir la leh waddamada Bariga Ugu dhow aagga Mediterranean, iyo sidoo kale bari ama koonfur-bari, halka xudduudaha ugu fog ay aad uga fog yihiin koonfurta. Kaliya Jasiiradda Carbeed ayaa qancisa tilmaamahan oo dhan. " [8]

Punt sida ku cad Sawirkii hore ee Masar[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

Pa-rehu, the Prince of Punt, his wife and his two sons, and a daughter. (1902) - TIMEA.jpg



Boqoradda Ati iyo King Perahu ee Punt iyo ka soo qeyb galayaashiisa sida lagu sawiray macbudka Fircoon Hatshepsut ee ku yaal Deir el-Bahri.
Men from Punt Carrying Gifts, Tomb of Rekhmire MET 30.4.152 EGDP013029.jpg



Rag ka socda Punt oo watay hadiyado, Baadiyaha Rekhmire
Pwenet.gif







Higgaadinta Masaarida "pwenet"



dhamaadka "d" dhediga lama sheegin inta lagu gudajiray Boqortooyada



Calaamadda ugu dambeysa waa go'aaminta dalka, dhulka
Punthouse01.gif



Gargaarka darbiga
Punthouse02.jpg



Guryo sidii iyagoo gargaar ah

Tixraacyada[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

  1. http://digital.library.upenn.edu/women/edwards/pharaohs/pharaohs-8.html
  2. Ian Shaw & Paul Nicholson, The Dictionary of Ancient Egypt, British Museum Press, London. 1995, p.231.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Shaw & Nicholson, p.231.
  4. Albright, W.F (1922). "The Location of the Garden of Eden". American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures. 39 (1): 20. JSTOR 528684. 
  5. Sadler, Jr., Rodney (2009). "Put". New Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible 4. Red. Katharine Sakenfeld. Nashville: Abingdon Press. 691–92. 
  6. Breasted, John Henry (1906–1907), Ancient Records of Egypt: Historical Documents from the Earliest Times to the Persian Conquest, collected, edited, and translated, with Commentary, p.433, vol.1
  7. Simson Najovits, Egypt, trunk of the tree, Volume 2, (Algora Publishing: 2004), p.258.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Dimitri Meeks – Chapter 4 – "Locating Punt" from the book Mysterious Lands", by David B. O'Connor and Stephen Quirke.
  9. Where Is Punt? Nova. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/ancient/egypt-punt.html
  10. Puntland profile, BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-14114727
  11. Breasted 1906–07, p. 161, vol. 1.
  12. Joyce Tyldesley, Hatchepsut: The Female Pharaoh, Penguin Books, 1996 hardback, p.145
  13. El-Sayed Mahfouz: Amenemhat IV at Wadi Gawasis, Bulletin de l'Institut français d'archéologie orientale A. (BIFAO) 2010, vol. 110, [165-173, 485, 491 [11 p.],, see also
  14. Dr. Muhammed Abdul Nayeem, (1990). Prehistory and Protohistory of the Arabian Peninsula. Hyderabad. ISBN.
  15. 15.0 15.1 Tyldesley, Hatchepsut, p.148
  16. Tyldesley, Hatchepsut, p.149
  17. Breasted 1906–07, p. 161, vol. 1.
  18. Tyldesley, Hatchepsut, p.148
  19. Tyldesley, Hatchepsut, pp.145–146
  20. Tyldesley, Hatchepsut, p.146
  21. O'Connor, David B (2003). Mysterious Lands. Routledge. p. 88. ISBN 978-1844720040. 
  22. Breasted 1906–07, p. 161, vol. 1.
  23. 'A history of Egypt' Vol. I, p. 13 Moreover The Making of Egypt (1939) states that the Land of Punt was "sacred to the Egyptians as the source of their race."[Xigasho ubaahan]
  24. Short History of the Egyptian People, by E. A. Wallis Budge. Budge stated that "Egyptian tradition of the Dynastic Period held that the aboriginal home of the Egyptians was Punt..."
  25. Breasted 1906–07, p. 161, vol. 1.
  26. D.W. Phillipson. 2005. African archaeology, page 81 of 389 pages
  27. Hatshepsut's Temple at Deir El Bahari By Frederick Monderson
  28. Tyldesley, Hatchepsut, p.148
  29. K. A. Kitchen, "Punt and how to get there", Orientalia 40 (1971), 184–207:190.

Tixraacyada[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

  • Bradbury, Louise (1988), "Reflections on Travelling to 'God's Land' and Punt in the Middle Kingdom", Journal of Xarunta Cilmi-baarista Mareykanka ee Masar, 25 : 127–156, doi : 10.2307 / 40000875, JSTOR   40000875 .
  • Breasted, John Henry (1906-1907), Diiwaannadii qadiimiga ahaa ee Masar: Dukumiintiyo taariikhi ah oo ka soo baxay waayihii ugu horreeyay ee loo yaqaan 'the Persian Conquest', waa la ururiyey, la tafatiray, laguna tarjumay, faallo, 1-5, University of Chicago Press .
  • El-sayed, Mahfouz (2010). "Aminemhat IV au ouadi Gaouasis" . BIFAO . 110 : 165–173.
  • Fattovich, Rodolfo. 1991. "Dhibaatada Punt ee laydhkii Shaqada dhowaan ka dhacay Bariga Suudaan". Gudaha Akten des vierten internationalen Ägyptologen Kongresses, München 1985, waxaa tafatiray Sylvia Schoske. Xajmiga 4 of 4 vols Hamburg: Helmut Buske Verlag. 257–272.
  • ———. 1993. "Punt: Aragtida Archaeological". Gudaha Sesto congresso internazionale de egittologia: Atti, waxaa tafatiray Gian Maria Zaccone iyo Tomaso Ricardi di Netro. Xajmiga 2 of 2 vols Torino: Italgas. 399- 405.
  • Herzog, Rolf. 1968. Punt . Abhandlungen des Deutsches Archäologischen Instituts Kairo, Ägyptische Reihe 6. Glückstadt: Verlag JJ Augustin.
  • Kitchen, Kenneth (1971), "Punt iyo Sida loo Helo", Orientalia, 40 : 184-207
  • Kitchen, Kenneth (1993), "The Land of Punt", in Shaw, Thurstan; Sinclair, Paul; Andah, Bassey; et al. (eds. ), Archeology-ga Afrika: Cunnooyinka, Birta, Magaalooyinka, 20, London iyo New York: Rout nkwa, pp.   587-608 .
  • Meeks, Dimitri (2003), "Locating Punt", in O'Connor, David B.; Quirke, Stephen G. J. (eds. ), Dhulka Farshaxanka ah, Ku dhiirrigelinta Masar qadiimiga ah, 5, London: Machadka Archeology, University College London, Jaamacadda College London Press, pp.   53–80, ISBN   ), .
  • Paice, Patricia (1992), "The Punt Relief, the Pithom Stela, and the Periplus of the Erythean Sea", in Harrak, Amir (ed. ), Xidhiidhada u dhexeeya Dhaqammada: Waraaqaha la soo xulay ee ka soo baxay Shirweynihii Caalamiga ahaa ee 33aad ee Aasiya iyo Waqooyiga Afrika Daraasadda, Toronto, 15-25 Agoosto 1990, 1, Lewiston, Queenston, iyo Lampeter: Edwin Mellon Press, pp.   227–235 .
  • O'Connor, David (1994), Qadiimiga Nubia: Rabshada Masar ee Afrika, Jaamacadda Pennsylvania Press, pp.   41–44.
  • Wicker, FDP (Luulyo, 1998), "Wadada loo maro Punt", joornaalada joqoraafi ahaaneed. Xajmiga 164, Maya. 2. 155-167

Suugaanta gaboobay[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]

  • Johannes Dümichen : Die Flotte einer ägyptischen Königin, Leipzig, 1868.
  • Wilhelm Max Müller : Asien und Europa nach altägyptischen Denkmälern, Leipzig, 1893.
  • Adolf Erman : Noloshii qadiimiga Masar, London, 1894.
  • Édouard Naville : "Deir-el-Bahri" ee Sanduuqa Sahaminta ee Masar, Memoirs XII, XIII, XIV, iyo XIX, London, 1894 et seq.
  • James Henry Breasted: Taariikhda Masriyiintii hore, New York, 1908.
  • "Ancient African History: The Land of Punt" Archived from asalka 8dii Agoosto 2007. xigashooyinka ka yimid Breasted (1906) iyo Petrie (1939)
  • Boqoradda Hatasu, iyo Socdaalkii ay ku tagtay dhulka Punt ee Amelia Ann Blanford Edwards (1891)
  • "Deir el-Bahri: Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut" . Waxa laga keydiyay asalka 30 Noofambar 2012.
  • "Hall of Punt" . Archived from asalka 22-kii Oktoobar 2016. Deir el-Bahri
  • "Where was Punt?" "Where was Punt?" Archived from asalka 5-tii Maarso 2016. wadahadal uu sameeyay Dr. Karl H. Leser
  • Boqoradda Punt syndrome

Warbixinnada wararka ee ku saabsan Qodista Qodayaasha Wadi Gawasis[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]


Sidoo kale fiiri[Wax ka bedel | wax ka bedel xogta][wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]



Maqaalo Soomaaliya[wax ka badal | wax ka badal xogta]